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Future Missions

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Title: Future Missions


1
Future Missions
  • Jared K Entin
  • Water and Energy Cycle
  • Focus Area Leader

2
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3
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4
CloudSat Mission
Mission Objective Provide, from space, the
first global survey of cloud profiles (height,
thickness) and cloud physical properties (water,
ice, precipitation) needed to evaluate and
improve the way clouds, moisture and energy are
represented in global models used for weather
forecasts and climate prediction.
5
The Objectives of CloudSat
CloudSat Mission Objective Provide, from
space, the first global survey of cloud profiles
(height, thickness) and cloud physical
properties (water, ice, precip) needed to
evaluate and improve the way clouds, moisture and
energy are represented in global models used for
weather forecasts and climate prediction.
CloudSat 1sts FIRST global estimates of the
fraction of clouds on Earth that produce
precipitation FIRST global detection of snow in
air from space FIRST statistics on the vertical
structures of clouds FIRST vertically resolved
estimates of mass of water and ice content of
clouds FIRST indirect but validated estimate of
how much clouds contribute to the vertical
distribution of atmospheric radiative heating
6
The Importance of Clouds Freshwater, Weather and
Energy
They are the ultimate source of the planets
fresh water supply producing life-giving
precipitation
Glass of water and a coffee pot, Chardin, 1760
They are essential elements of weather systems
producing sources of energy that fuel storms
They affect the energy (radiation) that flows in
and out of Earth, shaping our climate regimes
7
The Importance of Clouds The Global Warming Wild
Card
CMIP Results
One IPCC climate model
A different IPCC climate model
The model-to-model spread is a measure of
uncertainty and it is thought to be largely
governed by uncertain climate feedbacks that
all involve cloud processes.
CMIP year 70 mean of a 1 per year increase in
CO2 minus the control (fixed CO2)
8
Two Key Features of CloudSat Cloud Radar and
Formation-Flying
Only the CloudSat radar sees both clouds and the
rain that falls from them -- this is a completely
new capability from space
  • Cloudsat has two main design features
  • The 94 GHz radar
  • More sensitive than TRMM and GPM
  • Detects thin clouds, thick clouds and
    precipitation
  • Offers a more complete view of Earths water
    system.
  • 2. Precision formation flying
  • Allows multiple platform observations to be
    combined, including the single-footprint
    measurements of the radar and lidar.

Thin cirrus
Thick clouds
9
How the CloudSat Radar Works
As CloudSat orbits Earth, it transmits short
pulses of microwave energy down into the Earths
atmosphere.
The CloudSat radar measures the time delay and
magnitude of the reflected signal


A fraction of these pulses reflect back from the
small cloud particles while others
continue downward




10
CloudSat is the FIRST spaceborne 94 GHz radar
BOL sensitivity -29.6 dBz, uncertainty 1.1 dB
11
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12
CloudSat Standard Data Products
13
Data Release Timeline (Based on 20 Apr 06
launch)
Level 1 release is L 5 mos (target) Level 2
releases begin L 6 mos (target)
Radar-lidar product delivery dates depend upon
release of Beta CALIPSO data products to the
CloudSat DPC by L185
Additionally, CloudSat will produce a
near-realtime product of cloud profiles with 4-6
hour data latency for NWP research and outreach
14
CloudSat CALIPSO will take up a position in the
A-train
2006
2006
2004
2002
2004
2008
With the launch of CloudSat and CALIPSO, we
expect to have a wide range of different sensors,
active and passive, optical, infrared and
microwave, hyper-spectral to coarse-band, all
viewing Earth at approximately the same time.
15
CALIPSO Mission Objectives
  • CALIPSO will fly as part of the Aqua
    constellation (A-train) to provide observations
    needed to improve
  • Our understanding of the role of aerosols and
    clouds in the processes that govern climate
    responses and feedbacks
  • Direct and indirect aerosol effects
  • Cloud forcing and feedbacks
  • The representation of aerosols and clouds in
    models
  • Improved climate predictions
  • Improved models of atmospheric chemistry

16
Mission Concept
  • Orbit 705 km, 98 inclination, in formation with
    EOS Aqua
  • Launch in 2004
  • Mission duration 3 years
  • Three co-aligned instruments
  • CALIOP
  • (3-channel lidar)
  • 532 nm
  • 532 nm
  • 1064 nm
  • Imaging IR radiometer
  • Wide-field camera
  • Complementary A-train Instruments
  • CloudSat radar (cloud profiles)
  • Aqua CERES (top-of-the-atmosphere radiation)
  • Aqua AIRS / AMSU-A / HSB (atmospheric state)
  • Aqua MODIS (aerosol / cloud properties)
  • PARASOL (aerosol / cloud properties)
  • Aura OMI (aerosol absorption)

