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CRIME AND JUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES

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United States Supreme Court Cases. Furman v. Georgia (1972) Gregg v. Georgia (1976) ... Florida, Georgia, Louisiana also rank high. 38 states have capital ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CRIME AND JUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES


1
CRIME AND JUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES
2
CRIME AND THE MEDIA
  • New Reports
  • 30 relate to crime stories
  • Entertainment Industry
  • Does the media give an accurate representation of
    crime in the United States?
  • Crime Clock

3
DEFINING CRIME
  • Social Definitions Norms
  • Legal Definition
  • Why is punishment a necessary part of the law?
  • Unusual Laws

4
LEGAL DEFENCES TO A CRIME
  • EXCUSES FROM CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY
  • Acted under duress
  • Acted under age
  • Insanity
  • Acted in self-defense
  • Entrapment

5
MEASURING CRIME
  • DO WE KNOW THE TRUE AMOUNT OF CRIME IN THE UNITED
    STATES?
  • Probably the best index of crime is OFFENSES
    KNOWN TO THE POLICE
  • Are all crime reported to the police?
  • Reasons for not reporting crimes to the police
  • Things that may affect the crime rates

6
UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS (UCR)
  • Annual Report prepared by the FBI based on CRIMES
    KNOW TO THE POLICE
  • Data collected on eight index offenses
  • Murder and non-negligent manslaughter
  • Forcible Rape
  • Robbery
  • Aggravated Assault
  • Burglary
  • Larceny Theft
  • Motor Vehicle Theft
  • Arson

7
FEAR OF CRIME
  • What do people fear?
  • Fear is greatest at night when a person is alone
    and away from home
  • Who has the greatest fear of crime?
  • Gender
  • Race
  • Age
  • Community

8
VICTIMS OF CRIME
  • Most frequent type of crime personal or
    property crimes?
  • By age, who are the most likely crime victims?
  • 16-19 years of age have the highest rate
  • Considering age, gender, race, and location who
    is the most likely crime victim?
  • Young black males in the inner cities
  • Most likely rape victim girls younger than 18

9
POLICING IN AMERICA
10
PUBLIC ATTITUEDES TOWARD THE POLICE
  • ACCORDING TO RECENT SURVEYS
  • How much confidence do you, personally, have in
    the police?
  • A great deal 59
  • Some confidence 31
  • Very little confidence 10
  • However, among blacks only 31 had a great deal
    of confidence in the police.

11
THE ROLES OF THE POLICE
  • Role Expectation
  • What do we expect of our police?
  • Role Conflict

12
POLICE QUALIFICATIONS
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF POLICE WORK
  • Be Decisive
  • Integrity
  • Self-motivated
  • Willing to handle the Dirty Work
  • Willing to face Danger
  • What is some of the most dangerous work for
    police officers?
  • Domestic Disturbance calls

13
POLICE FUNCTIONS
  • WHAT IS IT THAT POLICE DO?
  • Patrol the most time consuming work
  • Preventive Patrol
  • Directed Patrol
  • Foot Patrol What are the benefits?
  • Bicycle Patrol
  • Investigation
  • Purpose of the investigation
  • Role of the Detective Any advantages?
  • Traffic

14
COMMUNITY POLICING
  • A Partnership
  • Examples of Community Policing
  • Neighborhood Watch
  • DARE
  • Foot Patrol
  • Bicycle Patrol

15
SENTENCING, APPEALS, AND THE DEATH PENALTY
16
FIVE TYPES OF PUNISHMENTS USED IN THE UNITED
STATES
  • Fines
  • Probation
  • Intermediate Punishments
  • Imprisonment
  • Death

17
PRISON SENTENCING
  • TWO TYPES
  • Indeterminate Sentencing
  • Who determines release date?
  • Parole Boards
  • Emphasis in on REHABILITATION
  • Determinate Sentencing
  • Get Tough Approach
  • One negative result
  • Overcrowding problems

18
PUNISHMENT PHILOSOPHIES
  • RATIONALES FOR IMPOSING PUNISHMENTS
  • Retribution
  • Societys Revenge
  • Eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth

19
THE DEATH PENALTY
  • FIVE METHODS OF EXECUTION
  • Lethal Injection
  • Electrocution
  • Gas Chamber
  • Hanging
  • Firing Squad

20
CONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE DEATH PENALTY
  • Has it ever been declared unconstitutional?
  • United States Supreme Court Cases
  • Furman v. Georgia (1972)
  • Gregg v. Georgia (1976)

21
STATES WITH HIGHEST RATES OF EXECUTIONS
  • OVER 850 EXECUTIONS SINCE 1977
  • MORE THAN HALF OCCURRED IN THREE STATES
  • TEXAS (304)
  • VIRGINIA (99)
  • OKLAHOMA (64)
  • Florida, Georgia, Louisiana also rank high.
  • 38 states have capital punishment statutes

22
PUBLIC OPINION ON THE DEATH PENALTY
  • Recent public opinion polls
  • A Gallup Poll in 2003 revealed that 74 of the
    American public favored the death penalty in
    First Degree Murder cases.
  • What is your opinion?

23
INMATE POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES
  • Today approximately 2 million inmates in our
    prisons and jails
  • United States has one of the highest
    incarceration rates of any nation in the world.

24
COSTS OF INCARCERATION
  • TOTAL ANNUAL COST ABOUT 36 BILLION
  • Approximate annual cost per inmate is 22,000
  • Costs Estimates for New Prison Construction
  • Minimum Security Facility - 31,000 per bed
  • Medium Security Facility - 50,000 per bed
  • Maximum Security Facility - 80,000 per bed

25
PRISON INMATE CHARACTERISTICS
  • DESCRIBING THE TYPICAL INMATE
  • Gender Male
  • Race Black
  • Age Group Under 35
  • Marital Status Single
  • Educational Level Low, many are high school
    drop-outs
  • Gang Affiliation

26
INMATE RIGHTS (cont.)
  • First Amendment Rights
  • Free speech and censorship of mail
  • Religious Freedom
  • Cooper v. Pate (1964) - Black Muslim Case
  • Eighth Amendment Rights
  • Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment
  • Staff brutality
  • Medical Care
  • What about hard labor and solitary confinement?
  • Totality of Conditions

27
THE PROBATION PROCESS
  • THE PROBATION ORDER
  • Standard for Misdemeanors and Felonies
  • Probation Conditions
  • Maintain Employment
  • Obey all Laws
  • No association with criminals
  • Felons cannot possess a firearm
  • Agree to consent searches
  • Random drug testing
  • Restitution
  • Regular contacts with PO and restricted travel
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