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Secondary School Teaching: A Guide to Methods


Chapter 8: The Thinking Curriculum: Using Teacher Talk, ... Monitor students for signs of impatience, frustration, anxiety, and off-task behaviors ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Secondary School Teaching: A Guide to Methods

Secondary School Teaching A Guide to Methods
  • Chapter 8 The Thinking Curriculum Using Teacher
    Talk, Demonstrations, Inquiry, and Games

By Valeria Molinelli June 11, 2008
  • Topics of Discussion
  • Teacher talk
  • Demonstration
  • Inquiry
  • Games
  • Why is it Important?
  • Use of strategies
  • Integrated learning
  • Use of inquiry for student learning
  • Games for learning

Teacher Talk
  • Lecture (formal) and discussion (informal)
  • Be Aware !!!
  • Do not talk too much
  • Do not talk too fast
  • ELL students
  • Make sure students hear and understand you
  • Voice pitch and vocabulary
  • Do not assume students learned or understood a
  • Direct or simulated learning experiences
  • Avoid monotone talking
  • Multitask

From Beginning to the End
  • Start with an advance organizer
  • Brief introduction
  • Organized sequence of ideas
  • Meaningful connections
  • Talk must have a logical beginning end
  • Pace yourself
  • Encourage participation
  • Plan a clear ending

Planning a Lecture
  • Understand the reasons for this strategy
  • Ex introduce or discuss the progress of a unit,
    explain an inquiry, present a problem, use as
    transition, share experiences, etc.
  • Clarify the objectives of the talk
  • Single idea
  • Choose between formal and informal
  • Vary strategies and activities frequently
  • What can you do when you start losing your
    students attention?
  • Every 8 to 15 minutes for most classes
  • Multitasking or multilevel instruction
  • Prepare and use notes as a guide

Planning a Lecture (Cont)
  • Share note organization with your students
  • Rehearse your talk
  • Avoid rushing to complete outline
  • Allow for multisensory stimulation
  • Give the content of your talk a thought
  • Monitor the delivery of the talk
  • Help students develop their vocabulary
  • Every teacher is a teacher of language arts
  • Consider student diversity
  • Help students make connections
  • Establish eye contact regularly

  • Actively engaged in a learning activity
  • Learning by doing
  • To be used in any grade level and/or subject
  • Students must know the reason of such
  • Conserve time and resources
  • Clarify discrepancy
  • Opportunity for student participation
  • Illustrate content
  • Acts as engaging scenario
  • Model a skill
  • Reduce hazards
  • Test a hypothesis

Planning a Demonstration
  • Decide the most effective way to conduct
  • Verbal or silent
  • Be sure demonstration is visible to all students
  • Practice with materials and instructions before
    demonstrating to the students
  • Consider pacing during demonstration
  • Remove unnecessary objects
  • Model proper safety precautions
  • Safety goggles, fire-safety equipment and
    procedures, etc.

  • Valuable teaching tool, but time consuming
  • Students are responsible for their own learning
  • Problem Solving
  • Used by inquiry and discovery
  • Facilitates learning
  • Steps
  • Recognize, identify, define, or describe a
  • Identify solutions
  • Select strategies
  • Test solutions
  • Evaluate outcomes

Inquiry vs. Discovery
  • Through experiences
  • Two major differences
  • Who identifies the problem
  • Percentage of decisions made by students
  • Levels of Inquiry
  • Level I not a true inquiry process, predictable
  • Level II true inquiry by middle school
  • Level III true inquiry by high school

Inquiry vs. Discovery (Cont)
  • Inquiry processes complex mental operations
    (idea-using category)
  • Project-centered and problem-centered teaching
  • Critical Thinking
  • Data-generating processes
  • Communication, experiencing, measuring,
    observing, verifying
  • Data-organizing processes
  • Charting and graphing, classifying, comparing,
    ordering, sequencing, using numbers
  • Idea-building processes
  • Explaining, generating, interpreting, making
    analogies, synthesizing
  • Idea-using processes
  • Applying, controlling variables, defining
    operationally, hypothesizing, model building,

Integrated Learning
  • Provides effective teaching-learning experiences
  • Methods of teaching and learning through oral
  • Cooperative learning
  • Instructional scaffolding
  • Inquiry teaching

Heuristics Activities
  • Help solve problems and understand an idea
  • Examples
  • Brainstorming based on a key word
  • Chunking or clustering mental organizers
  • Comparing and contrasting
  • Inferring assume
  • Memory strategies
  • Outlining main ideas
  • Paraphrasing short summary
  • Reciprocal teaching peer teaching effect

