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Career Planning Scale: Assessing and Teaching Career Planning


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Title: Career Planning Scale: Assessing and Teaching Career Planning

Career Planning Scale Assessing and Teaching
Career Planning
  • John Liptak, Ed.D., Associate Director Career
    Services, Radford University
  • 540-831-5091
  • 2009 Careers Conference

What is a Career?
  • Career can be viewed as the life course of a
    person encountering a series of developmental
    tasks and attempting to handle them in such a way
    as to become the kind of person he or she wants
    to be. With a changing self and changing
    situation, the matching process is really never
    complete! (5)

Shocking Stats! (4)
  • 50 are dissatisfied with current job
  • 25 are always actively considering changing
  • 50 would take less money if their jobs would be
    more meaningful
  • 75 would take a pay cut for more personal time
  • 50 are experiencing burnout
  • Workers today want meaning more than anything
    else. They crave purpose, a sense of direction,
    and a feeling that they are contributing to
    society and making it a better place. Planning
    is Critical! (Tarlow and Tarlow)

Need for Career Planning
  • Only 32 of people planned and chose their job
  • With planning comes opportunity, but far too many
    people understand/can implement the career
    planning process (2)
  • Impact of career planning is stronger than any
    psychological influence on people (1)
  • Courses/programs yield increases in career
    decision making and career maturity about 93 of
    the time (1)

What is Career Planning?
  • An ongoing activity of making small large
    decisions about occupations, education, leisure
    activities, and other life roles.
  • Process necessary for people of all ages
  • A process that must be turned into a substantive
    psychological experience for the client WOW
  • A skill that can be taught

The Career Planning Process
How Does it Help?
  • Makes job change process less scary
  • Orients and organizes life and career
  • Empowers people to take charge and responsibility
    for own career development
  • Teaches skills people can use
  • Enhances maturity (choice is not the end-goal)

Why the CPS?
  • Too many career counseling models
  • Need a generic model that incorporated best
    aspects of all
  • Donald Supers influence
  • Conducting group career classes with offenders
    (books are intimidating)
  • Many career counselors have no formal career
    development theory training

Barriers to Career Planning
  • Lack of Career Maturity!

What is Career Maturity?
  • An individuals readiness to deal with the career
    planning process and his/her degree of success in
    coping with current tasks involved in career
    planning (Liptak, 2001).
  • A developmental process in which people
    increasingly gain the capacity to make sound
    career decisions.

Signs of Limited Career Maturity
  • I dont know how to make a career choice.
  • What would you do?
  • I like too many things.
  • Why plan for the future.things are so
  • I dont know what I like to do (or value, or
    what I am skilled at, etc.)
  • Im not good at making decisions.

Influencers of Career Maturity
  • Age, race, ethnicity, locus of control, SES, and
    gender (3)
  • At Radford University first generation,

What does the CPS do?
  • Measures strengths in a set of skills or tasks
    that people need to possess in order to make and
    implement effective career decisions.

Theoretical Basis of CPS
  • Donald Supers Research about career development
    and career maturity
  • People complete developmental stages (but not all
    the same time)
  • People must complete tasks within each stage to
    move to the next stage
  • Career Maturity is critical in the career
    planning process
  • Advised me with this assessment

Supers Definition
  • Career Maturity An individuals readiness cope
    with the developmental tasks with which he or she
    is confronted because of his or her biological
    and social developments and because of societys
    expectations of people who have reached that
    stage of development (Super, 1990, p 213).

Elements of Career Maturity
  • Planfulness
  • Exploration of self
  • Information gather about WOW
  • Information gathering about Occupations
  • Decision Making
  • Reality Orientation Implementation

Correlation between Supers model and CPS Scales
  • Planfulness
  • Exploration of self
  • Information gather about WOW
  • Information gathering about Occupations
  • Decision Making
  • Reality Orientation Implementation
  • Career Planning
  • Self-Knowledge
  • Knowledge of the World of Work
  • Knowledge of Occupations
  • Career Decision- Making
  • Career Implementation

Using The CPS
  • Administer after intake/group introduction
  • Identify career maturity in six skills
  • Strengths Weaknesses
  • Look at individual items for information
  • Tailor your interventions
  • Teach the process
  • Use the activities in Step 4 to initiate group
    discussions or for homework assignments

The Career Planning Scale
  • Use Steps for easy administration, scoring, and
  • Items are behavioral in nature
  • Written at 8th grade level
  • Women score higher than men on every scale but
    the Knowledge of World-of-Work scale
  • Women are much better career decision makers
  • People score highest on the Self-Knowledge scale
    and lowest on the Career Planning scale
  • Can be used by itself or in conjunction with a

STEP 1 Knowledge of the World-of-Work
  • Objectives
  • Prepare people for an uncertain occupational
  • How the global economy will affect their career?
  • Explore employment issues in the workplace of
  • Prepare people to take advantage of new
    technology and new career opportunities.
  • Identify geographic features important to them.
  • Explore the value of lifelong learning.

