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Carbon Monoxide Safety 101 BD22008

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Title: Carbon Monoxide Safety 101 BD22008


1
Carbon Monoxide Safety 101
BD-2-2008
Certified Carbon Monoxide Inspector HVAC
Excellence Certification Exam, Code C-12
Founding Member
Everyday is a Carbon Monoxide Safety Day Bob
Dwyer, Director of Training 877-546-3726
bobdwyer_at_cosafety.org
www.cosafety.org
NATE Course 3207-0001
Todays Program Sponsor www.coexperts.com
2
GOALS Raising awareness, saving lives!
  • IMPROVED HEALTH
  • DOING THE RIGHT THINGS RIGHT Reduce Call-Backs!
  • BETTER TECHNICIANS (How good do you want to be?)
  • IMPROVED INSTALLATIONS
  • IMPROVED SERVICE
  • SAFER COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
  • TESTING NOT GUESSING
  • REFERRALS
  • REDUCED WARRANTY COSTS

3
Carbon Monoxide
Identified by symbol CO.Tasteless, odorless,
invisible poison.Measured in PPM, Parts Per
Million The number of CO present in a million
molecules of air.When inhaled, bonds with
hemoglobin in bloodDeadly at high
concentrationsLow concentrations can compound
pre-existing health conditions.Two
Circumstances Must Exist to Make CO a
Hazard1.CO Produced in concentrations to affect
health or hurt someone2.An Open Path for CO to
Reach People.
4
CO IS A POISON
5
The weight of CO changes with temperature
heavier at freezing temperatures and lighter at
temperatures normally found indoors.
6
Carbon Monoxide Exposures
7
Buildings Where CO May Be Found
8
Vulnerable People
9
British Medical StudyProven MisdiagnosisIf You
Dont Test you Dont Know!Survey of 77
individuals poisoned by CO over several
years.Wide range of symptoms, some persisted for
years, some continue.GPs failed in 76 of 77
to diagnose on symptoms. Often no diagnosis
given.In Majority of cases presence of CO
discovered by appliance technicians.In some
cases a sounding alarm gave a warning. In others,
one family member collapsed giving attention to
the problem.In many cases regular servicing of
appliances had occurred but failed to identify
problem. (50 of cases)70 of cases took place
in peoples homes.2/3 of sufferers were women
most aged between 35-45 years old.Very few
sufferers offered COHb tests. Where these tests
were given there were also evidence of
misinterpretation.
10
  • Chronic group aged 2 to 76 years (60 no
    diagnosis for symptoms)
  • Unconscious group aged 27-81 years(75 no
    diagnosis for symptoms during exposure)
  • Depression 8 of chronic group
  • Flu or virus (10-15) or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    diagnosis (myalgic encephalomyelitis) (5)
  • Nearly 10 UC group were told they had a
    psychological problem or psychosomatic)
  • Another 200 GP study, not one doctor raised CO as
    a possibility when given symptoms.

11
Safety Warn and Inform
Solve One Problem, Create Another?
12
Solving one problem, creating another.
Hard to Imagine this would ever be a
problem. Sewage discharge for Cleveland, OH. Dump
it 2,400 feet out into Lake Erie, 1918.
Dumping combustion gases and other emissions
directly into the air around us current cultural
phenomenon.
Are we learning anything? Are we teaching
remedies for this? We need scientist technicians.
13
Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb)Quantified in the
body by this scale a blood test.
When inhaled CO bonds with hemoglobin in blood,
displaces oxygen forming carboxyhemoglobin.
14
Health affects of carbon monoxide
poisoning.Commonly misdiagnosed as flu-like
syndrome.
Lower chronic exposures to CO may not be
diagnosed but head stuffiness, sinus pressure
headache may be symptoms of CO Sickness.Symptoms
may vary due to overall health, age, sex or
weight of person exposed and how much CO they
were exposed to.
15
CO Effects on People and Animals
  • Dizziness, headache, Confusion, head stuffiness
  • Elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin level Fatigue
  • Eye and upper respiratory irritation
  • Persistent cough Wheezing or bronchial
    constriction
  • Increased frequency of angina in persons with
    coronary heart disease
  • Endothelium damage (inner lining of blood
    vessels).

