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Title: HISTORY OF BIOMECHANICS


1
HISTORY OF BIOMECHANICS
  • JENNIFER KLOTZ
  • OLGA THEOU
  • NICOLE WOOD
  • CHRIS DUNCAN
  • WON CHUNG

2
AGENDA
  • Antiquity 650BC 200AD
  • Middle Ages 200AD 1450AD
  • Italian Renaissance 1450AD 1600AD
  • Scientific Revolution 1600AD 1730AD
  • Enlightenment 1730AD 1800AD
  • The Gait century 1800AD 1900AD
  • The 20th century and beyond 1900AD - .

3
Antiquity
  • 650 B.C 200 A.D
  • Histories of sciences usually begin with the
    ancient Greeks
  • Knowledge and myth were separated developing what
    we would call today true scientific inquiry
  • Observation to develop theories

4
Pythagoras
  • About 580 500 B.C
  • ..all things have form, all things are form,
    and all things can be defined by numbers
  • His definition of the universe and the human body
    were based on his mathematical analysis of music
  • Pythagoras famous theorem for rectangles and
    triangles a² b² c²

5
Aristotle
  • 384 322 B.C
  • Father of Kinesiology
  • Every motion presupposed a mover
  • The motions of falling bodies and projectiles
    fascinated him
  • Average velocity of a falling body over a given
    distance is proportional to the weight of the
    falling body and inversely proportional to the
    density of the medium
  • His book About the movement of Animals
    described
  • Movement and locomotion for the first time
  • The first scientific analysis of gait
  • The first geometrical analysis of muscular action
  • Explained ground reaction forces .for just as
    the pusher pushes, so the pusher is pushed

6
Archimedes
  • 287- 212 B.C
  • He claimed that he would be able to move the
    Earth if he only had a place to stand in order to
    do so
  • He used a close approximation for p to measure
    volumes and areas of solids
  • He established statics and hydrostatics
  • He determined hydrostatic principles governing
    floating bodies that are still accepted in
    swimming today
  • He discovered the principle of water displacement
    while bathing
  • His inquires included the laws of leverage and
    determining the centre of gravity and the
    foundation of the oretical mechanics

7
Galen
  • 131- 201 A.D
  • First sport physician and team doctor in
    history Father of Sports Medicine
  • For 4 years he practiced surgery and dietetics
    among the gladiators, gaining substantial
    knowledge of the human body and human motion
  • On the function of the parts first text on
    physiology
  • Distinguished between skeletal muscles and muscle
    parts, such as the heart and the stomach
  • Described tonus and distinguished between motor
    and sensory nerves, agonist and antagonist
    muscles
  • Established the science of myology
  • He taught that muscular contraction resulted from
    the passage spiritus animalius from the brain
    through the nerves to the muscles

8
The Middle Ages
9
When and What?
  • 200 B.C. 1450 A.D.
  • Also known as the Dark Ages
  • Scientific development decreased
  • Religious and spiritual development increased
  • Arab scholars saved scientific investigations of
    antiquity from disappearing completely
  • The only type of knowledge desired was the
    knowledge of God

10
Connection to Biomechanics
11
Italian Renaissance
12
When and What?
  • 1450 A.D. 1600 A.D.
  • The authority of the Church replaced with the
    authority of the ancients (Less fear of the
    church)
  • Period characterized by freedom of thought and
    intellectual adventure
  • Revival of ancient Greek philosophy, literature
    and art
  • Man became the measure of all things

13
Biomechanics Connection
  • Scientific work revived
  • Foundations laid for future work in anatomy and
    physiology
  • Movement and muscle actions were studied as
    connected entities

14
The Major Players
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
  • Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)

15
Leonardo da Vinci
  • Self taught man
  • Best known as an artist but primarily served as
    an engineer
  • A very talented and imaginative man inventions
    include the tank, helicopter, parachute, steam
    cannon, and hang glider.

