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Desert Survival Training

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blister; gangrene. Hard, frozen skin. 29. Move the victim ... Apply dry, sterile dressings to the frostbitten parts, put dressing between frostbitten fingers. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Desert Survival Training


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21st Cabin Safety Symposium
DESERT SURVIVAL
MOHAMMED GARI ABDULHAFEEZ BOKHARI CABIN SAFETY
SPECIALISTS SAUDI ARABIAN AIRLINES
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DESERT REGIONS
Desert Regions are characterized by
  • Lack of water
  • Temperature extremes. (hot or colds)
  • Dust storms

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DESERT REGION
a) Lack of water
In the desert there is very little water
available. The aim therefore, is to minimize heat
absorption and loss of water from the body.
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DESERT REGION
b) Temperature extremes
Temperatures are high during the day, but at
night they fall rapidly. Exposure to sun, wind
and heat increases the body temperature and as
the body temperature rises, the body starts
sweating to cool itself.
Sweating reduces the level of water in the body.
When sweating take place, it is important to
drink as much water as possible to avoid
dehydration.
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DESERT REGION
c) Dust Storms
Wind in the desert can reach hurricane force,
throwing up dense clouds of dust and sand. This
makes breathing difficult and can affect the eyes
adversely.
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Desert Region
For Protection in the Desert
  • Do not waste water, drink when thirsty.
  • Keep head and back of the neck covered.
  • Get into shade ASAP to reduce sweating and loss
    of body water.
  • Travel, work only at night and rest during the
    day.
  • Protect eyes, nose and mouth when necessary.

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Hot Weather Survival
  • RADIATION - form the rays of the sun.
  • CONDUCTION from contact with hot surface,
    ground etc.
  • CONVECTION from the hot wind.

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STEPS TO MINIMIZE SWEATING
SHADE
  • Stay out of the sun during the day. Get under the
    shade of wing, or use a canopy or other suitable
    material to give protection from the direct rays
    of the sun. keep the canopy open to allow air to
    circulate.

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STEPS TO MINIMIZE SWEATING
PLATFORM
Build a platform by using slide/rafts, seat
cushions, blankets, pillows, etc. the purpose of
platform is to create a barrier between the body
and the hot ground. Sit on the platform rather
than lie down as heat transfer into the body will
be less with a raised platform.
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STEPS TO MINIMIZE SWEATING
CLOTHING
Keep at least on layer of clothing on to protect
against heat, wind and sunburn. If available, use
a clothing made of natural fibers, such as
cotton, silk, etc. use a cloth to cover the head
and back of the neck.
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STEPS TO MINIMIZE SWEATING
ACTIVITY
Physical activity produces sweating. Limit your
activity during the day. If you must move about
in the heat, move slowly. Non-essential activity
should be done in the early morning, late evening
or night hours which are cooler.
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STEPS TO MINIMIZE SWEATING
WATER
Try to carry as much drinking liquids from the
aircraft as possible. Do not ration water. Drink
often and as much as your thirst dictates to
remain mentally alert. This is especially
important for crew members.
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STEPS TO MINIMIZE SWEATING
TRAVEL
Unless habitation is close by, it is better to
stay near the aircraft and wait for rescue.
Distances in the desert can be deceptive.
Habitation that appears close by may actually be
too far away to reach.
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STEPS TO MINIMIZE SWEATING
SUNGLASSES
Wear sun glasses during the day. If sunglasses
are not available, use an eye shade of cloth with
slits to protect from sun glare.
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HEALTH PROBLEMS
HEAT RELATED ILLNESSES COLD RELATED ILLNESSES
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HEAT RELATED ILLNESSES
Uncontrolled sweating without replacement of
water can lead to health problem. If left
untreated, one problem may progress into another.
Minor heat cramps can develop into heat
exhaustion and finally heat stroke. Any
heat-related illness if recognized in its early
stage can usually be reversed.
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HEAT RELATED ILLNESSES
HEAT CRAMPS
Symptoms
  • Muscle cramps, often in the abdomen or leg.
  • Heavy perspiration.
  • Lightheadedness weakness.

Treatment
  • Have the victim rest on his/her back in cool
    shaded area with his/her feet elevated 8-12inc.
  • Cool victim by fanning and applying cool, wet
    clothes.
  • Give cool water to drink.
  • Lightly stretch the muscle.

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HEAT RELATED ILLNESSES
HEAT EXHAUSTION
Symptoms
  • Cool, moist skin, pale or red (even if the
    victims internal temperature is rising, his/her
    skin may still be cool.)
  • Dilated pupils. (larger than normal)
  • Headaches.
  • Extreme thirst.
  • Nausea, vomiting.
  • Irrational behavior.
  • Weakness, dizziness.
  • Unconsciousness.

