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Leonhard Euler (pronounced Oiler)

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Entered the University of Basel at 14, received Masters in Philosophy at age 17. ... criticism from Frederick and Voltaire, an atheist and a deist, respectively ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leonhard Euler (pronounced Oiler)


1
Leonhard Euler(pronounced Oiler)
Read Euler, read Euler. He is the master of us
all - Laplace
Euler calculated without apparent effort, as men
breathe, or eagles sustain themselves in the
wind - Arago
Analysis Incarnate
2
Biography
  • Born Leonhard Euler, in Switzerland
  • (April 15, 1707 - September 18, 1783 at age 76)
  • His early education was given by his father.
  • Entered the University of Basel at 14,
    received Masters in Philosophy at age 17.
  • Studied Hebrew Theology, but soon focused on
    mathematics.
  • Moved to Russia and found a position at the St.
    Petersburg Academy of Sciences. His efforts
    there helped make Russia a naval power.
  • Married Katharina Gsell, a Swiss girl, in 1733.
    He had thirteen children with her, all of whom he
    loved dearly.
  • Accepted invitation to move to Prussia, escaping
    political unrest in Russia.
  • Frederick the Great, the leader of Prussia, was
    an atheist, and constantly ridiculed Eulers
    faith.
  • Euler lost the sight in one eye in 1735, and lost
    the sight in the other in 1766. He had an
    operation to repair them, but both became
    infected. He later said that only his faith in
    God allowed him to bear that torment.
  • Produced works almost until the day of his death
    in 1783, working on the black slate of his
    mind. In an astonishing feat, his works became
    more clear after his blindness set in.

3
Eulers Worldview
  • Raised in a Calvinist home, son of a Protestant
    minister
  • Held to the Reformed Worldview all his life
  • Held family worship prayer daily in his home
    often preached read Scripture to his children
    every night
  • Faced biting criticism from Frederick and
    Voltaire, an atheist and a deist, respectively
  • Spent much time writing apologetics to respond to
    these two thinkers

4
Eulers Accomplishments
  • Wrote a total of 886 works
  • His collected works total 74 volumes
  • Made first rate discoveries in
  • Analysis
  • Functions
  • Calculus
  • Summations
  • Combinatorics
  • Number Theory
  • Higher Algebra
  • Convergent series
  • Hydromechanics
  • Physical Mechanics
  • Astronomy
  • Topology

5
Königsberg Bridge Problem
6
Eulers Accomplishments (continued)
  • Analyzed
  • mechanics
  • planetary motion
  • ballistics, projectile trajectories
  • lunar orbit theory (tides)
  • design sailing of ships
  • construction architecture
  • acoustics, theory of musical harmony
  • investment theory
  • insurance, annuities, pensions
  • Other topics of interest
  • chemistry
  • medicine
  • geography
  • cartography
  • languages
  • philosophy
  • apologetics
  • religion
  • family
  • he taught his 13 children and many grandchildren

7
Eulers Accomplishments (more)
  • Promoted partial solutions to
  • Gravitational Problems
  • Optic Problems
  • Etheric Problems
  • Electromagnetic Problems
  • This work greatly influenced Riemann and Maxwell
  • He wrote textbooks that remained standards for
    hundreds of years
  • Wrote research papers at the rate of 800 per year
  • The epitome of his mathematical analysis is
    summed up in his formula

eip1 0
8
Eulers Textbooks
  • Euler wrote three Latin textbooks on the topics
    of Calculus and Pre-Calculus
  • The first was the Introductio in Analysin
    Infinitorum (Introduction to the Analysis of the
    Infinite). This is considered by mathematics
    historians to be one of the most influential
    textbooks in history.
  • This was Eulers Pre-Calculus textbook, which
    introduced topics that were absolutely required
    for analysis so that the reader almost
    imperceptibly becomes acquainted with the idea of
    the infinite
  • He was the first to devise the ingenious teaching
    art of skillfully letting mathematical formulae
    speak for themselves.