Heuristics Activities (Cont)
  • Review material learned
  • Study strategies
  • Visual tools
  • Brainstorming
  • Task-specific organizers
  • Thinking process maps
  • Venn diagramming comparing concepts
  • Visual learning log (VLL)
  • Free-form drawings
  • Journal keeping
  • Prior to new to future information

Educational Games
  • Activities that involve several senses and
    learning modalities
  • Engage high-order thinking skills
  • Great engaging tool
  • Effective learning tools
  • Should follow a clear purpose
  • Examples
  • Simulations more complex form of role play
  • Role play fully involves participant
  • Mind games
  • Board games
  • Computer games
  • Sporting games

Types of Educational Games
  • Pure game fun
  • Pure contest stimulates competition, built-in
  • Pure simulation models reality
  • Contest/game - stimulates competition, built-in
    inefficiency, fun
  • Simulation/game models reality and fun
  • Contest simulation - stimulates competition,
    built-in inefficiency, models reality
  • Simulation/game/contest models reality, fun,
    stimulates competition, built-in inefficiency

Functions of Educational Games
  • Variety and change of pace
  • Assess student learning
  • Encourage creative thinking
  • Peer interaction
  • Provide problem-solving situations
  • Teach both content and process
  • Enhance student self-esteem
  • Enhance student social relationships
  • Motivate students

  • Help students become responsible for their own
  • Teach students strategies that allow them
    critical think for future real-world experiences
  • Students need to be able to develop their
    thinking process by proposing a problem,
    presenting solutions, testing, and making

Secondary School Teaching A Guide to Methods
  • Chapter 9 Organizing and Guiding Student
    Learning Alone and In Groups

By Valeria Molinelli June 11, 2008
  • Help students achieve mastery of the curriculum
    by believing in the learning potential of every
  • How to achieve equity in the classroom
  • Group students to enhance positive interaction
    and quality learning
  • Personalized and individualized instruction for
    specific groups of learners
  • How to effectively use assignments and homework
  • Coordinate different forms of independent and
    small-group project-based study
  • Motivational teaching strategies

Mastery Learning Personalized Instruction
  • Learning is an individual experience
  • Differentiated instruction
  • Visual, verbal, tactile, or kinesthetic learners
  • Student achievement in learning
  • Level of attention
  • Time allocated per task
  • Strategies
  • Small learning communities
  • Cooperative learning groups
  • Project-based learning
  • Independent study

Outcomes of Quality Learning
  • Students experience success at each instructional
  • Mastery of content is possible
  • Learning sequential and logical
  • Learning outcomes can be observable and
  • Students will be given enough time to complete a
    task successfully
  • Instruction must be modified, not the student

Cycle of Teaching
  • Define learning objectives
  • Activate prior knowledge of student
  • Immediate individualized instruction
  • Variety of instructional tools and choices
  • More learning modalities for every student
  • Multilevel instruction
  • Decision making
  • Practice and reinforcement of content ensuring
  • Post-assessment

Planning Individualized Instruction
  • Recognize and work with special needs students
  • Mental retardation, hearing, speech or language,
    visual, emotional, orthopedic, autism, traumatic,
    brain injury, other health impairment, or
    specific learning disabilities
  • Special education and related services
  • Special needs student must receive instruction in
    the regular classroom (inclusion)
  • A continuum of differences
  • Inclusion (full or partial)
  • Teaching students with special needs requires
    further training - teach to different needs at
    the same time
  • Accommodations
  • IEP (Individualized Education Program)

Planning Individualized Instruction (Cont)
  • Guidelines in the inclusive classroom
  • Become familiar with specific students needs
  • Modify materials and procedures
  • Provide expectations and learning objectives in
    behavioral terms
  • Monitor students for signs of impatience,
    frustration, anxiety, and off-task behaviors
  • Have students keep assignments in a folder and
    remind them of deadlines
  • Be consistent in your expectations
  • Plan interesting activities to keep students on
    task and help them make connections
  • Plan questions that can be answered with
  • Make sure activities and assignments lead
    students to success
  • Provide time for students to practice and do work
  • Encourage peer support/organization

Planning Individualized Instruction (Cont)
  • Recognizing and work with students of diversity
    and differences
  • Determine the language and ethnic group of
  • About 1 year to communicate in English and 3 to 7
    years to catch up academically
  • Respect cultural background
  • Active and cooperative learning
  • LEP (Limited English Proficiency) 1 to 5
  • Pullout approach

