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Intergroup Conflict

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'I have no race prejudices, and I think I have no color prejudices ... Instinctive bases of intergroup discrimination. How can Intergroup Relations be Improved? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Intergroup Conflict


1
Intergroup Relations
"I am, in plainer words, a bundle of
prejudicesmade up of likings and dislikingsthe
veriest thrall of sympathies, apathies, and
antipathies." - Nineteenth century English
author Charles Lamb
"I have no race prejudices, and I think I have no
color prejudices nor creed prejudices. Indeed, I
know it. I can stand any society. -- Mark Twain
2
Intergroup Relations
"I am, in plainer words, a bundle of
prejudicesmade up of likings and dislikingsthe
veriest thrall of sympathies, apathies, and
antipathies." - Nineteenth century English
author Charles Lamb
"I have no race prejudices, and I think I have no
color prejudices nor creed prejudices. Indeed, I
know it. I can stand any society. -- Mark Twain
3
Issues
North vs. South East vs. West U.S. vs.
Iraq Racism Sexism Heterosexism Rich vs.
poor Elitism Ageism Serbs vs. Croats Darfurs
Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa vs.the Baggara ALL
Examples of US vs. Them
Does membership in one group require rejection of
other groups? How does group membership change
members perceptions? How can conflicts be
reduced?
4
What Interpersonal Factors Disrupt Relations
Between Groups?
  • The Robbers Cave Experiment
  • Conducted by Muzafer and Carolyn Sherif and
    colleagues in 1950s
  • Two groups of young boys The Rattlers and the
    Eagles

5
Scenes from the Robbers Cave
6
Scenes from the Robbers Cave
7
Scenes from the Robbers Cave
8
The Robbers Cave Experiment
  • Result Reactions to conflict escalated from
    exclusion to verbal abuse to discrimination to
    violence
  • What caused the conflict between these two
    groups?

Interpersonal factors
Cognitive factors
9
What Interpersonal Factors Disrupt Relations
Between Groups?
  • Competition and conflict
  • Realistic conflict theory competition over
    scarce resources
  • Discontinuity effect Insko, Schopler, et al.
    find groups are more competitive when playing the
    Prisoners Dilemma Game (PDG)
  • Greed
  • Identifiability
  • Fear

10
What Interpersonal Factors Disrupt Relations
Between Groups?
  • Norms and conflict
  • Norm of reciprocity and conflict spirals
  • Cultural norms
  • Chagnons studies of the Yanomanö
  • Collectivistic and individualistic societies
  • Subcultural norms Collectivism, individualism,
    and conflict

11
What Interpersonal Factors Disrupt Relations
Between Groups?
  • Power and domination
  • Economic versus militaristic (coercive)
    exploitation
  • Inskos study of laboratory microsocieties
  • Negative affect and conflict
  • Frustration-aggression and conflict
  • Scapegoating and intergroup conflict
  • Group hate (Sternberg)

12
What are the Cognitive Foundations of Conflict
Between Groups?
  • Ingroup-outgroup bias
  • Favoring the ingroup over the outgroup
  • we are better than them
  • ethnocentrism
  • Ingroup favoritism tends to be stronger than
    outgroup rejection

13
What are the Cognitive Foundations of Conflict
Between Groups?
  • Ingroup-outgroup bias (cont.)
  • Conflict and categorization increases
  • cohesion of ingroup
  • differentiation between groups
  • doublestandard thinking
  • outgroup moral exclusion (Staub)
  • group hate

14
What are the Cognitive Foundations of Conflict
Between Groups?
  • Cognitive consequences of categorization
  • Outgroup homogeneity bias
  • Law of small numbers
  • Group attribution error
  • Ultimate attribution error
  • Linguistic group bias
  • Stereotypes

15
What are the Cognitive Foundations of Conflict
Between Groups?
  • Social categorization may be sufficient to create
    conflict
  • Tajfel and Turners minimal intergroup situation
    finds bias
  • Social identity theory and the ingroup-outgroup
    bias/self-esteem link.
  • Instinctive bases of intergroup discrimination

16
How can Intergroup Relations be Improved?
  • Intergroup contact
  • Contact hypothesis Contact is more effective
    when
  • it creates cooperation between the groups
  • participants are equal in status
  • interaction is intimate (stimulated friendships
    across groups)
  • norms encourage cooperation

17
  • Intergroup contact (cont.)
  • Pettigrew and Tropp's review contact is more
    effective in work and organizational settings
    than in recreational and tourist settings.
  • Robbers Cave contact
  • Initially contact between the groups failed
  • Contact worked when groups worked toward
    superordinate goals

18
  • Cognitive approaches to conflict reduction
  • Decategorization
  • Recategorization common ingroup identity model
  • Cross-categorization
  • Controlling stereotyped thinking
  • Conflict management interpersonal skill training
    procedures
  • Jigsaw learning groups
  • Constructive controversy procedures
  • GRIT Graduated and Reciprocal Initiative in
    Tension in Tension Reduction

19
Darkness cannot drive out darkness only light
can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate only
love can do that. Hate multiplies hate, violence
multiplies violence, and toughness multiplies
toughness in a descending spiral of
destruction....The chain reaction of evil--hate
begetting hate, wars producing more wars--must be
broken, or we shall be plunged into the dark
abyss of annihilation. Martin Luther King, Jr.
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