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History of Computing

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Difference engine (Charles Babbage, 1822) Tabulating machine (Herman Hollerith, 1890) ... Why did Babbage want to create the Analytical Engine even after having ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Computing


1
History of Computing
  • Define a computer before 1935?
  • What is the definition after 1945?

2
History of Computing
  • Define a computer before 1935?
  • A person that computes or performs arithmetic
    calculations
  • What is the definition after 1945?
  • An electronic device for performing arithmetic
    calculations

3
History of Computing
  • What motivated the need for computing machines?

4
History of Computing
  • What motivated the need for computing machines?
  • Complex and tedious arithmetic calculations

5
History of Computing
  • What are some example tedious calculations that
    were performed that motivated the need for
    computing machines?

6
History of Computing
  • What are some example tedious calculations that
    were performed that motivated the need for
    computing machines?
  • Basic arithmetic (abacus)
  • Navigation and Mathematical tables (Babbage)
  • Flight trajectory tables (WWII)
  • Census (Eckert and Mauchley, UNIVAC)
  • Inventory and budget (J. Lyons)

7
History of Computing
  • What are some examples of early computing
    machines (mechanical computers)?

8
History of Computing
  • What are some examples of early computing
    machines (mechanical computers)?
  • Abacus (5000 yrs ago)
  • Slide rule (Outred, 1600s)
  • Pascaline (Blaise Pascal, 1600s)
  • Difference engine (Charles Babbage, 1822)
  • Tabulating machine (Herman Hollerith, 1890)

9
History of Computing
  • What was the purpose of Babbages Difference
    Engine?

10
History of Computing
  • What was the purpose of Babbages Difference
    Engine?
  • Calculation of mathematical tables evaluating
    mathematical functions for sequences of values
    using the method of finite differences

11
History of Computing
  • What was the purpose of Babbages Difference
    Engine?
  • Calculation of mathematical tables evaluating
    mathematical functions for sequences of values
    using the method of finite differences

12
History of Computing
  • Why did Babbage want to create the Analytical
    Engine even after having increasing demand for
    his Difference Engine?

13
History of Computing
  • Why did Babbage want to create the Analytical
    Engine even after having increasing demand for
    his Difference Engine?
  • The Difference Engine was still fixed in purpose.
    He wanted to design a programmable machine.

14
History of Computing
  • What was a major significance of the Analytical
    Engine towards the progress of computing?

15
History of Computing
  • What was a major significance of the Analytical
    Engine towards the progress of computing?
  • First time someone designed a machine independent
    of its ultimate purpose.
  • Birth of distinction between software and
    hardware

16
History of Computing
  • Who worked closely with Babbage during the
    development of the Analytical Engine and is
    credited as the first computer programmer?

17
History of Computing
  • Who worked closely with Babbage during the
    development of the Analytical Engine and is
    credited as the first computer programmer?
  • Ada Lovelace, daughter of the poet Lord Byron
  • Programming language Ada is named after her.

18
History of Computing
  • How were numbers represented and stored in the
    mechanical computers?

19
History of Computing
  • How were numbers represented and stored in the
    mechanical computers?
  • Positions of beads abacus (5000 years ago)

20
History of Computing
  • How were numbers represented and stored in the
    mechanical computers?
  • Orientation of number wheels Pascals Pascaline
    (1600s)

21
History of Computing
  • How were numbers represented and stored in the
    mechanical computers?
  • Orientation of gears
  • Babbages difference engine
  • (1822)

22
History of Computing
  • How were numbers represented and stored in the
    mechanical computers?
  • Arrangements of holes in a punch card Herman
    Hollerith (1890)

23
History of Computing
  • How were numbers represented in modern computers?

24
History of Computing
  • How were numbers represented in modern computers?
  • A series of 2-way switch settings
  • Binary representation, streams of 0s and 1s

25
History of Computing
  • How were numbers represented in modern computers?
  • A series of 2-way switch settings
  • Binary representation, streams of 0s and 1s
  • Why binary?