Aerosol / cloud properties
17
  • 705 km, sun-synchronous orbit (130 PM)
  • Three co-aligned instruments
  • CALIOP polarization lidar
  • 532 nm and , 1064 nm
  • 0 40 km altitude, 30 - 60 m
  • IIR Imaging IR radiometer (CNES)
  • 8.6 um, 10.5 um, 12 um
  • 64 km swath, 1 km IFOV
  • WFC Wide-Field Camera
  • 645 nm
  • 61 km swath, 125 m IFOV

UNIQUE CAPABILITIES first
polarization-sensitive lidar in space two
sensitive lidar wavelengths (532/1064 nm)
wide dynamic range, for cloud/aerosol sensing
coincident active/passive sensors
18
Aerosol Effects
  • Direct
  • Aerosols cool the Earths surface by scattering
    and absorbing sunlight

Indirect Aerosols also influence clouds and
precipitation
19
CALIPSO
  • Three co-aligned instruments
  • CALIOP
  • (3-channel lidar)
  • 532 nm
  • 532 nm
  • 1064 nm
  • Imaging IR radiometer
  • Wide-Field Camera
  • Aqua/CERES

Aerosol and cloud - Layer heights -
b and s profiles Cloud ice/water phase, IWC
Cloud emissivity Ice particle size
  • SCHEDULE
  • Payload IT (Boulder) June 02 - Dec 03
  • Satellite IT(Cannes) March - Dec 2004
  • Launch (VAFB) April 2005

Surface and atmospheric radiative fluxes
20
Lidar Data Products
For more details, see the CALIPSO Data Products
Catalog (posted on the CALIPSO web site)
21
Other Data Products
22
Depolarization Observations of Asian Dust
Backscatter profiles
Depolarization profiles provide information on
aerosol type and aid in discrimination of
aerosol and cloud
Depolarization profiles
Figure courtesy of T. Murayama
23
Multi-layer Cloud Observations
  • Passive instruments observe only the highest
    cloud layer, or may report an average cloud
    height.
  • The CALIPSO lidar will provide detailed
    profiles of cloud vertical structure.

24
Combined lidar/radar sensing of cloud
CRYSTAL-FACE, 23 July 2003
CPL lidar backscatter
CRS radar reflectivity
CPLCRS composite
GOES visible
25
CALIPSO Aerosol Profiles
  • CALIPSO aerosol profiles
  • - aerosol lifetime is dependent on height
  • - radiative effects depend on underlying
    reflectance
  • - will observe aerosol above cloud, below thin
    cirrus
  • Aerosol-cloud interactions
  • CALIPSO cloud and aerosol profiles -
    unique ability to determine if cloud and aerosol
    are in the same layer.

Cirrus
Low Cloud
Sahara dust
26
The A-train Aerosol synergies
The atrain
thick clouds drizzle
aerosol profiles, cloud tops
polarization, multi-angle
CERES TOA fluxes MODIS cloud re, t AMSR LWP
O2 A-band
OMI absorbing aerosol
27
A-train is ideal for studies of aerosols, clouds,
and their interactions
15-105 sec
EOS Aura
10-15 sec
PARASOL
CALIPSO
EOS Aqua
CloudSat
15 min maximum
30 sec 2 min
28
Glory science overview
29
The uncertainties in our understanding of TSI and
aerosol climate forcings are unacceptably large
Effective climate forcings (W/m2)
(18802003) Hansen et al., Science
308, 14311435 (2005)
30
Glory mission provides timely key data for
climate change research
  • The Glory Mission Objectives are to
  • Quantify the role of aerosols as natural and
    anthropogenic agents of climate change by flying
    APS
  • Continue measuring the total solar irradiance to
    determine its direct and indirect effects on
    climate by flying TIM

31
The main function of a satellite aerosol
climatology
Provide an accurate, reliable, and
comprehensive constraint on models in terms of
long-term global distributions of1. Optical
thickness2. Size distribution3. Chemical
composition (via refractive index)4.
Single-scattering albedo
32
APS science requirements
  • The APS science measurement requirements are
    driven by the need to be able to estimate and
    diagnose the radiative forcing caused by
    aerosols.

33
Existing aerosol retrievals from space are
inadequate
Glory APS strategy fully exploit the
information content of the reflected sunlight
Classification of passive remote sensing
techniques by
1. Spectral range 2. Scattering geometry range 3.
Number of Stokes parameters
  • Hierarchy of existing/planned
  • instruments
  • AVHRR ? MODIS, MISR, VIIRS ? Glory APS
  • Glory APS will be a bridge to NPOESS era
    measurements.
  • The measurement approach developed for the Glory
    mission is to use multi-angle multi-spectral
    polarimetric measurements because
  • Polarization is a relative measurement that can
    be made extremely accurately.
  • Polarimetric measurements can be accurately and
    stably calibrated on orbit.
  • The variation of polarization with scattering
    angle and wavelength allows aerosol particle
    size, refractive index and shape to be
    determined.
  • Appropriate analysis tools are available.

