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History of Computing

- Define a computer before 1935?
- What is the definition after 1945?

History of Computing

- Define a computer before 1935?
- A person that computes or performs arithmetic

calculations - What is the definition after 1945?
- An electronic device for performing arithmetic

calculations

History of Computing

- What motivated the need for computing machines?

History of Computing

- What motivated the need for computing machines?
- Complex and tedious arithmetic calculations

History of Computing

- What are some example tedious calculations that

were performed that motivated the need for

computing machines?

History of Computing

- What are some example tedious calculations that

were performed that motivated the need for

computing machines? - Basic arithmetic (abacus)
- Navigation and Mathematical tables (Babbage)
- Flight trajectory tables (WWII)
- Census (Eckert and Mauchley, UNIVAC)
- Inventory and budget (J. Lyons)

History of Computing

- What are some examples of early computing

machines (mechanical computers)?

History of Computing

- What are some examples of early computing

machines (mechanical computers)? - Abacus (5000 yrs ago)
- Slide rule (Outred, 1600s)
- Pascaline (Blaise Pascal, 1600s)
- Difference engine (Charles Babbage, 1822)
- Tabulating machine (Herman Hollerith, 1890)

History of Computing

- What was the purpose of Babbages Difference

Engine?

History of Computing

- What was the purpose of Babbages Difference

Engine? - Calculation of mathematical tables evaluating

mathematical functions for sequences of values

using the method of finite differences

History of Computing

- What was the purpose of Babbages Difference

Engine? - Calculation of mathematical tables evaluating

mathematical functions for sequences of values

using the method of finite differences

History of Computing

- Why did Babbage want to create the Analytical

Engine even after having increasing demand for

his Difference Engine?

History of Computing

- Why did Babbage want to create the Analytical

Engine even after having increasing demand for

his Difference Engine? - The Difference Engine was still fixed in purpose.

He wanted to design a programmable machine.

History of Computing

- What was a major significance of the Analytical

Engine towards the progress of computing?

History of Computing

- What was a major significance of the Analytical

Engine towards the progress of computing? - First time someone designed a machine independent

of its ultimate purpose. - Birth of distinction between software and

hardware

History of Computing

- Who worked closely with Babbage during the

development of the Analytical Engine and is

credited as the first computer programmer?

History of Computing

- Who worked closely with Babbage during the

development of the Analytical Engine and is

credited as the first computer programmer? - Ada Lovelace, daughter of the poet Lord Byron
- Programming language Ada is named after her.

History of Computing

- How were numbers represented and stored in the

mechanical computers?

History of Computing

- How were numbers represented and stored in the

mechanical computers? - Positions of beads abacus (5000 years ago)

History of Computing

- How were numbers represented and stored in the

mechanical computers? - Orientation of number wheels Pascals Pascaline

(1600s)

History of Computing

- How were numbers represented and stored in the

mechanical computers? - Orientation of gears
- Babbages difference engine
- (1822)

History of Computing

- How were numbers represented and stored in the

mechanical computers? - Arrangements of holes in a punch card Herman

Hollerith (1890)

History of Computing

- How were numbers represented in modern computers?

History of Computing

- How were numbers represented in modern computers?
- A series of 2-way switch settings
- Binary representation, streams of 0s and 1s

History of Computing

- How were numbers represented in modern computers?
- A series of 2-way switch settings
- Binary representation, streams of 0s and 1s
- Why binary?

History of Computing

- How were numbers represented in modern computers?
- A series of 2-way switch settings
- Binary representation, streams of 0s and 1s
- Why binary?
- Because binary digit (bit) easier to represent
- Only 2 states On/off, high/low, in/out,

up/down,

History of Computing

- Why were binary digits fundamental to electronic

computers?

History of Computing

- Why were binary digits fundamental to electronic

computers? - Engineering simplicity!
- Used on/off switches to represent binary digits

(bits) - Relays, vacuum tubes, transistors, integrated

circuits

History of Computing

- Why didnt mechanical computers need binary

numbers?

History of Computing

- Why didnt mechanical computers need binary

numbers? - Unnecessary to perform number conversion
- They were able to easily distinguish more than 2

states per digit

History of Computing

- Why was the vacuum tube so important to computer

development?

History of Computing

- Why was the vacuum tube so important to computer

development? - SPEED!
- Fast switching between binary states
- 1000 times faster than relay (Colossus)
- For what tradeoffs?

History of Computing

- Why was the vacuum tube so important to computer

development? - SPEED!
- Fast switching between binary states
- 1000 times faster than a relay (Colossus)
- For what tradeoffs?
- Reliability and cost!

History of Computing

- What replaced the vacuum tube and completely

revolutionized computers in 10 years?

History of Computing

- What replaced the vacuum tube and completely

revolutionized computers in 10 years? - Transistors

History of Computing

- What eventually replaced transistors?
- Integrated circuits (ICs)

History of Computing

- What did relays, vacuum tubes, transistors, and

integrated circuits all have in common for their

use in computers?

History of Computing

- What did relays, vacuum tubes, transistors, and

integrated circuits all have in common for their

use in computers? - All acted as a 2-way switch that represented a

single bit of information

History of Computing

- Most early computers were constructed only to

perform tedious arithmetic calculations. What was

special about the machine Colossus that Alan

Turing helped design? What was its purpose?

History of Computing

- Most early computers were constructed only to

perform tedious arithmetic calculations. What was

special about the machine Colossus that Alan

Turing helped design? What was its purpose? - Manipulated language symbols not just numbers
- Breaking German codes (U-boat attacks on British)

History of Computing

- Describe Turings vision of what a computer is or

should be?

History of Computing

- Describe Turings vision of what a computer is or

should be? - Symbol manipulator not just numerical machine
- A learning machine
- A machine that exhibits some intelligence

History of Computing

- What is the Turing test?

History of Computing

- What is the Turing test?
- A test devised by Alan Turing to determine if a

machine could be considered to possess some

intelligence. - After 5 minutes, if a person asking a remote

entity questions was not sure if the entity was

human or machine, then the computer could be said

to possess some intelligence.

History of Computing

- Your thoughts
- Do you think this test was sufficient?
- What would make you believe that a machine had

intelligence? - Do you consider this to be a danger? Why?

History of Computing

- What were computers intended to replace?

History of Computing

- What were computers intended to replace?
- Large groups of people performing tedious,

repetitive tasks such as arithmetic calculations

and various bookkeeping. - Your thoughts Was this really a bad thing? Were

peoples fears justified? Will this replacement

of humans by machines continue?

History of Computing

- Your thoughts
- How were computers portrayed in the early years

of computing (think UNIVAC times)? - How are they portrayed now?
- Are there as many misconceptions and fears today?

Why or why not?