16
Contributions to Biomechanics
  • Had the unique ability to communicate dynamic
    human movement in visual form

17
Contributions cont
  • Mechanical analysis of movement included joints,
    muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage
  • Most successful illustrations included the
    anatomy of the arm, elbow, and hand

18
Contributions cont
  • Depicted correctly the muscles (threads) by
    demonstrating their origin and insertion points
    as well as the mechanical action of the muscle
    dependent on its shape

19
Contributions cont
  • Fused art and science by stressing perspective in
    his illustrations, accurately depicted ball and
    socket joints (hip and shoulder) as well as the
    correct shape of the pelvis

20
Vesalius
  • Education vastly contrasted da Vincis
  • Received formal training in medicine and
    eventually became a physician
  • Taught and published his anatomical theories

21
Vesalius Continued
  • Originally a proponent of Galen, he noticed
    contradictions in his work
  • Convinced Galens work was dissections of animals
    and wrongly portrayed the human body
  • Dissected executed criminals

22
Contributions to Biomechanics
  • In 1543 published De Humani Corporis Fabrica
    Libri Septem (On the Structure of the Human Body)
  • Boldly stated that human anatomy could only be
    learned from dissection and observation of the
    human body
  • Re-evaluated the anatomy of muscles (human
    muscles differ from animal muscles)
  • Stimulated scientific debate between the
    relationship of nerves and muscles (muscles
    attached to tendons and embraced nerve fibers)
  • His detailed descriptive anatomy laid the
    foundation for modern day anatomy.

23
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24
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26
Scientific Revolution1600-1730
  • Galileo, Santorio, Harvey, Descartes, Boreli,
    Newton
  • Science was supported by private and political
    institutions
  • Intellectual freedom was highly respected
  • Scientists from different European countries made
    contact with each other
  • Experimentation became the cornerstone of the
    new Scientific Method

27
Who is this?
  • If I have been able to see further it was
    because I stood on the shoulders of Giants
    -Newton

28
Galileo GalileiThe Wrangler(1564-1642)
  • University of Pisa to study medicine
  • He could not accept what professors told him on
    faith.
  • University of Padua to study mathematics
  • He focused on experimentation
  • Telescope

29
Galileo Biomechanics
  • Mechanical aspects of bone structure and
    allometry
  • Animals mass h disproportionately to their size.
    Therefore bones girth must h
  • Marine animals vs. terrestrial animals
  • Buoyancy relieves tissues of weight

30
  • Disproved Aristotles doctrine of falling bodies
  • Impossible that the rate of falling is a function
    of the objects weight. Gravity?
  • Most fundamental contribution to science
  • Scientific Method
  • Need to examine facts critically and reproduce
    known phenomenon experimentally so as to
    determine cause effect for what is observed.

31
Galileo in Todays Biomechanics
  • Aquatic PT
  • waters buoyancy relieves tissues of weight
  • Provided Foundation for Newtons 3 laws
  • Theory of uniform motion, projectiles, inclined
    plane, and he defined momentum

32
?(1596-1650)
33
Rene Descartes Contributions
  • Cartesian Coordinate System
  • The Legend is that he invented this system while
    lying in bed observing a fly in the corner of his
    room

34
Contributions cont.
  • One of the first to use a mathematical approach
    to analyzing mechanics applied it to the human
    body
  • Theory of inertia
  • Related the fact that motion continues in a
    straight line unless acted on by an external
    force, to the motion of planet

35
Who is this?
36
Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-1679)
  • Began as Galileos student in Rome
  • Became Math teacher in Messina, Pisa, Florence
  • Co-developer of iatrophysical approach to
    medicine
  • Mechanics, not chemistry, is key to understanding
    the functioning of the human body
  • Discovered forces required for equilibrium in
    various joints of the body before Newtown
    developed his laws
  • Determined humans COG
  • Calculated inspiration and expiration volumes

37
Borelli
  • One of the first men to understand that the
    levers of the musculoskeletal system magnify
    motion rather than force

38
Father of Biomechanics
  • De Motu Animalium
  • Published after 1679
  • Contents
  • Used geometrical method to describe jumping,
    running, flying, swimming, etc.
  • Gait analysis analysis of muscles
  • Muscle function in specific joints (knee)
  • Influence of muscle fibers for force production

39
Findings Hypothesized in Treatise
  • Jumping
  • Proposition CLXXVIII
  • In jumping at an inclination to the horizon, the
    trajectory of the jump is parabolic
  • Proposition CLXXIX
  • Why a jump during running is longer and higher

40
Does anyone know who this is? (1642 1727)

41
Isaac Newton the Principia
  • Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
  • Book I
  • Science mechanics
  • 3 Laws (Inertia, accleration, action-reaction)
  • Book II
  • New scientific philosophies
  • Descartes Kepler
  • Book III
  • Applications of his dynamics
  • Law of gravitation

