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Diversity: Human Destinies are Intertwined


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Title: Diversity: Human Destinies are Intertwined

Diversity Human Destinies are Intertwined
john a. powell Williams Chair in Civil Rights
Civil Liberties, Moritz College of Law and
Executive Director, Kirwan Institute
November 3, 2005 Findlay University Diversity Lec
ture Series
  • The first step must be to define the problem or
    goals of the university
  • Next, success must be defined. How do we know
    when were there?
  • Then, we must look for the tools to achieve that
  • We must have diversity in our structures and
  • However, diversity cannot do all of the work. We
    must go further into the source of the current
    lack of diversity and also pursue a remedy

  • Our Structures and Institutions are Racialized
  • What is diversity?
  • Why is diversity important? Why do we need
  • Why are some audiences open to diversity, but
    opposed to affirmative action?
  • What needs to be done in order to promote and
    actualize diversity?

I. The Problem Our Structures and Institutions
are Racialized
Enrollment at The University of Findlay
Findlay University Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity
Race and Ethnicity in the U.S. 2000
Data Source National Center for Education
Data Source US Census Bureau
Racial Diversity at the University of Findlay
  • In 2004, there were 3,460 undergraduates
  • Of those 3,460 approximately 100 were Black
  • According to the National Center for Education
    Statistics, the graduation rate within six years
    for Black students was 18.2
  • By these estimates, approximately 18 of the
    current black undergraduate students will
    graduate in 6 years.

Data Provided by the National Center for
Education Statistics. They noted that this perce
ntage should be interpreted with caution.
Impediments to Diversity
  • Why be concerned with those who didnt make it
  • For example, if the admissions/hiring process is
    colorblind, does that means it is fair?
  • Durable group inequalities are present in our
    institutions, which brings into question the
    fairness of larger structures and arrangements.
  • What is the source of the inequalities along
    racial lines?

Defining Race
  • Historically, biological definitions of race
    explained (and produced) the secondary status of
    people of color.
  • Cultural understandings have more recently been
    used to explain disparities which persist.
  • In contrast, we suggest that race
  • is a social construction
  • produced as dialectical and hierarchical
  • gives power to white people…to legitimize the
    dominance of white people over non-white people.
    (Western States Center 2)
  • and distributes benefits (and disadvantages)

Racial Categories
  • We recognize that racial categories are both more
    and less significant than we acknowledge.
  • Less because they are not inherent, natural or
    essential differences
  • More because they are socially inscribed. We have
    created it as a difference
  • How do we resolve this?
  • Ignore them?
  • Naturalize them?
  • Acknowledge the social meaning, and recognize and
    challenge the inscription of race in our
    structures and institutions

Structural Racism
How do we understand racial disparities if they
are not explained by personal discrimination or
explicit laws and policies?
  • Structures are sets of mutually sustaining
    schemas or relationships and resources that
    empower and constrain social action and that tend
    to be reproduced by that social action. (Sewell)
  • Structural racism is both a model for
    understanding the reality of how racism functions
    and a way to refigure necessary intervention.

Disparate Outcomes
Racially Biased Structures
De Jure Racially Neutral Structures
Structural Racism
Disparate Outcomes
Disparate Outcomes
Individuals/ Culture
Structures/ Opportunity
Understanding Structural Racism
  • In order to understand structural racism, the
    focus must be on
  • racialized outcomes instead of racist
  • interactivity between institutions (regardless of
  • de facto disadvantage as a result of the
    historical legacy of discrimination

Considerations for an SR Response
  • In order to respond to the network of power
    shaping SR, the interconnecting relational web
    within which individuals live and act must be
    investigated and articulated.
  • Multiple levels of leadership that cut across
    fields and borders must be identified and
  • We must consider the larger relationship between
    opportunity structures and institutional

SR approach Example of Interconnections
SR Frameworks Contributions
  • Put in a different manner
  • Giving them fish
  • Exclusion, but with charity.
  • Letting them fish
  • De jure inclusion, BUT the magical assumption of
    equal opportunities.
  • Teaching them to fish
  • Amending past exclusion, questioning the magical
    assumption of equal opportunities, BUT still
    assuming that the arrangements are fine and there
    is something wrong/missing with them.