Planning Individualized Instruction (Cont)
  • Teaching techniques for ELL students
  • Allow more time for activities
  • Allow time for translation
  • Avoid sayings or phrases that might not be
  • Divide complex units into smaller ones
  • Write key words on the board
  • Read directions aloud and write them on the board
  • Speak at lower pace
  • Simplify vocabulary without talking down to

Planning Individualized Instruction (Cont)
  • Recognizing and work with gifted students
  • Historically gifted talented had different
  • Today used as synonyms
  • Sometimes these students are unidentified
  • Most at risk of dropping out of school
  • To place them in special classroom, a grade point
    average (GPA) or intelligence quotient (IQ) is
  • Identify students by observation, rating scales,
    tests, and audition

Planning Individualized Instruction (Cont)
  • Characteristics of Gifted Students
  • Strong sense of self, pride, and worth
  • Able to assume adult roles at home or work
  • Manage school while living in poverty and/or with
    dysfunctional families
  • Retrieve and use stored knowledge to solve
  • Think independently and logically
  • Ability to lead others

Planning Individualized Instruction (Cont)
  • Working with gifted students in the class
  • Collaborate in the planning of some of their
    personal objectives
  • Emphasize skills in critical thinking, problem
    solving, and inquiry
  • Plan assignments and activities that challenge
  • Provide discussion time to highlight topics of
    their interest
  • Provide independent or self-paced activities
  • Provide accelerated study if student has already
    master the lesson

Planning Individualized Instruction (Cont)
  • Recognizing and work with students who take more
    time but are willing to try
  • Students that try but need more time
  • Adjust instruction to preferred learning style
  • Focus on final outcome and not material covered
  • Find something the student does well connect to
  • Emphasize on basic communication skills
  • Get to know the student
  • Check for comprehension often
  • Use positive reinforcement
  • Student that do not try or underachievers

Learning Alone
  • More than 10 of K-12 students learn best alone
  • Often gifted students
  • Able to learn at their own pace
  • Contract learning packages
  • Between teacher and student

Learning in Pairs
  • Peer tutoring or mentoring
  • Also peer-assisted learning (PAL)
  • One student teaches the other one who has limited
    proficiency in a unit
  • Cross-age coaching
  • One student coaches the other one from a
    different, often lower grade level
  • Paired team learning
  • Students study and learn in teams of two
  • Often gifted students
  • Uses science buddies, homework partners, book
    report pairs, etc.
  • Think-pair share (covered in Ch. 2)

Learning in Small Groups
  • Three to five students
  • Either teacher- or student-directed setting
  • Students assume better control of their own
  • Specific activity
  • To consider
  • Personality types
  • Social pattern
  • Common interest
  • Learning styles
  • Knowledge level

Cooperative Learning
  • Cooperative learning group (CLG)
  • Mixed group of three to five students
  • Support one another
  • Each member assumes a different role, which is
    often rotated
  • Group facilitator
  • Materials manager
  • Recorder
  • Reporter
  • Thinking monitor
  • Work together towards a common goal
  • Enhances social, emotional, and academic skills
  • Increases motivation among members

Learning in Large Groups
  • More than five students
  • Student presentations
  • Encourage research and material organization
  • Critical thinking, share opinions, class
  • Debates, jury trials, panels, etc.
  • Guided by the teacher
  • Whole-class discussions
  • Used frequently by teachers

Equality in the Classroom
  • Tend to interact with only some students
  • Try to involve all students equally
  • Avoid discrimination
  • Ethnic, gender, etc.
  • Expectations in regards to achievement
  • Strategies
  • Tally teacher-student interactions
  • Students must raise their hands to be called on
  • Applaud after all student presentations

Motivational Teaching Strategies
  • Visual and performing arts
  • Have students construct, design, and decorate
    their own kites (creativity with science)
  • Family and Consumer Economics , Foods, and
  • Bring an array of foods from different countries
    and have students identify where they come from

  • Understand the importance of peer support in the
  • Cooperative learning and strategies that
    encourage true inquiry will help students achieve
  • Teach students how to become independent thinkers

Learning is changing. Learning is doing
different. Learning is creating better outcomes.
Learning is reading, hearing, watching and then
applying.Learning is taking the theory and
making it a practice.
By Craig Harper Motivational Speaker and
Educator http//