26
History of Computing
  • How were numbers represented in modern computers?
  • A series of 2-way switch settings
  • Binary representation, streams of 0s and 1s
  • Why binary?
  • Because binary digit (bit) easier to represent
  • Only 2 states On/off, high/low, in/out,
    up/down,

27
History of Computing
  • Why were binary digits fundamental to electronic
    computers?

28
History of Computing
  • Why were binary digits fundamental to electronic
    computers?
  • Engineering simplicity!
  • Used on/off switches to represent binary digits
    (bits)
  • Relays, vacuum tubes, transistors, integrated
    circuits

29
History of Computing
  • Why didnt mechanical computers need binary
    numbers?

30
History of Computing
  • Why didnt mechanical computers need binary
    numbers?
  • Unnecessary to perform number conversion
  • They were able to easily distinguish more than 2
    states per digit

31
History of Computing
  • Why was the vacuum tube so important to computer
    development?

32
History of Computing
  • Why was the vacuum tube so important to computer
    development?
  • SPEED!
  • Fast switching between binary states
  • 1000 times faster than relay (Colossus)
  • For what tradeoffs?

33
History of Computing
  • Why was the vacuum tube so important to computer
    development?
  • SPEED!
  • Fast switching between binary states
  • 1000 times faster than a relay (Colossus)
  • For what tradeoffs?
  • Reliability and cost!

34
History of Computing
  • What replaced the vacuum tube and completely
    revolutionized computers in 10 years?

35
History of Computing
  • What replaced the vacuum tube and completely
    revolutionized computers in 10 years?
  • Transistors

36
History of Computing
  • What eventually replaced transistors?
  • Integrated circuits (ICs)

37
History of Computing
  • What did relays, vacuum tubes, transistors, and
    integrated circuits all have in common for their
    use in computers?

38
History of Computing
  • What did relays, vacuum tubes, transistors, and
    integrated circuits all have in common for their
    use in computers?
  • All acted as a 2-way switch that represented a
    single bit of information

39
History of Computing
  • Most early computers were constructed only to
    perform tedious arithmetic calculations. What was
    special about the machine Colossus that Alan
    Turing helped design? What was its purpose?

40
History of Computing
  • Most early computers were constructed only to
    perform tedious arithmetic calculations. What was
    special about the machine Colossus that Alan
    Turing helped design? What was its purpose?
  • Manipulated language symbols not just numbers
  • Breaking German codes (U-boat attacks on British)

41
History of Computing
  • Describe Turings vision of what a computer is or
    should be?

42
History of Computing
  • Describe Turings vision of what a computer is or
    should be?
  • Symbol manipulator not just numerical machine
  • A learning machine
  • A machine that exhibits some intelligence

43
History of Computing
  • What is the Turing test?

44
History of Computing
  • What is the Turing test?
  • A test devised by Alan Turing to determine if a
    machine could be considered to possess some
    intelligence.
  • After 5 minutes, if a person asking a remote
    entity questions was not sure if the entity was
    human or machine, then the computer could be said
    to possess some intelligence.

45
History of Computing
  • Your thoughts
  • Do you think this test was sufficient?
  • What would make you believe that a machine had
    intelligence?
  • Do you consider this to be a danger? Why?

46
History of Computing
  • What were computers intended to replace?

47
History of Computing
  • What were computers intended to replace?
  • Large groups of people performing tedious,
    repetitive tasks such as arithmetic calculations
    and various bookkeeping.
  • Your thoughts Was this really a bad thing? Were
    peoples fears justified? Will this replacement
    of humans by machines continue?

48
History of Computing
  • Your thoughts
  • How were computers portrayed in the early years
    of computing (think UNIVAC times)?
  • How are they portrayed now?
  • Are there as many misconceptions and fears today?
    Why or why not?
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