SR Frameworks Contributions
  • Proposed Extensions of the latter by an SR
  • Making sure that the teaching to fish is
  • Monitoring outcomes judging teaching coherence
    AND its capability-enhancing characteristics.
  • Learning to fish together
  • This action of monitoring, while inclusive, must
    also be a TWO-WAY STREET because as Seneca stated
    The process is a mutual one. People learn as
    they teach. Hence, questioning the arrangements

SR for Understanding Disparities and Formulating
  • Structural racism gives us a framework from which
    to understand disparities.
  • It also provides us with a way to conceptualize
    necessary intervention
  • It accomplishes this by looking at outcomes as
    opposed to just intentions.
  • One of these visible outcomes is the lack of
    diversity in our institutions.
  • While remedying this lack of diversity is
    important, it can not do all of the work alone

II. What is diversity?
Embracing and celebrating difference (hope)
instead of denouncing it (fear).
Defining Diversity What Difference does
Difference Make?
  • When we think about diversity, we are not merely
    talking about differences. Our categories are not
    inherent or natural. What counts as a difference
    is a social phenomena.
  • We have recognized race as a difference and
    created race as a difference, a social action on
    our part. We have done so in a way that is

Defining Diversity
  • Diversity is both a strategy to dismantle
    structural racism and a measure of our success.

  • Diversity is not solely a numerical pursuit, it
    is a structural one.
  • Including people where they have historically
    been excluded is not enough. True diversity
    requires allowing marginalized populations a
    voice to participate in, and help restructure

III. Why is diversity important?
As a means toward an end and not an end itself.
We are all caught up in an inescapable network
of mutuality, tied in a single garment of desti
ny. Whatever effects one directly effects a
ll indirectly. -The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther Kin
g, Jr.
Diversity in Higher Education
  • Most colleges and universities acknowledge and
    pursue the benefits of diversity.
  • The University of Findlay has the following
    stated goals
  • Mission Statement To equip our students for
    meaningful lives and productive careers.
  • Belief To foster an intercultural and global
    awareness through the presence of a socially and
    geographically diverse student body.
  • Belief To attract and serve a student body
    diverse in its experience, age, race, gender,
    ethnicity, geography, and academic abilities.

Source The University of Findlay Undergraduate
Catalogue http//www.findlay.edu/academics/infor
The Importance of Diversity for Individuals
  • Access to work and education is a fundamental
    attribute of modern citizenship.
  • Voting alone does permit individuals to exercise
    much influence over the conditions of day-to-day
  • Education is a gateway to meaningful,
    non-contingent work. Without this, people may
    fail to develop a sense of personal worth and
    individual agency, attributes essential to
    functioning as citizens.
  • For most people, medical care, social insurance
    and a sense of self are located in the
  • Access and opportunity to participate is
    critical to equipping citizens to fulfill their
    responsibilities, to respecting their status and
    autonomy as individuals, and to legitimating
    society's decisions as reflecting in the
    participation of the community.

Susan Sturm and Lani Guinier, The Future of
Affirmative Action. Boston Review Dec. 2000/Jan
The Myth of Merit
  • Our flawed formulations of merit have failed to
    allocate scarce educational opportunities in a
    manner that is consistent with democratic
  • An overemphasis on test scores and school
    rankings, not affirmative action, excludes poor
    and working class whites, especially from rural
  • In the employment setting, it restricts access
    based on inadequate predictors of job performance.

The Myth of Merit
  • The basic premise of the merit narrative is that
    selection criteria and processes used to rank
    applicants for jobs and admissions to schools are
    fair and valid tests of merit. This is flawed.
  • Differences in environmental backgrounds based on
    socioeconomic status (SES), defined broadly to
    include more than income, provide some students
    with significant advantages not apparent by
    grades and test scores.

The Myth of Merit
  • The correlation between test scores and SES
    indicators is stronger than the correlation
    between test scores and future academic
  • A study by the Educational Testing Service found
    that 74 of the students at the most selective
    universities come from the upper 25 of the
    socioeconomic status indicators.

Lani Guinier, Admissions Rituals as Political
Acts Guardians at the Gates of Our Democratic
Harvard Law Review Nov, 2003
Correlates of Success
  • Our meritocratic system of college admissions
    assumes those who score higher on standardized
    tests will later be the most successful.
  • SAT scores correlate less with college students'
    first-year grades than with either their parents'
    or their grandparents' socioeconomic status
  • A study of of Harvard alumni over three decades
    found a high correlation between success (as
    defined by income, community involvement, and
    professional satisfaction) and low SAT scores and
    a blue-collar background.