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HEAT RELATED ILLNESSES
HEAT EXHAUSTION
Treatment
  • Have the victim rest on his back in cool shaded
    area with his/her feet elevated 8-12inc.
  • Cool victim by fanning and applying cool, wet
    clothes.
  • If the victim conscious give half a glass of
    water to drink every 15 minutes.
  • Monitor the victim for signs of shock including
    bluish lips and fingernails.
  • If the victim start having seizures protect him
    from injury.
  • If the victim loses consciousness. Give first aid.

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HEAT RELATED ILLNESSES
HEAT STROKE
Symptoms
  • Raised body temperature.
  • Dry, hot, red skin.
  • Dark urine.
  • Small eye pupils.
  • Rapid, weak pulse.
  • Rapid, shallow breathing.
  • Extreme confusion.
  • Weakness.
  • Seizures.
  • Unconsciousness.

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HEAT RELATED ILLNESSES
HEAT STROKE
Treatment
  • Have the victim rest on his back in cool shaded
    area with his/her feet elevated 8-12inc.
  • Cool the victim by fanning and applying cool wet
    cloths.
  • If the victim starts having seizures, protect
    him/her form injury.
  • If the victim loses consciousness, give first aid
    for unconsciousness.

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COLD WEATHER SURVIVAL
Exposure to an extremely cold weather can be life
threatening. It is, therefore, important to keep
warm, dry and sheltered form natural elements
such as wind, rain and cold. There fore, taking
measures for survival in cold weather is very
important.
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COLD WEATHER SURVIVAL
SHELTER Do not shelter inside the aircraft it
will be too cold. Parts of the fuselage can be
utilized to make a better insulated shelter.
Slide/ rafts can be used with canopies erected to
provide protection from the wind and rain. Seat
cushion Can be utilize to provide additional
insulation and protection.
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COLD WEATHER SURVIVAL
PLATFORM Do not sit or sleep directly on the
ground. Use slide/rafts, seat cushions, etc. as
platforms.
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COLD WEATHER SURVIVAL
CLOTHING Body heat and layers of clothing will
keep you warm, to avoid sweating. Wear loose
clothing, as tight fitting clothes cut off
circulation, increasing the danger of freezing.
Cover ears, neck, head, hands and feet.
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COLD RELATED ILLNESSES
  • FROSTBITE
  • HYPOTHERMIA

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FROSTBITE
  • This is the freezing of body parts that have
    exposed to the cold. Severity depends on the air
    temperature, length of exposure and the wind. It
    can cause the loss of fingers, hands arms toes,
    feet and legs

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FROSTBITE
Symptoms
  • Mild frostbite
  • Skin is red and painful
  • Or white and numb.
  • Severe frostbite
  • blister gangrene.
  • Hard, frozen skin

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FROSTBITE
Treatment
  • Move the victim to warmer place.
  • Remove any constricting clothes or jewelry.
  • Remove any wet clothing and replace with dry if
    available. Handle the area gently. Do not break
    any blisters. Never message or rub the
    frostbitten area.
  • Re-warm the frostbitten area for at least 30
    minutes.

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FROSTBITE
Treatment
  • Apply dry, sterile dressings to the frostbitten
    parts, put dressing between frostbitten fingers.
  • Move thawed areas as little as possible.
  • Prevent refreezing by wrapping the re-warmed
    areas.
  • Stay with the victim until medical help arrive.

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HYPOTHERMIA
Hypothermia develops when the entire body cools
because its ability to keep warm fails. This can
result from prolonged exposure to cold, windy
weather and rain as well as immersion in cold
water. Air temperature does not have to be below
freezing to develop this cold-related illness.
The victim will die if not given care.
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HYPOTHERMIA
Symptoms
  • MILD HYPOTHERMIA
  • Shivering.
  • Urge to urinate.
  • Loss of coordination.
  • Confusion.
  • Area of the body that are usually warm are cold.

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HYPOTHERMIA
  • Weakness.
  • Confusion.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Difficulty seeing.
  • Uncooperative or irrational behavior.
  • SEVERE HYPOTHERMIA
  • Victim no longer shivering.
  • Stumbling.
  • Muscle stiffness.
  • Desire to be left alone.
  • Irregular.
  • Slow heart beat.
  • Drowsiness.

Sign and symptoms can progress to rigid muscles,
unconsciousness, coma and cardiac arrest
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HYPOTHERMIA
Treatment
  • Start by caring for any life threatening
    problems.
  • Handle the victim gently.
  • Prevent the victim from becoming any colder.
  • Re-warm the victim, cover the head and neck.
  • If victim is alert and can easily swallow, give
    warm, sweetened fluids to aid in re-warming
    process.
  • Stay with the victim until medical help arrive.

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Thank you
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