Standard therapy requires supplemental oxygen,
ventilatory support and monitoring heart
rate. High exposures require hyperbolic chambers
to force CO out of blood, replacing it with
oxygen.
16
Diagnosis COPM 8Traditional intra-veinal blood
sample
Breath Analysis for CONon-invasive, may confirm
CO exposure though building has been
ventilated.Now there is pulse co-oxymeter
testing!
17
HISTORICALLY ACCEPTED MEDICAL SYMPTOMS OF CARBON
MONOXIDE POISONING( up until approx. 1990) COPM 9
OLD STUFF
  • Slight headaches, tiredness, dizziness, and
    nausea after 2-3 hours 200 PPM
  •  
  • Frontal headaches within 1-2 hours, life
    threatening after 3 hours 400 PPM
  •  
  • Dizziness, nausea and convulsions within 45
    minutes.
  • Unconsciousness within 2 hours. Death within 2-3
    hours. 800 PPM
  •  
  • Headache, dizziness and nausea within 20 minutes.
  • Death within 1 hour. 1,600 PPM
  •  
  • Headache, dizziness and nausea within 5-10
    minutes.
  • Death within 30 minutes. 3,200 PPM
  •  
  • Headache, dizziness and nausea within 1-2
    minutes.
  • Death within 10-15 minutes 6,400 PPM

18
The Three Ts of Combustion
19
Combustion needs
  • Air
  • Fuel
  • Ignition (Heat)

Air
Fuel
Nitrogen 79


Ignition
CH4
Oxygen 20.9
Measuring O2 in combustion analysis provides
greater precision in establishing the
relationships of O2/ CO2/ Excess Air for accurate
monitoring of burner performance.
20
Controlling CombustionBurners require controlled
fuel to be mixed with specific amounts of air.
Too much or too little fuel with available
combustion air may result in carbon monoxide
generation and incomplete combustion.
21
Controlling Combustion
22
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23
COMBUSTION 101 for EVERYONE
24
Combustion Maintained Clean
25
AIR REDUCTION
26
FUEL, AIR, HEAT TAKE ONE AWAY AND COMBUSTION
STOPS
27
How Many Potential Sources of CO?How tight is
our jar? Solve one problem, create another!
Save energy by tightening house!
Basement, No Basement.
28
Why wait for the alarm or injury?Entry testing
may decrease the frequency of CO
poisoning.Always test air outside before
entering establish base reference.
29
Major Sources of Carbon Monoxide
1st leading probable source Auto exhaust
(60) 1 cause of accidental CO poisoning
Just because CO may be measured within the
duct-work doesnt mean it is coming from the
furnace.
30
2nd leading common cause of CO found in homes and
buildings
  • Unvented combustion systems

These appliances need servicing and maintenance
and air for combustion. Are we preparing
technicians?
31
Unvented Systems, Living in a chimney!How much
carbon dioxide CO2 is too much?
Ambient air measurements only!
Flashes alarms at 35 PPM
32
CO2 LEVELS OF COMFORT IN PARTS PER MILLION
  • Normal outside levels 350-450 PPM
  • Acceptable levels less than
    600 PPM
  • Increased complaints of stuffiness and odors
    600 to 1000 PPM
  • ASHRAE and OSHA standards 1000 PPM
  • Increased complaints of general drowsiness
    1000 to 2500 PPM
  • Adverse health effects 2500 to 5000 PPM
  • Maximum allowable concentration for 8 hour
    period 5000 PPM

33
Nothing new about building pressures and draft!
Living in a chimney.
34
3rd Leading Cause of CO in homes
buildings.Category I appliances not venting
properly all the time.Mechanical other
pressures competing.What is the vent pressure
of a Category I appliance?
35
Draft Pressure weak in Category I appliances
126
36
Cracks in Heat Exchangers
  • May be the least probable cause of CO in
    buildings but most investigated.
  • How much CO is the burner producing?
  • Does unit need to be shut off if CO not being
    produced?
  • Cracks are important and of a concern.
  • Why might they be cracking?