42
Newtons Laws
  • Law of Inertia
  • A body will remain at rest or continue to move at
    a constant velocity unless acted upon by an
    external force
  • Law of Acceleration
  • The acceleration of an object is directly
    proportional to the force causing it, it is in
    the same direction as the fore, and it is
    inversely proportional to its mass
  • Law of action-reaction
  • For every action there exists an equal and
    opposite reaction
  • Universal Gravitation
  • All objects attract each other with gravitational
    force that is inversely proportional to the
    square of the distance b/n the objects
  • This force of gravity is proportional to the mass
    of each of the two bodies being attracted to each
    other

43
Putting the Puzzle Together
  • Pieces of the Puzzle
  • Galileos law of falling bodies projectiles
  • Descartes law of inertia
  • Galileo failed to mention a driving force in his
    theory
  • Descartes theory mentioned straight lines, but
    the planets do not move in a straight line

44
THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT(1730 AD 1800 AD)
  • Period of increased understanding
  • Mechanical philosophers - mathematicians
  • Causes of motion disagreed
  • The concept of force more clearly understood
  • Advances in chemistry and a new approach to
    physiology

45
Daniel Bernoulli
  • Born 8 Feb 1700 in Groningen, NetherlandsDied
    17 March 1782 in Basel, Switzerland
  • Family of mathematicians
  • Hydrodynamica
  • Bernoullis principle

46
Bernoullis principle
  • A rise (fall) in pressure in a flowing fluid
    must always be accompanied by a decrease
    (increase) in the speed, and conversely, if an
    increase (decrease) in , the speed of the fluid
    results in a decrease (increase) in the pressure.

47
Bernoullis principle
48
Albrecht von Haller
  • Born 16 October 1708 in Bern, Switzerland
  • Died 07 December 1777
  • A prodigy
  • The founder on neurology

49
Gait Century
50
When and What?
  • 1800 A.D. 1900 A.D.
  • Period of time where a complementary development
    of mind and body was reborn (Rousseaus novel
    Emile, 1762), sport and movement ideal form
  • Development of sport and leisure during the late
    18th Century created a renewed scientific
    interest in human locomotion
  • The 19th Century was a period of development and
    discovery of instruments and experimental methods
    to increase knowledge of human movement
  • Gait Analysis

51
Biomechanics Connection
  • Measuring methods developed to quantify
    kinematics and kinetics of movement
  • Measuring methods developed to quantify
    electrical current during muscular contractions
  • Engineering principles applied in biological and
    biomechanical analysis
  • Transformation of biomechanics from an
    observational science to one based on
    quantification and mathematical analysis

52
The Major Players
  • Etienne Jules Marey (1838-1904)
  • Edweard Muybridge (1830-1904)
  • Du Bois Reymond (1818-1896/1922?)
  • Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne (1806-1875)

53
Jules Marey
  • Greatly influenced the development of
    biomechanics by providing the ability to quantify
    movements and by his rigorous scientific nature
  • He was the first to combine and synchronize
    kinematics and force measurement (inspired
    comprehensive locomotion analysis)
  • Analyzed movement of adults and children during
    sport and work as well as the movements of
    animals (facility devoted to biomechanics
    research)
  • Variety of his data collection inspired others to
    adapt and create devices for the quantification
    of motion

54
Mareys Contributions
  • Correlated ground reaction forces with movement
    (dynamometric table first serious force plate)
  • Developed technology to record sequential motion
    at high speeds (rifle camera)
  • Invented the Chronophotographe a pellicule or
    modern cinecamera (frame by frame analysis)
  • Pioneer or modern day motion analysis

55
Mareys Work
56
Edweard Muybridge
  • Began career in locomotion studying horses for
    Leland Stanford (Stanford University)
  • His contribution to biomechanics is the sheer
    number of images he produced documenting movement
  • Produced over 20,000 images later published in
    Animals in Locomotion and The Human Figure in
    Motion
  • Muybridge lacked a scientific methodology

57
Muybridges Work
58
Wilhelm Braune and Otto Fischer
  • In 1891 made precise mathematical analysis
    possible by conducting the first tri-dimensional
    analysis of human gait
  • Experimental method of determining center of
    gravity concluded that the original position of
    frozen cadavers could be considered a normal one

