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Division 9:Realism

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Title: Division 9:Realism


1
Division 9Realism
  • Focus In

2
Realism in France, Russia, Northern Europe
  • In Europe, the realist movement arose in the 50s
    of the 19th century and had its origin in France.
  • In art and literature the term realism is used to
    identify a literary movement in Europe and the
    United States in the last half of the 19th
    century and the early years of the 20th century.
  • Balzac is particularly celebrated for his
    monumental The Human Comedy inspired by that of
    Dantes Divine Comedy.
  • An inspiration to many realistic writers,
    Flaubert is often called the first French realist
    and a model not only to French authors but to
    Americans and Russians as well.

3
Realism in France, Russia, Northern Europe
  • Flauberts Madame Bovary with its unrelenting
    objectivity and detachment marks the beginning of
    a new era literature.
  • Zola was the founder of the naturalist school. A
    slice of life was his motto.
  • Zola defined the theory of naturalism and
    illustrated it in his great work entitled Les
    Rougen-Macquarts.
  • It was not until the eighteenth century, when
    Peter the Great carried through the reforms that
    Russians really came into contact with the
    literature of Western Europe.
  • Gogol was the first master of fiction in Russia
    to leave romantic conventions and go to life for
    his subjects.

4
Realism in France, Russia, Northern Europe
  • Turgenev was the first Russian author to gain
    recognition in the West.
  • Dostoyevskys Crime and Punishment is another
    study of criminal psychology. It is the most
    popular of his novels.
  • Dostoyevsky regarded The Brothers Karamazov as
    his masterpiece which was never completed.
  • Apart from his literary work, Tolstoy holds an
    important position in his own countrys cultural
    history as an ethical philosopher and religious
    reformer.

5
Realism in France, Russia, Northern Europe
  • Chichikov is the chief character in Gogols
    famous novel Dead Soul, which is full of humorous
    sympathy with plain people and satirical contempt
    for sham and hypocrisy.
  • Ibsens masterpiece A Dolls House is a plea for
    the emancipation of women.
  • Ibsens work is sharply critical of the hypocrisy
    and seamy politics of Norwegian provincial life.
  • Strindbergs first significant play was Master
    Olaf which is considered Swedens first great
    drama.

6
Realism in England, the United States
  • The period of realism in English literature
    corresponds roughly to the latter half of the
    reign of Queen Victoria.
  • Charles Dickens best book is David Copperfield,
    a kind of autobiographical romance, in which his
    power over our everyday emotion is unrivalled.
  • George Eliots masterpiece Middle March was
    regarded by some critics as the finest English
    novel of the 19th century.
  • Everywhere in Thomas Hardys novels human beings
    appear to be crushed by a superior force, a
    pitiless fate and the indifference of his fellow
    creatures.

7
Realism in England, the United States
  • Bernard Shaw was a member of the Fabian Society
    whose aim was to make a transition from
    capitalism to socialism without violence.
  • The Civil War has been called the Great Divide of
    American history. Between 1870 and 1890 the
    population in the U. S. Doubled. That began what
    Mark Twain called the Gilded Age an age of
    excess and extremes, of decline and progress, of
    poverty and dazzling wealth, of gloom and hope.
  • Harriet Beecher Stowes anti-slavery novel Uncle
    Toms Cabin was acclaimed the greatest of all
    anti-slavery manifestoes.

8
Realism in England, the United States
  • Considered by many to be the greatest of all
    American poets, Whitman celebrated the freedom
    and dignity of the individual and sang the
    praises of democracy and the brotherhood of man.
  • Whitmans best known poem was When Lilac Last in
    the Dooryard Bloomd, which expresses his grief
    over the death of Lincoln.
  • Over a 37-year period, whitman published nine
    separate editions of his masterpiece Leaves of
    Grass.

9
Realism in England, the United States
  • Mark Twain is justly called the Lincoln of
    American literature. His novel The advantures of
    Huckleberry Finn, a master of human,
    characterization and realism, has been considered
    the first modern American novel.

10
Art, Music at the Turn of the Century
  • In Millets painting there was not the kind of
    brutality and vulgarity one finds in Courbet
    because millet was completely outside the circle
    of politics.
  • The chief characteristics of the impressionist
    style were first seen in monets landscapes in
    which the forms are broken by loose brushstrokes
    and the colours of objects are reflected into
    other objects throughout the painting.
  • Manet was regarded as the leader of the
    impressionist movement. To him, reality was not a
    world of solid objects but of sensation of light
    and colour in changing and fleeting patterns.

11
Art, Music at the Turn of the Century
  • Monet was the French painter who developed the
    technique of broken-colour painting.
  • French painters who originally allied themselves
    with the impressionists found that impressionism
    lacked form and structure. They began to seek new
    ways of expression and became post-impressionists.
  • Sunflower, a subject that is repeated in Vincent
    van Goghs paintings to express his vision of an
    ideal world.
  • Paul Gauguin was a French post-impressionist who
    had great influence on modern painters in their
    use of pure and strong colors.

12
Art, Music at the Turn of the Century
  • The man who led sculpture into the realm of Art
    for Arts Sake was Auguste Rodin, the first
    sculptor of genius since Bernini in Renaissance
    Italy.
  • Grieg was a nationalist Norwegian composer. He
    had earned the nickname of Chopin of the North.
  • French composer Debussy has been described as the
    founder of modern musical impressionism.

13
Supplementary Story
  • From Realism to Expressionism
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