Step 2 Self-Knowledge
  • Objectives
  • Help people explore their interests, skills,
    values, and personality, and how these match to
    identified occupations.
  • Help people discover how their personal
    characteristics translate to the world of work.
  • Help people envision what they are looking for in
    their career and what they have to offer
  • Answer who am I?
  • How does work fill needs?

Step 3 Knowledge of Occupations
  • Objectives
  • Help people identify alternatives.
  • Help people explore occupations that interest
  • What are the characteristics of the work?
  • Help people search the Internet, read books and
    other print materials, and talk to others about
  • Shadow workers?

Step 4 Career Decision- Making
  • Objectives
  • Help people develop a methodical approach to
    making career decisions.
  • Look for info on salary, job requirements, etc.
  • Help people collect information, weigh the costs
    and benefits of their choices, rank order
    possibilities based on probabilities of success,
    and make final decisions that fit their personal
    characteristics and overall life goals.

Step 5 - Career Planning
  • Objectives
  • Help people develop both short- and long-term
    goals for their career development.
  • Have people create a specific timeline for
    accomplishing these goals and steps they need to
    take to achieve them.
  • Have people develop a career plan that will allow
    them to live a balanced lifestyle consisting of
    work, family, and leisure activities.
  • Help people think about choice implementation.

Step 6 Career Implementation
  • Objectives
  • Help people identify how to implement
    occupational decisions.
  • Teach people how to look for a job, including
    writing a powerful resume and cover letter,
    networking for job leads, and interviewing
  • List and find solutions to barriers (BESI)
  • Explore education and training
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Other

Administrative Uses
  • Use the CPS as a pre and post-test to determine
    if your students/clients are developing skills
    over time.
  • Use the activities in Step 4 to initiate group
    discussions or for homework assignments.
  • Keep a database of test scores that you can use
    for program review.
  • Develop a baseline for comparison.
  • Use the CPS as a curriculum guide to teach Career
    Exploration and Planning courses.

CPS Career Quizzes
  • World-of-Work
  • Self-Knowledge
  • Occupations
  • Decision-Making
  • Career Planning
  • Career Implementation
  • Chapters 1-3
  • Chapters 4-6
  • Chapter 7
  • Chapter 7
  • Chapters 8-9
  • Chapters 10-12
  • Liptak, J.J. (2008). Career quizzes 12 tests
    to help
  • You discover develop your dream career.
  • Indianapolis, IN JIST Publishing.

Interventions at RU
  • UNIV 100/Freshman Orientation
  • Short Programs
  • Individual Coaching Sessions
  • Career Development Courses
  • Senior Seminar Courses

  • (1) Herr, E.L.H, and Cramer, S.H. (1996).
    Career guidance and counseling through the
    lifespan. Glenview, IL Scott, Foresman.
  • (2) Lock, R.D. (2005). Taking charge of your
    career direction. Belmont, CA Thomson
  • (3) Naidoo, A.V., Bowman, S.L., Gerstein, L.H.
    (1998). Demographics, causality, work salience,
    and career maturity of African-American students
    A causal model. Journal of Vocational Behavior,
    53, (1), pp 15-27.
  • (4) Tarlow, M., Tarlow, P. (2002) Digital
    aboriginal. New York, NY Warner Books.

References (continued)
  • (5) Super, D.D., Savickas, M.L., Super, C.M.
    (1996). The life-span, life-space approach to
    careers. In Brown, Brooks, Associates (Eds.),
    Career choice development (p. 140). San
    Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass.
  • Anderson, P, Vandehey, M. (2006). Career
    counseling and development in a global economy.
    Boston, MA Houghton Mifflin.
  • Liptak, J.J. (2001). Treatment planning in
    career counseling. Belmont, CA Thomson
  • Super, D.E. (1990). A life-span, Life-space
    approach to career development. In D. Brown, L.
    Brooks, Associates (Eds.), Career choice and
    development. San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass.
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