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Humans impact on plants

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Blue green bacteria play an important role in the fixation of molecular nitrogen, ... Non voluntary artificial setting-up of non-endemic vegetal species ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Humans impact on plants


1
Humans impact on plants
  • Human kinds impact
  • Agriculture
  • Biological diversity human use for food
  • Major species eated
  • Damages for plants
  • Species migration
  • Artificial setting
  • GMOS
  • Facts figures
  • Plants 1st human organism
  • Biodiversity
  • Hot spots
  • Threatened species
  • Factors limiting plant abundance
  • Main causes
  • Human kinds impact
  • Deforestation
  • Before now
  • A threat to forests ecosystem
  • Hot spots
  • Top ten countries
  • Reasons

VOUMBI Gorka LEDEROFF Erwan TRAQUANDI Martin
2
1.1. Plants The first human organism
The fossil record 3 billion years ago
cyanobacteria began producing oxygen. Blue
green bacteria play an important role in the
fixation of molecular nitrogen, which can be used
by other organisms.
3
1.2. Different kinds of plants
ridge.icu.ac.jp/ gen-ed/biomes.html.
4
1.3. Global diversity
www.botanik.uni-bonn.de/ biodiv/globbiod.gif
5
1.3. Repartition of  Hot Spots , as
exceptional biodiversified zones
6
1.4. Threatened plants in the world
www.thegreencommunity.org/ extinct.html.
7
1.5. Main causes genetic erosion
www.fao.org/DOCREP/ x0262e/x0262e02.htm.
8
1.5. Limiting the abundance of sea plants
el.erdc.usace.army.mil/.../ html/table_1_.html
9
2. Human Impact on Earth
www.staff.amu.edu.pl/ zbzw/glob/glob33e.htm.
10
2.1 Deforestation
11
Agriculture
World Resources Institute, Washington 1997,
revised by Greenpeace 2002
12
2.1.2. A Major Threat to Forests Ecosystem
  • Global rates of destruction
  • 2.4 acres (1 hectare) per second equivalent to
    two soccer fields
  • 149 acres (60 hectares) per minute
  • 214,000 acres (86,000 hectares) per day an area
    larger than New York City
  • 78 million acres (31 million hectares) per year
    an area larger than Poland

http//www.ran.org/info_center/factsheets/04b.html
13
(No Transcript)
14
2.1.4. Deforestations "Top Ten" Annual
decrease of wooded area in hectares (1995 )
http//www.rcfa-cfan.org/french/f.issues.12-3.html
15
2.1.5. Deforestations reasons
  • Trees are chop down in order to make timber work,
    heat, paper, or to vacate some lands for
    agricultural activities, industrial activities,
    or other human activities

16
2.2. Agriculture
Forests
17
2.2.1. Biological diversity for food a largly
untapped resource
www.fao.org/DOCREP/ x0262e/x0262e02.htm.
18
2.2.2. Major eated species
19
2.2.3. Humans impact in agriculture
  • Pollution of plants
  • Nutrient ( nitrogen, phosphorus)
  • Chemical Fertilizer
  • Pesticides
  • Genetic modification
  • Species desaperance
  • China used 10.000 wheat varietes in 1949 only
    1.000 remained by the 70s
  • USA varieties lost since the last century
  • 95 cabbage
  • 9 maize fields
  • 86 apple

20
2.3.1. Non voluntary artificial setting-up of
non-endemic vegetal species
  • The second cause of disappearance of plants is
    the introduction of invasive sorts. The danger of
    an alien is to suffocate the autochtonous sorts
    until remove them.
  • Eg Trees in South Africa
  • Eg Caulerpe Taxifolia in the mediterranean sea

21
2.3.2. Voluntary artificial setting-up of
non-endemic vegetal species
  • Otherwise, some botanical species are introduced
    in regions where they had never grown before,
    seemingly without any major disturbance.
  • Eg Tomatoe and potatoe in Europe
  • Eg Soja in Brazil

22
2.3.3. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
  • Old technique a long process to improve
    botanical capacities by naturally interbreeding
    pre-existing species
  • Today transgenese (genetic engineering),
    isolating a gene to cross the species barrier and
    create a new kind of breed (Is this to play at
    being God ?)
  • Ex tomatoes that do not rot, pineapple that
    mature faster, wheat that resists vermin, rice
    that allows several harvest a year, millet richer
    in basic nutriments.
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