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Perception and Attribution Dr. Raj Singh

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The process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information. ... Be attuned to attributions at the interpretation stage. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Perception and Attribution Dr. Raj Singh


1
Perception and Attribution Dr. Raj Singh
2
What is the perceptual process?
  • Perception.
  • The process by which people select, organize,
    interpret, retrieve, and respond to information.
  • Perceptual information is gathered from
  • Sight.
  • Hearing.
  • Touch.
  • Taste.
  • Smell.

3
What is the perceptual process?
  • Factors influencing the perceptual process.
  • Characteristics of the perceiver.
  • Characteristics of the setting.
  • Characteristics of the perceived.

4
What is the perceptual process?
  • Characteristics of the perceiver.
  • The perceptual process is influenced by the
    perceivers
  • Past experiences.
  • Needs or motives.
  • Personality.
  • Values and attitudes.

5
What is the perceptual process?
  • Stages of the perceptual process.
  • Information attention and selection.
  • Organization of information.
  • Information interpretation.
  • Information retrieval.

6
What is the perceptual process?
  • Information attention and selection.
  • Selective screening.
  • Lets in only a tiny proportion all the
    information that bombards a person.
  • Two types of selective screening.
  • Controlled processing.
  • Screening without perceivers conscious awareness.

7
What is the perceptual process?
  • Organization of information.
  • Schemas.
  • Cognitive frameworks that represent organized
    knowledge about a given concept or stimulus
    developed through experience.
  • Types of schemas.
  • Self schemas.
  • Person schemas.
  • Script schemas.
  • Person-in-situation schemas.

8
What is the perceptual process?
  • Information interpretation.
  • Uncovering the reasons behind the ways stimuli
    are grouped.
  • People may interpret the same information
    differently or make different attributions about
    information.

9
What is the perceptual process?
  • Information retrieval.
  • Attention and selection, organization, and
    interpretation are part of memory.
  • Information stored in memory must be retrieved in
    order to be used.

10
What is the perceptual process?
  • Response to the perceptual process.
  • Thoughts.
  • Feelings.
  • Actions.

11
What are common perceptual distortions?
  • Common perceptual distortions include
  • Stereotypes or prototypes.
  • Halo effects.
  • Selective perception.
  • Projection.
  • Contrast effects.
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy.

12
What are common perceptual distortions?
  • Stereotypes or prototypes.
  • Combines information based on the category or
    class to which a person, situation, or object
    belongs.
  • Strong impact at the organization stage.
  • Individual differences are obscured.

13
What are common perceptual distortions?
  • Halo effects.
  • Occur when one attribute of a person or situation
    is used to develop an overall impression of the
    individual or situation.
  • Likely to occur in the organization stage.
  • Individual differences are obscured.
  • Important in the performance appraisal process.

14
What are common perceptual distortions?
  • Selective perception.
  • The tendency to single out those aspects of a
    situation, person, or object that are consistent
    with ones needs, values, or attitudes.
  • Strongest impact is at the attention stage.
  • Perception checking with other persons can help
    counter the adverse impact of selective
    perception.

15
What are common perceptual distortions?
  • Projection.
  • The assignment of ones personal attributes to
    other individuals.
  • Especially likely to occur in interpretation
    stage.
  • Projection can be controlled through a high
    degree of self-awareness and empathy.

16
What are common perceptual distortions?
  • Contrast effects.
  • Occur when an individual is compared to other
    people on the same characteristics on which the
    others rank higher or lower.

17
What are common perceptual distortions?
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy.
  • The tendency to create or find in another
    situation or individual that which one expected
    to find.
  • Also called the Pygmalion effect.
  • Can have either positive or negative outcomes.
  • Managers should adopt positive and optimistic
    approaches to people at work.

18
How can the perceptual process be managed?
  • Impression management.
  • A persons systematic attempt to behave in ways
    that create and maintain desired impressions in
    others eyes.
  • Successful managers
  • Use impression management to enhance their own
    images.
  • Are sensitive to other peoples use of impression
    management.

19
How can the perceptual process be managed?
  • Distortion management.
  • Managers should
  • Balance automatic and controlled information
    processing at the attention and selection stage.
  • Broaden their schemas at the organizing stage.
  • Be attuned to attributions at the interpretation
    stage.
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