34
Glory APS summary
Type Passive multi-angle photopolarimeter Fore-op
tic Rotating polarization-compensated mirror
assembly scanning along orbit-track 50.5 to
63 (fore-to-aft) from nadir Aft-optic 6
bore-sighted optical assemblies, each with a
Wollaston prism providing polarization
separation, beamsplitters bandpass filters
producing spectral separation, and paired
detectors sensing orthogonal polarizations Directi
onality 250 views of a scene Approx.
dimensions 60 x 58 x 47 cm Mass/power/data rate
53 kg / 36 W / 120 kbps Spectral range 4122250
nm Measurement specifics 3 visible (412, 443,
555 nm), 3 near-IR (672, 865, 910 nm), and 3
short-wave IR (1378, 1610, 2250 nm) bands three
Stokes parameters (I, Q, and U) Ground
resolution at nadir 6 km SNR requirements 235
(channels 1 5, 8, and 9), 94 (channel 6), and
141 (channel 7) Polarization accuracy 0.0015 at
P 0.2, 0.002 at P 0.5 Repeat cycle 16 days
APS angular scanning
APS spectral channels
35
Glory APS challenges
  • Coverage APS is not an imager like MODIS or MISR
  • 1. Validation
  • 2. Assimilation
  • APS has a large footprint (6 km at nadir)
  • 1. Cloud contamination is an issue
  • 2. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and clouds
    within the
  • APS footprint?
  • APS microphysical retrievals may be difficult to
    validate because of their unparalleled accuracy

36
Basis of TSI proxies is recent measurements
The sunspot record is the longest ( 400 years)
observation related to climate.
  • Sunspot and cosmogenic isotope records give
    long-term TSI proxies to compare with climate.
  • TSI proxies are extrapolations based on recent
    space-based observations.
  • TSI is compared to sunspot record for last 27
    years.
  • Sunspot record is compared to cosmogenic
    isotopes for last 400 yrs.

37
Space-borne TSI record relies on continuity
TSI measurements need to be accurate and
well-connected to the existing 27-year record.
38
Glory TIM summary
  • Instrument type absolute radiometer
  • Primary detector type electrical substitution
    radiometer
  • Wavelength range total
  • Resolution N/A
  • Accuracy 100 PPM
  • Precision 10 PPM/year
  • Dimensions (HWD) 17.7 27.9 27.2 cm
  • Mass 7.9 kg
  • Power 14 watts
  • Nominal data rate 539 bps
  • Field-of-view 12.8 (full cone angle)

39
Glory mission overview
40
Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM)
Mission Summary
Science Measurements
Global sea surface height to an accuracy of lt 4
cm every 10 days, for determining ocean
circulation, climate change and sea level rise
Mission Objectives
  • Provide continuity of ocean topography
    measurements beyond TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1
  • Continue partnership with CNES, as on Jason-1,
    with the addition of NOAA and EUMETSAT as
    operational partners
  • Provide a bridge to an operational mission to
    enable the continuation of multi-decadal ocean
    topography measurements

Instruments
Mission Overview
  • Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR)
  • GPS Payload (GPSP)
  • Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA)
  • Poseidon-3 Altimeter
  • Precise Orbit Determination Sys (DORIS)
  • Launch Date 15 June 2008
  • Launch Vehicle Delta II 7320
  • Proteus Spacecraft Bus provided by CNES
  • Mission life of 3 years (goal of 5 years)
  • 1335 km Orbit, 66º Inclination

41
Partnership Responsibilities

OSTM - JSG

JSG Joint Steering Group 4 partner, high
level management council to oversee mission
- Science Team funded separately from project
42
OSTM Science Goals
  • The goal of OSTM is to continue the data record
    of global ocean surface topography started by
    TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason with the same or
    improved accuracy and precision. The extended
    data record will allow the determination of ocean
    circulation and its long-term changes that affect
    climate and society.
  • OSTM will provide a bridge to future operational
    altimetry missions for monitoring multi-decadal
    changes in ocean circulation and sea level
    variations in relation to climate change.

43
  • NASA Earth Science Questions to be Addressed
  • How is the global ocean circulation varying on
    interannual, decadal, and longer timescales?
  • How can climate variations induce changes in the
    global ocean circulation?
  • How is global sea level affected by climate
    change?
  • How can predictions of climate variability and
    change be improved?