59
Du Bois Reymond and Duchenne
  • Laid the foundations of electromyography
  • Du Bois Reymond refined methods for measuring
    currents and traced electricity in contracting
    muscles to its independent fibers
  • Duchenne developed electrodes that could
    stimulate the superficial muscles
  • Duchenne published Physiologie des Mouvements
    which described the muscle action of every
    important superficial muscle

60
Duchene's Inventions
61
20th Century
  • Kinesiology Era vs. Biomechanics Era
  • Kinesiology Era
  • Scholars
  • Textbooks/Curriculum
  • Research/Instrumentation
  • Biomechanics Era
  • Textbooks/Curriculum
  • Graduate Programs
  • Research/Instrumentation
  • Other 20th Century Research
  • Biomechanics Seminar/Congress/Journal

62
Kinesiology Era vs. Biomechanics Era
  • Kinesiology Era
  • Spans the first 6 decades of the 20th Century
    and represents the infancy of biomechanics
  • Biomechanics Era
  • Begins in the 1960s to the present
  • Biomechanics begins to branch away from
    Kinesiology and become its own discipline
  • Graduate programs begin in universities and
    creation of scholarly societies
  • New research and development

63
Kinesiology Era Scholars
  • Arthur Steindler, MD (1878-1959)
  • 1930s taught graduate level Kinesiology
    classes at the University of Iowa
  • 1935 his lectures and notes are compiled
    together in a book, Mechanics of Normal and
    Pathological Locomotion in Man
  • 1st to use term biomechanics in physical
    education text
  • 1942 has article in JOHPER advocating the
    application of biomechanics to study human
    movement and made strong arguments for the
    following questions
  • can human movement be expressed in mathematical
    formula?
  • If it can be analyzed with math, can it be of
    practical benefit?
  • Ruth B. Glassow (1891-1988)
  • 1924 hired to teach Kinesiology courses at
    University Illinois
  • Designed new course in which students classified
    movement patterns and applied them to basic
    mechanical principals
  • 1932 Fundamental of Physical Education textbook
  • Pioneer in use of motion picture to analyze human
    movement in physical education
  • Pioneer in tests and measurements
  • 1938 Glassow Broer write Measuring
    Achievement in Physical Education

64
Kinesiology Era Scholars
  • Marion Broer (1918- )
  • 1936 1937 spoke about the phases of human
    motion and body mechanics related to posture at
    the Central Midwest Health and Physical
    Education Recreation meeting
  • Primary interests fundamental movement
    patterns, efficiency of motion, and application
    of mechanical principles to movement patterns
  • 1960 wrote textbook, Efficiency of Human
    Movement
  • Strongest premise a generality in the mechanics
    of movement existed and needed to be learned by
    the student of movement
  • Broer is still teaching exercise and the
    application of mechanics to daily movement to
    senior citizens

65
Kinesiology Era Texts/Curriculum
  • 1909 Gymnastic Kinesiology (William Skarstrom,
    MD)
  • First scientific textbook
  • Primary emphasis structural/functional aspects
    of the human body
  • 1912 The Action of Muscles in Bodily Movement
    and Posture (Wilbur Bowen)
  • Dealt with structural aspects of skeletal,
    nervous, muscular systems with application to
    gymnastics, industrial movements, and some sport
    movements
  • 1935 Mechanics of Normal Pathological
    Locomotion in Man (Arthur Steindler)
  • 1st formal presentation of basic info. on the
    application of mechanics to internal structures
    of the body as well as references to external
    mechanics such as balance, Newtons Law of
    Motion, COG, and calculations of external force
  • 1942 Analysis of Human Motion A Textbook in
    Kinesiology (M. Gladys Scott)
  • Benchmark for current framework of undergrad.
    Kinesiology courses that exist today
  • Most comprehensive and understandable text at
    that time

66
Kinesiology Era Research/Instrumentation
  • Motion picture photography (Muybridge and Marey)
  • COG and description of body as segmental organic
    links (Wilhelm Braun Otto Fischer)
  • Fundamental to understanding of all resistive
    forces involved in human movement
  • Wallace O. Fenn 1st published biomechanical
    research studies that set the standard for
    analysis
  • Used motion pics in calculating velocity, kinetic
    energy, and muscular power while working with the
    Eastman Kodak Company