Guinier, Lani. December 14, 2001.  Colleges
Should Take 'Confirmative Action' in Admissions.
Chronicle of Higher Education. Susan Sturm and L
ani Guinier, Boston Review Dec. 2000/Jan 2001 and
David K. Shipler, My Equal Opportunity, Your Fr
ee Lunch, New York Times, 5 March 1995.  
The Myth of Merit
  • Most criteria of evaluation in our society,
    including educational credentials and
    standardized testing, have normative and cultural
    content. That does not mean that they are
    inappropriate, but that they are normative and
    cultural rather than neutrally scientific.
  • High stakes standardized tests do not fulfill
    their stated function. They do not reliability
    identify those applicants who will succeed in
    college or later in life nor do they consistently
    predict who is most likely to perform well in the
    jobs they occupy.
  • They may reward passive learning styles that
    mimic established strategies rather than
    creative, critical or innovative thinking.

Iris Marion Young, Justice and the Politics of
Benefits of Diverse Working Groups
  • Individuals often perform better in both
    workplace and school when working in diverse
  • More creative and high-quality solutions to
    problems are generated when groups are comprised
    of individuals with different vantage points,
    skills, beliefs, or values.
  • Heterogeneity promotes more critical strategy
    analysis, creativity, innovation, and high
    quality decisions.

Example Diversity in the Workplace
  • These benefits of diversity are not
    theoretical but real, as major American
    businesses have made clear that the skills needed
    in todays increasingly global marketplace can
    only be developed through exposure to widely
    diverse people, cultures, ideas, and viewpoints.
  • Grutter v Bollinger Et. Al., 2002
  • High ranking military leaders wrote to the
    court A highly qualified, racially diverse
    officer corps is essential to the militarys
    ability to fulfill its principle mission to
    provide national security.
  • Brief for Julius W. Becton, Jr. et, al. as Amici
    Curiae 27

Diversity in the Workplace
  • The workforce is becoming increasingly diverse
    almost two-thirds of entrants to the civilian
    workforce in the last thirteen years were
    projected to be women and racial minorities.
  • However, unless we allow those let in to shape
    and participate in the structures around them,
    numerical diversity will do little to interrupt
    the current arrangements.

Numerical vs. True Diversity
  • Example Women fought to earn a place in the
  • The workplace was arranged with the assumption
    that a parent would stay home with children, and
    thus is not structured optimally to allow for
    both parents working
  • Women were granted a place, but not a voice to
    reshape the institutions
  • Thus the structure and boundaries remain, to the
    detriment of both men and women.

Example Diversity in Education
  • Student body diversity promotes learning
    outcomes, and 'better prepares students for an
    increasingly diverse workforce and society, and
    better prepares them as professionals.
  • Grutter v Bollinger Et. Al., 2002
  • Brief for American Educational Research
    Association et al. as Amici Curiae 3

The Goals of Education
  • Why be concerned with achieving racial and ethnic
    diversity in education?
  • Goals for public education
  • Preparing Students for Citizenship
  • Employment
  • Building Human Capacity (personal/social)
  • U.S. Supreme Court The objective of pubic
    education is the inculcation of fundamental
    values necessary for the maintenance of a
    democratic political system.
  • Diversity is a requirement to achieve our
    national goals for public education!

Pursuing True Diversity in Education
  • What does diversity look like in education?
  • Numerical diversity It is important that schools
    be representative of society including class,
    race, gender, ethnicity, etc. Traditional
    approaches to diversity have focused on this.
  • True diversity requires moving beyond numbers
  • Multicultural curricula Students should be
    taught a diverse curriculum including the
    histories cultures and contributions of all.
  • Administrative diversity Schools should be
    comprised of culturally competent, and racially
    and linguistically diverse school staff.
  • Institutional Flexibility Allow students the
    space to be active participants, shaping the
    school and institution in which they are a part.