37
CO Alarms Are Warning Devices and what type
should be used.
WHEN TO USE!WHENEVER THE USE OF HYDROCARBON
FUELS PRESENTS THE OPPORTUNITY FOR CO EXPOSURE.
38
2008, UL 2034 Listed Alarms May Not adequately
protect children, elderly or persons with
deteriorated or vulnerable health.
  • 0 to 30 PPM - No Warnings
  • 30 to 70 PPM Visual warnings only permitted
    if alarm has a display many alarms do not
    display until full audible alarm
  • 70 PPM alarm should sound after exposure to 70
    PPM or more between 60 240 minutes
  • 150 PPM alarm should sound after exposure to 150
    PPM or more between 10 and 50 minutes
  • 400 PPM alarm should sound after exposure to 400
    PPM or more between 4 and 15 minutes and have a
    manual reset that will reenergize the alarm
    signal within 6 minutes if the CO concentration
    remains at 70 PPM or greater.

39
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40
100 ppm CO calibration gas
41
20 Seconds Display reads 9ppm
42
Alarm Sounds (25 seconds)
43
Alarm sounding, Display reads 47ppm
44
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45
One Hour - nothing
46
Two Hours - nothing
47
Three Hours - nothing
48
Four Hours - nothing
49
Four Hours, Twenty Seven Minutes -Alarm
50
Hit Recall button 2ppm???
51
CO Experts Monitor
  • 10-24 PPM 2 beeps every minute, immediate Call
    HVAC Service
  • 25-34 PPM 2 beeps every 20 seconds Immediately
    open Windows, doors, call HVAC Service
  • 35-49 PPM 2 beeps every 10 seconds Immediately
    open W/D, Call HVAC service, watch monitor
  • 50-69 PPM 2 beeps every 6 seconds Immediately
    open W/D, call 011 HVAC service from cell phone
    or another location. Do not re-enter
    building until professionals say it is safe
  • 70-HI PPM 4 beeps every 6 seconds Exit building
    at once call 911 HVAC service from cell phone
    or
    another location. Do Not Re-enter
    from home or building until pros say ok.



  • Fail-safe, fully self-monitored, including sensor
    accuracy, providing true, full-time, END OF
    LIFE warning, NOT JUST A TIMER, that might
    finally warn you years after the sensor had died,
    or ceased to function accurately.


  • EXTREMELY IMPORTANT .. AT EVERY WARNING LEVEL,
    THE CONSUMER IS IN IMMEDIATE CONTROL OF THE
    MONITORS WARNING SIGNAL. HUSH Feature


  • Simply depress the test / hush / reset button
    for 6 seconds, and the audible beeps are
    immediately silenced however, the monitor
    continues to function normally, as the visual
    display continues to accurately display the rise
    or fall of the level of the c o present.


  • The level of c o present continues to rise to the
    next higher warning level , the monitor
    automatically over rides the hush, and the
    monitor immediately begins to beep at the higher
    frequency for that higher level of CO.

52
CO Experts
  • .. These are true life saving features, while
    continuing to keep the consumer in control of
    their CO monitoring.

www.coexperts.com
53
Responding to a carbon monoxide alarm.
  • Smoke alarm or a CO alarm.
  • Where the people are calling from.
  • Has anyone passed out, vomiting or showing any
    other CO poisoning signs.
  • Does the CO alarm have a reset button? Has it
    been reset? Are you still calling from the
    house? Instruct caller to leave building.

54
First Responseor Every Call
  • Calibrated Instruments Per manufacturers
    instructions to a known quantity of
    certified CO gas.
  • Safety First If you respond to a CO call and no
    one is outside the building waiting for you, put
    on SCBA, have test instruments on and then go
    inside. NO GO IF NO SCBA.
  • Documentation Once it has been verified that CO
    source was from inside the building, a thorough
    test of all combustion systems and building
    interactive components should be performed.
  • Consumer Education Warn, Inform, Instruct

55
Understand How Instruments CalibrateTest
reference outside air 1st.

Auto Zero, Manual Zero, False Zero
56
Diagnosis COPM 8Traditional intra-veinal blood
sample
Breath Analysis for CONon-invasive, may confirm
CO exposure though building has been
ventilated.Now there is pulse co-oxymeter
testing!
57
Test for gas leaksUse approved methods of leak
detection.
58
The Driving ForcesThe key to understanding
back-drafting
  • Wind
  • Stack (the Chimney effect)
  • Exhaust Fans
  • Combustion appliance exhaust
  • Duct leakage
  • Unbalanced duct systems