67
Biomechanics Era Texts/Curriculum
  • Starting in the 1960s, more universities were
    requiring an undergraduate Kinesiology course as
    part of their core curriculum
  • In response to the differences between the terms
    kinesiology and biomechanics. the Kinesiology
    Academy appointed a task force to develop
    guidelines for undergraduate Kinesiology courses
  • Guidelines and Standards for Undergraduate
    Kinesiology, edited by Kathryn Luttgens
    published in Feb 1980 edition of JOPER, included
    the following standards/areas of focus
  • Structural and functional aspects of the NM
    systme
  • Mechanical application to human movement
  • Qualitative application to human movement

68
Biomechanics as a graduate specialization
  • 1960s term biomechanics recognized as a
    graduate specialization
  • Louis Alley 1966 article about the design of a
    graduate program that trained specialists in the
    mechanics of human movement
  • Richard Nelson Penn St, 1964 established a
    lab for biomechanical research (1st to be
    identified by the term biomechanics)
  • John Cooper Indiana University, 1960s
    graduate program and research lab
  • At this time, most graduate experience was
    coursework and descriptive research utilizing
    methods of cinematography and electromyography

69
Biomechanics Era Research/Instrumentation
  • Most important incorporation of the digital
    computer to collection and analysis of
    biomechanical data
  • 1970s primary focus was instrumentation
  • Cinematography design of the LoCam 16-mm motion
    picture camera which permitted film rates up to
    500 frames per second
  • Allowed for accuracy of frame rate and small
    enough to take into the field for on-site
    research
  • Kistler forceplate to measure forces
  • 3D cinematography more realistic
  • Electronic digitizer
  • 1980s
  • data analysis systems that permit the automatic
    tracking of reflective markers placed on the body
  • New systems for measuring pressure distribution
    between the foot and shoe have advanced research
    in kinetics

70
APX Fastcam by Image Diagnostics, Ltd.
  • Up to 2,000 fps with full resolution 1,024 by
    1,024 pixel resolution

71
20th Century Researchers
  • Nicholas Bernstein (1896-1966)
  • 1920s-1940s in Soviet Union
  • Developed method for measuring movement based on
    mathematical analysis
  • biodynamic studies included proper use of tools
    such as the hammer and saw
  • Not published in N. American until 1967
  • Elftman
  • 1938 1939-quantified internal forces in muscles
    and joints
  • Developed a force plate to quantify ground
    reaction forces and the center of pressure under
    the foot during gait
  • Found that muscles act by using transmission,
    absorption, release, and dissipation strategies

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73
Societies
  • ACSM - American College of Sports Medicine
  • ANZSB - Australian and New Zealand Society of
    Biomechanics
  • ASB - American Society of Biomechanics
  • Biomechanics Section of BASES - British
    Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences
  • Biomechanic World Wide
  • Biomechanics Yellow Pages
  • CSB - Canadian Society for Biomechanics (en
    français)
  • DGfB - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Biomechanik
    (German Society of Biomechanics)
  • ESB - European Society of Biomechanics
  • ESMAC - European Society for Movement Analysis in
    Adults and Children
  • GCMAS - Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis
    Society
  • ISB - International Society of Biomechanics
  • ISB Technical Group on Computer Simulation (TGCS)
  • ISB Technical Group on Footwear Biomechanics
  • ISB Technical Group on the 3-D Analysis of Human
    Movement
  • International Shoulder Group
  • ISBS - International Society of Biomechanics in
    Sports
  • ISPGR - International Society for Posture and
    Gait Research
  • SB - Société de biomécanique

74
First International Seminar on Biomechanics
  • August 21-23, 1967 in Zurich, Switzerland
  • Discussed topics such as technique of motion
    studies, telemetry, principle of human motion
    studies, applied biomechanics in work, sport,
    and clinical aspects
  • During the 1973 conference in Penn State, the ISB
    (Internatl Society for Biomechanics) was founded
    by J. Wartenweiler.
  • At the 1975 conference, ISB changed to ICB
    (Internatl Congress for Biomechanics)-which is
    the name still used today

75
First World Congress of Biomechanics
  • 1989 in San Diego
  • Chairman- Y.C. Fung
  • Biomechanics started to develop sub-disciplines
    in the 1980s (i.e., locomotion, orthopaedic,
    sport, muscle, material, tissue, dental, cardiac,
    etc.
  • Congress allowed biomechanists from these
    disciplines to meet periodically to exchange
    ideas and findings