9
function
e2.71828...
f(x)
10
Eulers Introduction(Did you know this?)
  • The most important part of this book dealt with
    exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric
    functions. It was there that Euler first
    introduced important notations such as
  • Functional notation f(x)
  • The base of natural logarithms e
  • The sides of a triangle ABC a, b, c
  • The semiperimeter of triangle ABC s
  • The summation sign ?
  • The imaginary unit ?-1 i

11
More Eulerian Textbooks
  • Eulers remaining books in the series were
    Institutiones Calculi Differentialis (Methods of
    the Differential Calculus) and Institutiones
    Calculi Integralis (Methods of the Integral
    Calculus)
  • Eulers Differential Calculus contains
  • Introduction to differential equations
  • Discussed various methods for converting
    functions to power series
  • Extensive chapters on finding sums of various
    series
  • A pair of chapters on finding maxima and minima
  • This is especially impressive, because his text
    contains no graphs or charts. All discussion
    given to maxima and minima is done purely
    analytically.
  • Eulers Integral Calculus contains
  • Integrals of various functions
  • Solutions of differential equations
  • Integration by infinite series, integration by
    parts, formulas for integration of powers of
    trigonometric functions
  • All three books are an exercise in analysis, so
    much so that they contain no applications to
    geometry. The integral is not even used to
    calculate area under a curve.

12
Euler functions formulae
  • Discovered Eulers identity
  • e i x cos(x) i sin(x)
  • for any simple closed polyhedron with vertices V,
    edges E, and faces F
  • V E F 2
  • Euler curvature formula
  • ? ?1 cos2? ?2 sin2 ?

13
Euler functions formulae
  • Number Theory
  • Eulers function (or phi-function), ?(n), is
    defined as the number of integers less than n and
    relatively prime to n, i.e. sharing no common
    factor with n. Here are the first 10 values of
    ?(n)
  • n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
    10
  • ?(n) 1 1 2 2 4 2 6 4 6
    4
  • ?(10)4 because of all the integers between 1 and
    10 only 1,3,7, 9 share no common factor with
    10. So when n is prime ?(n)n-1 since all
    integers less than n are relatively prime to n.

14
Euler functions formulae
  • Rigid body motion
  • Euler angles
  • Hydrodynamics
  • the Euler equation
  • Dynamics of rigid bodies
  • Eulers equation of motion
  • Theory of elasticity
  • Bernoulli-Euler law
  • Trigonometric series
  • Euler-Fourier formulas
  • Infinite Series
  • Eulers constant
  • Euler numbers
  • Eulers transformations
  • DEs Partial Diff Eqs
  • Eulers polygonal curves
  • Eulers theorem on homogeneous functions
  • Calculus of variations
  • Euler-Lagrange equation
  • Numerical Methods
  • Euler-Maclaurin formula

15
Euler functions formulae
  • Rigid body motion
  • Euler angles
  • Hydrodynamics
  • the Euler equation
  • Dynamics of rigid bodies
  • Eulers equation of motion
  • Theory of elasticity
  • Bernoulli-Euler law
  • Trigonometric series
  • Euler-Fourier formulas
  • Infinite Series
  • Eulers constant
  • Euler numbers
  • Eulers transformations
  • DEs Partial Diff Eqs
  • Eulers polygonal curves
  • Eulers theorem on homogeneous functions
  • Calculus of variations
  • Euler-Lagrange equation
  • Numerical Methods
  • Euler-Maclaurin formula

16
Euler line
The most famous line in the subject of triangle
geometry is named in honor of Leonhard Euler, who
penned more pages of original mathematics than
any other human being.
17
Euler line
Gcentroid Ocircumcenter Horthocenter Nnine-poi
nt center LDeLongchamps point
O always lies 1/2 way from H to L


O to H
18
Euler stops calculating
  • Mathematics was used by Euler as Gods ally.
  • He wrote Letters to a German Princess to give
    lessons in mechanics, physical optics, astronomy,
    sound, etc. In it he combined piety and the
    sciences. Their extreme popularity resulted in
    their translation into seven languages.

Euler remained virile and powerful of mind to the
very second of his death despite his total
blindness, which occurred in his seventy seventh
year, on September 18, 1783. That day he had
amused himself by calculating the laws of ascent
of balloons, dined with his family and friends.
Uranus being a recent discovery, Euler outlined
the calculation of its orbit. A little latter he
asked his grandson to be brought in. While
playing he suffered a stroke. Euler ceased
to live and calculate.
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