Example Benefits of Diversity in Education
  • Attending a truly diverse school leads to
  • Higher levels of reasoning
  • Reduced prejudice
  • Increased perspective taking
  • A stronger commitment to multiculturalism and
    promotion of racial understanding
  • Higher college completion rates
  • Higher college GPA
  • Greater intellectual and social self-confidence
  • Mickelson (1997) found that the more students
    (both black and white) that were exposed to
    diverse, desegregated education, the better were
    their achievements (as measured by standardized
    tests), and the higher their secondary track

Chang, M. J. (Winter 1996). Who benefits from
racial diversity in higher education? Diversity
Digest. Conrad, B. D. (1988). Cooperative
learning and prejudice reduction. Social
Education, 52, 283-286. Mickelson, R. (2003). The
academic consequences of desegregation and
segregation. North Carolina Law Review, 81,
1513-1562. Astin, A. (March/April 1993).
Diversity and multiculturalism on the campus How
are students affected? Change. Mickelson, Roslyn.
(2003). The Academic Consequences Of
Desegregation And Segregation.
Meritocracy and Democracy
  • A study of the graduates of the University of
    Michigan Law School found that merit, as
    quantified by college grades and LSAT scores, had
    either no correlation or a negative correlation
    with post-graduation contribution to the
  • Individuals with lower LSAT and college grades
    tended to spend more time in public or
    unremunerative legal service.

Source Lani Guinier, Admissions Rituals as
Political Acts Guardians at the Gates of Our
Democratic Ideals
The Importance of Diversity for Our Communities
and Democracy
  • In contrast, diversity is linked to social and
    community responsibility
  • A study of three classes of Harvard alumni over
    three decades found a high correlation between
    success as defined by income, community
    involvement, and professional satisfaction and
    two criteria not ordinarily associated with
    Harvard freshmen low SAT scores and a
    blue-collar background.
  • Studies have shown that students of color are
    more likely than white doctors to serve in
    communities where there is a shortage of
    physicians, and to treat minority, sicker and
    poorer patients. These doctors more often serve
    as a community spokespersons, addressing key
    health problems and service needs. 

Source Susan Sturm and Lani Guinier, Boston
Review Dec. 2000/Jan 2001 and David K. Shipler,
My Equal Opportunity, Your Free Lunch, New York
Times, 5 March 1995
The Texas Ten Percent Plan
  • The TTP was animated by the belief that
    distributed access to educational opportunity
    broadly is consistent with reconnecting the
    university to the K-12 educational system.
  • It is incomplete as a remedy however as it does
    little to desegregate schools at the k-12 level.
  • Both the GI Bill and the TTP programs are
    perceived as either a return to individuals for
    their service to the community or a preparation
    for such service. They also seek to build broad
    cross-racial coalitions.

The Importance of Diversity
  • Define goals…what does success look like?
  • Develop an intervention to achieve these goals,
    such as affirmative action. Measure progress.
  • Work collaboratively, move beyond numerical
    diversity to true diversity
  • To paraphrase Baldwin Who wants to be
    integrated into a burning house?
  • Extend beyond the walls of the university, align
    with high schools to prepare students of color
    for college earlier

IV. Why are some audiences open to diversity, but
opposed to affirmative action?
Principle-Implementation (P-I) Gap
  • Refers to the phenomenon whereby individuals
    agree with certain egalitarian ideals such as
    equal opportunity, fairness, and diversity, and
    yet disagree with many of the specific policies
    designed to deliver such outcomes such as
    affirmative action.

Explanations for the P-I Gap
  • People are only paying lip service to
  • Some form of racism (negative affect)
  • Social dominance orientation
  • Person-based explanations for inequalities
  • Color-blind racism

Color-Blind Racism
  • Color-blindness, as a philosophy, is deeply
    rooted in the liberal tenet of the universal
    subject and is therefore often understood as the
    epitome of just and neutral policy.
  • A color-blindness perspective suggests that race
    should not be a consideration in interpersonal,
    representational, economic, and/or legal
  • It has taken on a particular resonance in the
    post- Civil Rights Era in which de jure
    discrimination was eliminated to argue against
    programs such as affirmative action.
  • Color-blindness fails to account for the ways in
    which racially neutral policies (de jure) are
    mapped onto a historical legacy of racial
    discrimination creating de facto disparity which
    often operates far more covertly.

