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History of Peace Movements

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Peace movements in Europe started in 1981 and re-emerged in 1991and with the Ex ... movement a new repertoire of theatrical forms was adopted; It included peace ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Peace Movements


1
History of Peace Movements
  • Peace movements in Europe started in 1981 and
    re-emerged in 1991and with the Ex-Yugoslavia
    conflict. Movements sought institutional
    alliances and extra institutional coalitions.
    Events differently affected institutionalized and
    non-institutionalized branches of the movement.
    The two sectors varied in different countries.

2
POS and Demobilization
  • Gorbachev began new trend in 1985.
  • The consequences were immediate diminished
    threat kept support high but low activism.
  • This helped institutionalized sectors of peace
    movements.

3
Ideology
  • Roots of mobilization
  • Perception of global danger
  • Vacuum for left movements cultural roots
  • Moral utopianism
  • Reaction to social control
  • Antimodernism (anti-tech small world)
  • Anti-Americanism and Europeanism

4
Italy and the Peace Movement
  • Considering 10 years of Italian Peace Movement
    history it is possible to distinguish four
    periods as marking different phases in the
    institutionalization of left-libertarian social
    movements. In this context it is necessary to
    categorize Organizational Behavior, Action
    Repertoires, and Ideologies.

5
Organizations
  • Over the 4 periods the movement has become more
    organised and institutionalised.
    Institutionalization can be very productive in
    terms of movement objectives. In Italy
    institutions such as the Pci and the church have
    contributed to laws favorable to arms sales and
    production objection, peace education, draft
    objection, municipal initiatives, etc.

6
Two Sectors
  • The boundaries between institutionalized and
    non-institutionalized sectors are flexible and
    reversible, that institutionalization occurs
    mainly through differential attrition and not
    organizational transformation
  • The nature of the receiving institution shapes
    the process of institutionalization

7
Action Forms
  • Over time "action forms" adopted by the Italian
    peace movement changed.
  • To explain innovation, one can point to mimetic
    behaviour between different organizations
    (movements, churches and state) and to public
    discourse and institutional decision making.
  • Repertoires are also related to the identity and
    ideology implications of adopting different
    action forms.

8
Action Forms and Time
  • Some action forms change meaning over time. With
    the anti-cruise movement a new repertoire of
    theatrical forms was adopted It included peace
    dances, human chains, shake-ins, die-ins. Over
    time, it became institutionalized.

9
Diversity, Collaboration and Competition in the
Peace Movement
10
Institutionalization and OB
  • Institutionalization happens primarily by
    attrition
  • The Weber-Michaels model predicted steady
    organizational transformation. However if we look
    at what happened in the Italian movement we see
    that the institutionalized and non-institutionaliz
    ed sectors react differently after deployment
    only institutional activist included peace action
    in a broader activist context

11
Institutionalization and Psychological Processes
  • With defeat, psychological processes alienate non
    institutional militants. The disappearance of the
    sense of immediate danger, which was
    understandable to everybody and had sustained the
    anti-missiles movement, engendered a motivation
    crisis.
  • This fact led to a selection in the movement.
    People with a history of political involvement
    remained Conversely many unaffiliated people
    left.

12
Goals Definition and Re-definition
  • The lack of a unified goal caused a fragmentation
    of initiatives. This fragmentation further
    reduced media coverage and international
    solidarity, increasing the specialized character
    that pacifism was acquiring.
  • Without a clear goal those that remained
    interested in peace and did not belong to a
    multi-purpose organization, did so out of a
    strong sense of ethical commitment.

13
De-mobilization and Competition
  • As peace lost centrality and other issues
    surfaced on the social movement scene, such as
    ecologist concerns, peace became one among many
    other issues for busy institutional activists
    (but no longer an issue about which it was easy
    to mobilize simple militants), while it was
    downplayed by non institutional ones. Thus peace
    was more likely to be pursued in the context of a
    multi-purpose organization, such as a party or a
    catholic association.

14
Polarization
  • Institutionalization brought polarization of the
    movement a large component of institutional
    activists and a small group of devoted pacifists.
    Institutions can survive after the decline of
    mobilization because they have resources,
    sustainers have commitment.

15
Institutionalization and the Weber-Michels
Hypothesis
  • Why is the Michels model wrong? Organizations
    don't change easily
  • There are blocks to changes in taken-for-granted
    procedures
  • Activists' identitiespeace groups who refused to
    bureaucratize
  • Leaders' stake nonviolent leader refused to join
    larger organization
  • Established division of labor in organizational
    field attempts to bureaucratize the peace
    committees failed

16
Dynamics of Institutional Selection
  • Surviving institutions orient the process of
    institutionalization
  • A) the institutional areas that have an interest
    in the movement determines the characteristic of
    the surviving movement
  • B) the moral or instrumental character of the
    institution
  • C) the amount of institutional ambiguity which
    may be intentionally used, or be the result of
    internal dynamics

17
Institutions and Resources
  • Within institutions the flow of resources is
    oriented by
  • The amount of freedom an institution grants to
    its functionaries, and their loyalty
  • The importance of the issue at stake to the
    institution
  • Whether action takes place within or without
    institutional boundaries and whether support is
    embarrassing
  • Traditional procedures. How involvement is risky.
    How institution control the definition of the
    situation

18
Action Forms
  • Why innovation? There is a RM/NSM controversy on
    whether innovation is identity or strategy
    driven. It can be answered by observing who
    innovates
  • Innovation takes place for identity reasons
  • To be congruent with other institutional
    repertoires
  • To respond to the changing strategies of
    authorities

19
Changes in Action Forms
  • Considering variations of repertoires
    effectiveness and meaning, when do they change?
    Tilly provided an answer. He notes that
    innovation is rare, and points to
  • 1 the standards of right and justice prevailing
    in the population
  • 2 the daily routines of the population
  • 3 the population internal organization
  • 4 its accumulated experience with prior
    collective action
  • 5 the patterns of repression in the world of the
    population
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