59
Pressure measurements of homes and HVAC systems
can help assure the following
  • Combustion appliances vent properly
  • All HVAC systems are installed according to
    manufacturers specifications
  • Buildings and their HVAC systems produce comfort
  • Buildings and HVAC systems are energy efficient
  • Buildings and HVAC systems are durable
  • Buildings and HVAC systems do not negatively
    affect IAQ and vent properly

60
What is Pressure?
  • TEXT BOOK STUFF
  • Force pressing against a surface
  • Stated in Weight per unit area
  • The force acts at right angles uniformly in all
    directions
  • Pounds per square inch
  • Inches of water Column
  • Pascal Newtons per meter squared

61
Common Pressures for Comparison
  • Atmospheric pressure 14.7 PSI
  • (Normal Sea Level, Standard Temp)
  • Car Tire 35 PSI or 2,491,290 Pascal
  • Natural Gas Inlet pressure 7 inches of water
    column or .25 PSI Manifold pressure 3.5 WC
    or PMI
  • HVAC fan external static pressure .5 WCI or 125
    Pascal
  • LPG Inlet Pressure to appliance regulator 11 WC
  • PMI Per Manufacturer Instructions

62
HVAC Fans And Air Movement
  • HVAC fans move air the same way.
  • Air is drawn toward the return side of the fan
    because its at a lower pressure.
  • Air flows outward under positive pressure from
    the fan on the supply side to lower pressures
    found in the house

63
Types of Manometers
  • The basis of pressure diagnostic testing is to
    compare the pressure of one zone to that in
    another.
  • All differential manometers read the pressure
    difference between two zones
  • Usually connected to different zones via flexible
    hoses

64
Pressure Imbalances Due to Building Stack Effect
  • Like turning the range fan on backwards
  • Depressurizes house because air is leaving
    through holes in the top of building into attic
  • The house is a chimney
  • The tighter the house the greater the pressures

65
Wind Effects
  • Strong winds can cause vent systems to fail
  • Increased Stack effect
  • Pressuring or depressurizing mechanical rooms
  • Vents cool quicker
  • Direct down drafts
  • Windward Side Positive pressure, air forcing
    inside.
  • Leeward side (-) Negative pressure, air leaving
    building.

66
House With Single Zone ReturnAir moves High
Pressure to Low PressureClosing doors creates a
low pressure at the return and prevents air
return from those rooms. Category I appliances
connected to this return zone may reverse.
  • Depressurized zone

67
Reasons Why More Quality Assurance Pressure
Testing is Required
More Homes with More Problems
  • Tighter Homes
  • Tightness increases pressure differences within
    the house
  • Most new homes are TIGHT or under-ventilated
  • More Exhaust Fans
  • Commercial Quality kitchen fans
  • Ventilation Systems
  • Higher Capacity bath and laundry fans

68
Societal Trends that will Increase Quality
Assurance and Pressure Testing
  • Greater Awareness of Carbon Monoxide Risks
  • Transitions from prescriptive to performance
    based building codes
  • Minnesota worst case depressurization codes
  • Canadian codes Ontario Gas utilization code

69
HOW MUCH CO IS TOO MUCH? HOW TIGHT IS YOUR JAR?
70
Bad things can happen
71
Carbon Monoxide Air FreeUnit of measurement
compensating for excess air to the burner.COPM 3
Example 100 PPM CO measured with 6 O2 in flue
gas. 100 X 20.9 2,090 20.9-6 14.9 2,090 /
14.9 140.26 PPM CO Air Free THIS IS A FLUE GAS
MEASUREMENT/CALCULATION
72
CO Air Free Chart COPM 4
The top horizontal column is flu-gas measured
carbon monoxide.
The left vertical column is the oxygen measured
in the flue gases. 8 O2 and 200 PPM CO equals
334 PPM CO Air Free.
73
ESCO ID 481510
  • EXAM CODE C-12

74
Carbon Monoxide Safety 101
BD-2-2008
Certified Carbon Monoxide Inspector HVAC
Excellence Certification Exam, Code C-12
Founding Member
Everyday is a Carbon Monoxide Safety Day Bob
Dwyer, Director of Training 877-546-3726
bobdwyer_at_cosafety.org
www.cosafety.org
NATE Course 3207-0001
Todays Program Sponsor www.coexperts.com
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