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Chapter 10 Romanesque Art

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The Romanesque style in England is more traditionally referred to ... Monasticism. The system of monasticism in which the religious become members of an order, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10 Romanesque Art


1
Chapter 10 Romanesque Art
2
  • Romanesque architecture is the term that is used
    to describe the architecture of Europe which
    emerged in the late 10th century and evolved into
    the Gothic style during the 12th century. The
    Romanesque style in England is more traditionally
    referred to as Norman architecture.
  • Romanesque architecture is characterized by its
    massive quality, its thick walls, round arches,
    sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and
    decorative arcading. Each building has clearly
    defined forms and they are frequently of very
    regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall
    appearance is one of simplicity when compared
    with the Gothic buildings that were to follow.
    The style can be identified right across Europe,
    despite regional characteristics and different
    materials.
  • Although there was much building of castles
    during this period, they are greatly outnumbered
    by churches of which the most significant are the
    great abbey churches, many of which are still
    standing, more or less complete and frequently in
    use.

3
Bamberg Cathedral presents the distinctive
outline of many of the large Romanesque churches
of the Germanic tradition.
4
The Romanesque Abbey of Senaque, France, is
surrounded by monastic buildings of various dates.
5
Monasticism
  • The system of monasticism in which the religious
    become members of an order, with common ties and
    a common rule, living in a mutually dependant
    community, rather than as a group of hermits
    living in proximity but essentially separate, was
    established by the monk Benedict in the 6th
    century. The Benedictine Monasteries spread from
    Italy throughout Europe, being always by far the
    most numerous in England. They were followed by
    the Cluniac order, the Cistercians, Carthusians
    and Augustinian Canons. In association with the
    Crusades, the military orders of the Knights
    Hospitallers and the Knights Templars were
    founded.

6
Pilgrimage and Crusade
  • One of the effects of the Crusades, which were
    intended to wrest the Holy Places of Palestine
    from Islamic control, was to excite a great deal
    of religious fervor, which in turn inspired great
    building programs. The Nobility of Europe, upon
    safe return, thanked God by the building of a new
    church or the enhancement of an old one.
    Likewise, those who did not return from the
    Crusades could be suitably commemorated by their
    family in a work of stone and mortar.
  • The Crusades resulted in the transfer of, among
    other things, a great number of Holy Relics of
    saints and apostles. Many churches, like
    Saint-Front, Périgueux, had their own home grown
    saint while others, most notably Santiago de
    Compostela, claimed the remains and the patronage
    of a powerful saint, in this case one of the
    Twelve Apostles. Santiago de Compostela, located
    near the western extremity of Galicia (present
    day Spain) became the most important pilgrimage
    destination in Europe. Most of the pilgrims
    traveled the Way of Saint James on foot, many of
    them barefooted as a sign of penance. They moved
    along one of the four main routes that passed
    through France, congregating for the journey at
    Jumieges, Paris, Vezelay, Cluny, Arles and St.
    Gall in Switzerland.

7
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8
The Field of Miracles
9
  • Cathedral of Pisa Commentary "Pisa Cathedral with
    Baptistery, Campanile and Campo Santo, together
    form one of the most famous building groups in
    the world. The cathedral is one of the finest of
    the Romanesque period and has a strongly marked
    individuality. It resembles other early basilican
    churches in plan, with long rows of columns
    connected by arches, double aisles, and a nave
    which has the usual timber roof. The exterior has
    bands of red and white marble, and the ground
    story is faced with wall relief by tiers of wall
    passages which rise one above another right into
    the gable. The transepts, each with an apse at
    the end, were an advance on the simple basilican
    plan. The elliptical dome over the crossing is of
    later date. The building depends for its interest
    on its general proportions and on the delicacy of
    its ornamental features, rather than on any new
    structural development, such as may be seen in
    northern Italy."

10
The Baptistry San Giovanni Baptistery
11
Baptistry Interior
12
Nicola Pisano Pulpit Around 1255 he got a
commission for the pulpit and finished this work
in 1260.
13
1063 to 1350 Santa Maria Cathedral
14
Leaning Tower, La Torre Pendente
15
Bayeux Tapestry
  • In common with other embroidered hangings of the
    early medieval period, this piece is
    conventionally referred to as a "Tapestry,"
    although it is not a true woven tapestry.
  • The Bayeux tapestry is embroidered in wool yarn
    on a tabby-woven linen ground using two methods
    of stitching outline or stem stitch for
    lettering and the outlines of figures, and
    couching or laid work for filling in figures. The
    linen is assembled in panels and has been patched
    in numerous places.
  • The main yarn colors are terracotta or russet,
    blue-green, dull gold, olive green, and blue,
    with small amounts of dark blue or black and sage
    green. Later repairs are worked in light yellow,
    orange, and light greens. Laid yarns are couched
    in place with yarn of the same or contrasting
    color.

16
1070-1080 C.E.
  • The Bayeux Tapestry (French Tapisserie de
    Bayeux) is a 20-in. by 230 ft. long embroidered
    cloth which depicts the events leading up to the
    1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the
    events of the invasion itself. The Tapestry is
    annotated in Latin. It is presently exhibited in
    a special museum in Bayeux, Normandy, France.

17
Detail showing outlines in stem or outline
stitch and fillings in laid work.
18
Harold comes to Normandy
19
A star with hair then appears Halley's Comet.
The first appearance of the comet would have been
24 April, nearly four months after Harold's
coronation. Comets, in the beliefs of the Middle
Ages, warned of impending doom.
20
Durham Cathedral was built in
the late 11th and early 12th centuries to house
the relics of St Cuthbert (evangelizer of
Northumbria) and the Venerable Bede. It attests
to the importance of the early Benedictine
monastic community and is the largest and finest
example of Norman architecture in England. The
innovative audacity of its vaulting foreshadowed
Gothic architecture. Behind the cathedral stands
the castle, an ancient Norman fortress which was
the residence of the prince-bishops of Durham.
21
  • St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne (c. 63420 March 687)
    was an Anglo-Saxon monk and bishop in the Kingdom
    of Northumbria which at that time included, in
    modern terms, north east England and south east
    Scotland as far as the Firth of Forth. Afterwards
    he became one of the most important medieval
    saints of England, with widespread recognition in
    the places he had been in Scotland.

A close-up of the twelfth century painting of St
Cuthbert in Durham Cathedral
22
Bede became known as Venerable Bede soon after
his death, but this was not linked to
consideration for sainthood by the Roman Catholic
Church. In fact, his title is believed to come
from a mistranslation of the Latin inscription on
his tomb in Durham Cathedral, intended to be Here
lie the venerable bones of Bede, but wrongly
interpreted as here lie the bones of the
Venerable Bede
  • Bede (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or
    (from Latin) Beda, (c. 672 or 673 May 25, 735),
    was a Benedictine monk at the Northumbrian
    monastery of Saint Peter, and of its companion
    monastery, Saint Paul's, both in the English
    county of Durham. He is well known as an author
    and scholar, and his most famous work, Historia
    ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (The Ecclesiastical
    History of the English People) gained him the
    title "The father of English history."

'The Venerable Bede translates John' J. D.
Penrose (ca. 1902)
23
Durham Cathedral aerial view
24
Durham Cathedral Cloister
25
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