44
Global Mean Sea Level Trends
For the first time in history the global mean sea
level is directly estimated from global
observations. Coupled with ocean temperature
observations, the contribution of ice melting is
estimated. Continuation of such records is a key
objective of OSTM.
J. Willis/JPL
45
Ocean Heat Storage The rate of sea level change
allows the estimate of the heat uptake of the
ocean. The accuracy of the estimate is better
than 0.5 W/m-2 (rms), well within the magnitude
of the greenhouse radiative forcing. Long term
measurements of heat storage is key to
understanding climate change.
J. Willis/JPL
46
Decadal Trends of Sea Level (1992-2005)
cm
cm
13 years are not sufficient to determine a
long-term trend of ocean change.
Ocean changes of ever-increasing time scales are
being discovered
mm/year
cm
cm
L-L. Fu/JPL
47
Data Products and Usages
  • The operational geophysical data records (OGDR)
    will be available with 3 hours (75) for
    monitoring wind and waves as well as coastal
    currents to aid operational agencies such as NOAA
    in their routine tasks.
  • The interim geophysical data records (IGDR) will
    be available within 3 days for monitoring ocean
    currents, sea level, and El Nino conditions. The
    data are ingested into NOAAs forecast models.
  • The geophysical data records (GDR) are fully
    validated data for science research.
  • All the data records noted above are available
    along the same ground tracks every 10 days with a
    spatial resolution of 6.2 km, covering -66 to 66
    degrees latitude.

48
SPECIFICATIONS ON OSTM ERROR BUDGET (in
centimeters) (for 1 sec average, 2 meters SWH, 11
dB sigma naught)
(a) Real time DORIS onboard ephemeris (b) Which
ever is greater
49
Mission Status Sea Surface Salinity
Understanding the Interactions Between the Global
Water Cycle, Ocean Circulation and Climate
Gary Lagerloef Aquarius Principal
Investigator David Le Vine, Deputy PI Yi Chao,
Project Scientist
F. Raúl Colomb SAC-D Principal Investigator
50
Aquarius and CLIVAR
CLIVAR Mission Statement To observe, simulate
and predict Earth Earths climate system, with
focus on ocean-atmosphere interactions, enabling
better understanding of climate variability,
predictability and change, to the benefit of
society and the environment in which we live.
The Aquarius science goal is to understand the
regional and global processes that couple changes
in the water cycle and ocean circulation, and
influence present and future climate.
51
NASA SCIENCE QUESTIONS
Salinity is the variable that links the water
cycle and ocean circulation
52
Science Objectives
Sea Surface Salinity (SSS)
  • The specific science objectives are to quantify
    these physical processes as they vary on the
    seasonal cycle and from year to year, as well as
    reduce the uncertainty in the net freshwater
    budget, with global SSS measurements for at least
    three years.

53
Science Objectives
Discovery and Exploration Synoptic, global,
high-resolution measurements  Water Cycle
Balancing the air-sea water flux budget
Ocean Circulation and Climate Tropics
Climate feedback processes, El Niño / La Niña.
Mid-Latitudes Subduction and mode water
formation. High-Latitudes Deep water formation
processes
54
Level 1 Science Requirements
  • Monthly Global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) Maps
  • 100 km Spatial Resolution
  • 0.2 psu Accuracy
  • Three Year Baseline Mission

55
Salinity and Ocean Circulation
The overturning circulation is sustained by
elevated salinity in the Atlantic
56
Climate Change the Global Water Cycle
How is the Water Cycle Likely to Change in the
Decades Ahead?
Predicted Precipitation Change from
Pre-Industrial to 2xCO2 Climate 14 Climate Model
2xCO2 Ensemble Mean Scale gtgtgtgt 0.5 mm d-1 0.18
m y-1
57
Measurement Strategy
Sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit 6pm ascending
node Altitude 657 km
Surface Validation
Monthly Salinity Maps
58
Orbit Swath Pattern
59
Physical Principles
Salinity is Derived by Measuring Brightness
Temperature at L-Band (1.413 GHz)
TbeT e f(S, T, Freq, Incidence)
60
Geophysical Corrections
  • Surface roughness
  • SST
  • Dry Air
  • Water vapor
  • Cloud liquid water
  • Rain cells
  • Solar reflection
  • Faraday rotation
  • Galactic
  • Other
  • Temporal Filtering will be used to Reduce Monthly
    Error to 0.2 psu

61
Data Validation Program
high precision salinity mapping mission
62
International Partnership Mission
  • Service Platform and SAC-D Science Instruments
  • Mission Operations Ground System
  • Aquarius Salinity Microwave Instrument
  • Launch Vehicle

63
SAC-D Instruments
ROSA (ASI)
GPS Radio Occultation on SAC-C
64
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