Color-Blind Racism
  • A constellation of four frames which lead to
    racist beliefs and attitudes without
    necessitating any underlying negative affect
    towards the group in question.
  • (1) Abstract liberalism/Principled conservatism
  • (2) Naturalization
  • (3) Biologization of culture
  • (4) Minimization of racism/inequality

Abstract liberalism/Principled conservatism
  • Governmental or legal intervention should not be
    used to produce social policy.
  • e.g., Race should not be used as a factor in
    hiring decisions, and so affirmative action is
    reverse racism.
  • e.g., We need to live in a color-blind society.

  • Suggests that certain racial phenomena are
    natural occurrences.
  • e.g., Because people gravitate towards similar
    others, segregation is a natural state of

Biologization of Culture
  • Suggests that inequalities stem from cultural
    differences, and that these differences are
    largely immutable.
  • e.g., Blacks seem to undervalue education.
  • e.g., Many young Blacks seem to prefer a ghetto

Minimization of Racism/Inequality
  • Minimizes the extent of inter-group inequalities,
    and the importance and extent of discrimination.
  • e.g., Things are much better than they were in
    the past.
  • e.g., Discrimination is a relatively rare
    occurrence these days.
  • e.g., Inequalities will go away themselves if
    left alone.

Developing New Frames to Counter Color-Blind
Racist Ideology
  • At the Kirwan Institute, we are working to
    challenge the logic or legitimacy of these
    anti-affirmative action frames with an array of
    persuasive analogies, metaphors, narratives, and
    statistics, and by pointing out inconsistencies
    in values or beliefs.

Common Critiques of Affirmative Action and New
Frames for Rebuttal
  • Affirmative action isnt needed. Things are
    basically equal now between Blacks and Whites.
  • While overt racism and discrimination may be less
    frequent than they used to be, race still plays
    an important role in determining an individuals
    life chances. Here are some hard statistics
    concerning African Americans (relative to
  • Imprisonment rate almost 10 times higher.
  • Family income rate 40 lower.
  • Infant (0-1 years) mortality rate 2.5 times
  • Poverty rate twice as high.
  • Household wealth about 80 lower.
  • Life spans about 5 years shorter.

Common Critiques of Affirmative Action and New
Frames for Rebuttal
  • Racial inequalities are due to class. Even
    though there may be a higher percentage of poor
    people of color, poor Whites have the same
  • There are racial inequalities even within the
    various classes.
  • Poor African Americans and Latinos are almost
    four times as likely to live in areas of
    concentrated poverty as poor Whites.
  • There have been only 3 Black senators since 1877
    (post-reconstruction). Based on relative
    populations, 125 would have been expected.

Common Critiques of Affirmative Action and New
Frames for Rebuttal
  • Racial inequalities are getting better all the
    time. They will go away on their own if given
  • In many cases the gaps are closing at an
    intolerably slow rate, and in some cases they are
  • Black unemployment is about twice the White rate
    - a wider gap than in 1972.
  • The Black infant mortality rate is nearly 2.5
    times higher than the White infant mortality rate
    a gap that has expanded since 1970.
  • The Black-White poverty gap would take about 150
    years to close at the present rate.
  • Black-White gaps in per capita income would take
    over 500 years to close at present rates

Common Critiques of Affirmative Action and New
Frames for Rebuttal
  • Affirmative action amounts to an unfair and
    unearned give-away. It is taking from one group
    and giving to another.
  • Affirmative action encourages and rewards
    diversity, just as alumni credits encourage
    historical lineage (and strong donor bases), and
    just as student-athlete credits encourage school

Common Critiques of Affirmative Action and New
Frames for Rebuttal
  • The undeserving and non-needy can benefit from
    affirmative action.
  • Tuna and Dolphin analogy

Common Critiques of Affirmative Action and New
Frames for Rebuttal
  • Programs like affirmative action that highlight
    race or other factors increase inter-group
    conflict. We need to move towards a color-blind
  • Research has shown that trying to ignore race
    can lead to even more discrimination and racism.
  • Better is to simultaneously think of others as
    both unique individuals, members of unique
    groups, and also members of our own groups
    (Americans, human beings).
  • Affirmative action encourages such categorization.

New Paradigm (Connectedness)
We need a New Paradigm that addresses our
isolation materially and ideationally.
New Paradigm
  • Our society cannot be de-racialized solely by
    material redistribution (e.g., redistribution of
    wealth), nor by only achieving numerical
    diversity in our institutions (affirmative
  • Deliberate collective action to address the
    presence and construction of boundaries of
    exclusion is required.
  • This approach must promote connectedness, not
  • Such connectedness should be explicit and
    constitutive of this new paradigm.

