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History of Computers

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Babbage's Analytical Engine (1830) Created after the failure of the Difference Engine. ... was chief collaborator with Babbage. 3. Pre-Computer. Electro ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Computers


1
History of Computers
First True ComputerENIAC (1943)
Mechanical DevicePascaline (1642)
Generation 4 ComputerGateway Tablet PC (2006)
  • Information taken from
  • Microsoft Office 97 Professional by Lawrence
    Press
  • Microsoft Visual Basic by Lawrence Press

http//www.gateway.com/products/gconfig/proddetail
s.asp?segedsystem_idm280eb
2
1. Pre-Computer
  • Abacus used by ancient Babylon, China, and
    throughout Europe until the middle ages.
  • Arabic Numerals base 10 number system used
    toward the end of the middle ages.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decimal Number System
3
2. Pre-ComputerMechanical Devices
  • Pascaline (1642),Stepped Reckoner (late 1600),
    Jacqards Loom (1810)Difference Engine (1822)
  • Moving parts gears
  • Calculator only
  • Mechanically unreliable
  • Some used punch cards

4
  • Babbages Analytical Engine (1830)
  • Created after the failure of the Difference
    Engine.
  • If this machine worked it would have made a
    decision BUT it never worked.
  • It served as the basis for the modern computer.
  • Ada Byron was chief collaborator with Babbage.

5
3. Pre-Computer Electro-Mechanical Devices
  • Holleriths Tabulating Machine (1880) Mark I
    (1930)
  • Moving parts/gears with electricity
  • Calculator only
  • Use of punch cards

6
What makes a machine a computer versus a
calculating device?
  • A computer can do comparisons and make a
    decisions based on that!!
  • Remember the computer is only as smart as its
    program. A computer may appear to be thinking
    but it isnt. It is only carrying out the
    instructions it is told by the program. If the
    program is wrong, then the computer will carry
    out those incorrect instruction.

7
4. Computer
  • 1st Generation ENIAC (1943), EDVAC, EDSAC,
    UNIVAC
  • Vacuum tubes (1904)
  • Only for government or huge corporations could
    afford

8
  • 2nd Generation System 650 (1960s)
  • Transistors (1947s)
  • Smaller, faster, and cheaper than previous
  • Use of programming languages
  • More government agencies and larger businesses
    could afford

9
Info on Programming
  • Before programming languages, computer had to be
    programmed by rewiring different switches to
    their ON or OFF position.
  • 1st programming language was called machine
    language
  • Binary number system with 2 digits 0 1
  • This works well for computers because circuits
    have two states On and Off
  • How does Binary relate to electricity? 1 for On 0
    for Off
  • High-level language used English-like commands
    for instruction which the computer translated to
    0 and 1.
  • COBOL, FORTRAN, Visual Basic, etc.

10
  • 3rd Generation System 360 (1964)
  • Integrated Circuit (IC or chip) (1960)
  • Smaller, faster, and cheaper than previous
  • More affordable for smaller businesses

11
  • 4th Generation Personal Computer (1975)
  • Microprocessor (CPU) on one chip (1970)
  • Smaller, faster, and cheaper than previous
  • More affordable for home use

1st Intel CPU Created by Marcian HoffEngineer
at Intel Corporation
12
Mainframe vs PC
  • Mainframe are large computer systems that are
    used by government, corporations, big business,
    banks, and universities.
  • Terminals connect to the main computer system
    allowing hundreds of users to connect to the same
    system.
  • This term was coined in the 1970s when new
    mini-computer were created so the term mainframe
    was used to describe computer up to this point.
  • Today's PC can do more than older mainframe
    systems.
  • The mainframe term is somewhat blurred now with
    the networking of PC to servers. Most big
    business still use mainframes today but these
    systems work differently than first mainframe
    systems.

13
Advantages of Computersover the Human Brain
  • Computer has reliable memory with the ability to
    store and recall large amounts of data over long
    periods of time.
  • Computer has speed which enables it to process
    data quickly.
  • Computers has the ability to work 24hrs a day w/o
    rest.

14
Advantages of Human Brain over the Computers
  • Human is needed for a job when human judgment is
    needed. For example launching a nuclear bomb.
  • Human is needed for jobs were artistic expression
    is needed. For example writing a novel, writing
    music, creating art, designing clothes, etc.
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