76
ISB
  • International Society of Biomechanics
  • August 30, 1973
  • International Society of biomechanics 20th
    Congress August 1-5, 2005 Cleveland, OH, USA
  • Membership
  • Full 100.00 AUD
  • Student 30.00 AUD
  • Emeritus 30.00 AUD

77
ISBS
  • The International Society of Biomechanics in
    Sports
  • June 20-25, 1982
  • ISBS Journal Sports Biomechanics
  • 23rd Symposium 2005 Beijing, China
  • Membership fee is
  • Full members 52
  • Students 42

78
ASB
  • American Society of biomechanics
  • October, 1977
  • September 8-11, 2004 American Society of
    Biomechanics Annual Meeting Portland, OR, USA 
  • Membership fee is
  • Full members 40
  • Students 15

79
SCCB
  • Southern California Conference on Biomechanics
  • The Southern California Conference on
    Biomechanics is held to achieve the following
    purposes.
  • To foster the professional development of
    graduate and undergraduate students in
    biomechanics and provide these students an
    opportunity to present their research to the
    biomechanics community.
  • To increase collaboration and the exchange of
    knowledge among biomechanics programs in the
    greater Southern California area. 
  • To promote biomechanics throughout the greater
    Southern California area. 
  • March 28-29, 2003 Pepperdine University, Malibu,
    CA
  • No registration fees for conference attendance

80
Conferences
  • 2004
  • 4th International Conference on Strength Training
    November 3-7 Serres, Greece
  • 9th World congress on Osteoarthritis December 2-5
    Chicago, IL, USA
  • 2005
  • 17th Conference of the International Society for
    Postural and Gait Research May 29 - June 2
    Marseille, France
  • Summer Bioengineering Conference June 22-26 Vail,
    CO, USA
  • 2006
  • 5th World congress of Biomechanics July 26 -
    August 4 2006, Munich, Germany

81
Journals
  • Journal of Biomechanics
  • Journal of Applied Biomechanics
  • Clinical Biomechanics
  • Journal of Electromyographic Kinesiology

82
  • Elsevier Science
  • Biorheology, Bone, Biorheology Brain Research,
    Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, Computer
    Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Computerized
    Medical Imaging and Graphics, Computers in
    Biology and Medicine, Electroencephalography and
    Clinical Neurophysiology, Gait and Posture ,Human
    Movement Science, Injury, Isokinetics and
    Exercise Science, Journal of Back and
    Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Journal of
    Orthopaedic Research, The Knee Mathematical
    Biosciences, Medical Engineering and Physics,
    Neuromuscular Disorders  
  • Human Kinetics
  • Journal of Applied Biomechanics Jobs and
    Careers, Biomechanics Gateway Page 
  • IOS Press
  • Technology and Health Care   
  • Lippincott Williams Wilkins
  • Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise   
  • Miscellaneous
  • BioMechanics Magazine, Computer Methods in
    Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering,
    Ergonomics Australia On-Line, Journal of Medical
    Engineering and Technology, Journal of
    Theoretical Medicine, BMES Bulletin - Biomedical
    Engineering Society, Sports Biomechanics 

83
Future
  • Biomechanics has grown from infancy to
    adolescence
  • If biomechanics continues to grow at the same
    rate as previously seen then the future of this
    discipline is limitless
  • Technological developments will impact the
    methodologies and instrumentation of biomechanics
  • The days of measurement, description, and data
    are smoothing over
  • The future biomechanics will know what is
    normal and what is optimal

84
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85
  • Video

86
Question 1
  • Who is the father of Kinesiology?

Aristotle
87
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88
Question 2
  • Who wrote the famous treatise De motu
    Animanium?
  • Borelli

89
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90
Question 3
  • Rise in pressure in a flowing fluid must be
    accompanied by decrease or increase in the speed?
  • Decrease

91
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92
Question 4
  • Who invented the chronophotographe frame by
    frame analysis?
  • Marey

93
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94
Question 5
  • What are the 3 standards/areas of focus for
    undergraduate Kinesiology?
  • Structural function aspects of NM system
  • Mechanical application to human movement
  • Qualitative application to human movement

95
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96
Past-Present-Future
97
References
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98
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99
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