New Paradigm
  • This is NOT SOLELY a remedy to lift up the poor
    and people of color but a recognition and
    embracing of our differences within our greatest
    commonality Humanity.
  • Without re-conceptualizing structures
    relationships everyone will come up short.
  • Hence, deconstructing exclusionary boundaries
    benefits everyone it lifts us all, spiritually
    and pragmatically.
  • Although boundaries have been redrawn countless
    times, they always deprive people of color of
    full membership to the detriment of ALL members
    of society.

New Paradigm
  • The issue would be a de-racializing liberation.
  • A liberation from isolation and its
    racialization structures.
  • This de-racialization process entails
  • A necessary de-racialization of our societal
  • A recognition of the community autonomy and
    self-determination of those previously
  • A respect of the autonomy of non-white racialized
    communities as represented by the identity and
    mode of community by which they survived
    racialization and colonization in the first place.

Multi- instead of mono-selves
  • Individuals are not one-dimensional, we are
    constructed of multiple selves.
  • Each individual self is not exclusive, but made
    up of the multiple identities at which point they
  • We must consider how categories intersect and how
    they are created and maintained.
  • We also need to broaden our understanding of
    self-interest (i.e., more than economics).

Transformative Thinking
  • We need transformative thinking to actualize a
    new paradigm.
  • Materially and Culturally dialectic, discursive,
  • Our efforts in the past have been transactional
    (we are making small incremental changes with the
    result of small gains within existing
  • Hence, we need to re-think those existing
    arrangements, which calls for transformative

Response Options
  • Bring opportunities to depressed communities
    (e.g., investment incentives)
  • Take depressed communities to the opportunities
    (e.g., bussing to work)
  • Redefine opportunity structures (e.g., Utah,
    Oregon, Washington, Maryland, Michigan,
    Wisconsin, and the EUs equality impact
  • Develop multiple institutional capacities and
    coherencies, including transparency

Response Options
  • We propose investing time, energy, and resources
    on redefining opportunity structures and
    developing multiple institutional capacities,
    without disregarding opportunities in relation to
    depressed communities.
  • The reason is that they address the real issue of
    creating opportunities within depressed
    communities without becoming patching remedies
  • We also need multiple levels of leadership that
    cut across fields and borders, which are
    strategic and interconnects available resources.

Response Options
  • Deliberative Democracy
  • where our material resources are distributed
    through democratic deliberation.
  • in addition, through democratic deliberation (and
    empowerment) we address our cultural conceptions
    of self, identity in an ongoing and iterative
    manner (i.e., cultural resources).
  • Hence, diversity would become less costly and
    less frightening once we have been able to
    normalize it within our understanding of
    reality in addition, its meaning would
    necessarily change and it would be renegotiated
    iteratively through democratic deliberation.

Concluding Comments
  • Our work must be outcome-oriented (i.e., equal
    humanity), not just simple process or input
    focused (i.e., we need to be and think
  • First identify goals (i.e., equal humanity), then
    work to produce those desired outcomes.
  • Measure progress or retrenchment in multiple
    areas, as structures and institutions are complex
    and intersecting.
  • We can make progress toward realizing a new
    paradigm but we need to work together and
    question what we have/are today in order to be
    able to achieve that craved EQUAL HUMANITY in a
    Socratic sense.
  • And for this we argue that isolation needs to
    debunked and deconstructed through active
    democratic deliberation in order to achieve a

Concluding Comments
  • I dont want nobody to give me nothing. Open up
    the door. Ill get it myself.
  • Dont give me integration, give me true
  • Dont give me sorrow, I want equal opportunity to
    live tomorrow.
  • Give me schools and give me better books,
  • So I can read about myself and gain my truer
  • I dont want nobody to give me nothing. Open up
    the door. Ill get it myself.
  • We got talents we can use on our side of town.
    Lets get our heads together
  • And build it up from the ground.
  • James Brown, The Godfather of Soul

  • As Nobel Laureate Nelson Mandela states
  • I am not truly free if I am taking someone
    elses freedom, just as surely as I am not free
    when my freedom is taken from me. The oppressed
    and the oppressor alike are robbed of their

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