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Nutrition and Exercise


Complex CHOs are low in fat and rich in vitamins, minerals, and fiber ... saturated fat has been linked to heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and some ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nutrition and Exercise

Nutrition and Exercise
  • Eating Well and Wisely
  • Exercise to the Fullest

6 Basic Nutrients
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

  • Growth and Repair of body tissues
  • Protein has 4 calories per one gram
  • Make-up 10 of your diet
  • All proteins are made of Amino Acids (provides
  • 11 can be made by your body (non-essential)
  • 9 others are supplied by food (essential amino
  • Complete Protein - contains all 9 amino acids
  • meat, poultry, fish, and milk products
  • Incomplete Proteins - contains only some amino
  • legumes, grains, nuts, and seeds

Carbohydrates (CHOs)
  • Instant Energy
  • CHO has 4 calories per one gram
  • Main source of food energy
  • 60 of your diet
  • CHOs are divided into three classes
  • Simple- sugars such as fructose and lactose
  • Complex- starches
  • Dietary Fiber

Three Classes of CHOs
  • Simple
  • Naturally occur in fruits, vegetable, honey, and
  • Sugar in your sugar bowl is a simple sugar
  • Most important sugar is glucose (major energy
    source for cells in your body)
  • CHOs must be converted to glucose before it can
    be used as energy

Three Classes of CHOs(continued)
  • Glucose that is not used right away is stored in
    the liver and muscles as a starch-like substance
    called Glycogen
  • When more energy is needed, the body converts the
    glycogen back to glucose
  • When the body takes in too many carbohydrates
    than it can use or store, the excess is stored as
    body fat
  • Complex CHOs
  • Starches
  • vegetables, potatoes, grains (rice, corn, wheat,
    and oats) and beans
  • breads, cereal, and pasta are also made from
  • Complex CHOs are low in fat and rich in vitamins,
    minerals, and fiber
  • The body must break down complex into simple
    before it can use them for energy

Three Classes of CHOs(continued)
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Complex CHO that does not provide energy
  • Provides bulk in large intestine
  • Helps to move undigested food through the
    digestive tract, prevents constipation and
    reduces the risk of colon cancer
  • Whole grain wheat bran, corn, rice, corn bran,
    and rice bran
  • Fruits and vegetables are good sources of fiber
  • It is recommended that you consume between 20 and
    35 grams of dietary fiber a day

  • Long term energy
  • 9 calories per gram of fat / 30 of your diet
  • Fat compounds are also called Lipids
  • A fatty substance that does not dissolve in water
  • many hormones, including sex hormones are made
    for lipids
  • Transportation for fat soluble vitamins
  • Fat takes a longer time to digest

Fats (continued)
  • Saturated-Animal fats (LDL- bad)
  • no more than 10 of your diet
  • saturated fats are often solid at room
  • butter and lard
  • palm oil and coconut oil
  • saturated fat has been linked to heart disease,
    cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer
  • Unsaturated - Plant source (HDL- good)
  • vegetable oils and fish oils

Fats (continued)
  • Unsaturated fats - Plant source (HDL) mainly
    vegetable oils and fish oils
  • 2 types Mono- polyunsaturated
  • Monounsaturated - These include safflower, sesame
    and sunflower seeds, corn and soybeans, many nuts
    and seeds, and their oils.
  • Polyunsaturated - These include canola, olive and
    peanut oils, and avocados.
  • Both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats
    may help lower your blood cholesterol level when
    you use them in place of saturated fats in your
    diet. But a moderate intake of all types of fat
    is best

  • Cholesterol is a fat-like substance found in some
    foods of animal origin
  • Cholesterol is also produced by the liver
  • Production of Vitamin D
  • Production of certain sex hormones
  • Body makes all the cholesterol it needs
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • good cholesterol (protects against heart disease)
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • bad cholesterol causes plaque build-up, clogs
    arteries, restrict the supply of oxygenated blood
    to the heart which can result in a heart attack

  • Help regulate certain chemical reactions in the
  • Vitamins D and K are the only vitamins that the
    body can make
  • Vitamins do not supply energy
  • Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Absorbed, stored, and transported in fat
  • A,D,E,and K
  • Excess is stored in the liver or skin, and may be
  • Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Dissolve in water and pass easily into the blood
    during digestion
  • Body doesnt store them so they need to be
  • B and C
  • Excess is excreted in urine

Vitamins - Fat Soluble (continued)
  • Vitamin A
  • Maintains healthy eyes, skin, teeth, bones
  • Deficiency - night blindness, impaired growth
  • Vitamin D
  • Helps build bones and teeth
  • Deficiency - Rickets (inadequate growth of bones
  • Vitamin E
  • Prevents destruction of red blood cells
  • Deficiency - red blood cell rupture causing
  • Vitamin K
  • Assists with blood clotting, bone growth
  • Deficiency - slow clotting of blood, hemorrhage

Vitamins - Water Soluble(continued)
  • Vitamin C
  • Needed for normal development of connective
  • Helps absorb the mineral iron
  • Wound healing
  • Deficiency - Scurvy (slow healing of wounds,
    bleeding gums)
  • Vitamin B (B1,B2,B3,B6,B12,)
  • Assists with conversion of carbohydrates
  • Assists with nerve cell function
  • Maintenance of normal metabolism
  • Necessary for formation of red blood cells
  • Deficiencies
  • Cheilosis (skin sores on nose and lips)
  • Pellagra (soreness on mouth, diarrhea,
    irritability, depression)
  • Anemia

  • Minerals are divided into two categories
  • Macrominerals- needed in large amounts in the
  • Microminerals or trace minerals
  • Macrominerals
  • calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus,
    potassium sodium, sulfur
  • Micromineral
  • and trace minerals include chromium, fluorine,
  • iodine, iron, manganese, zinc

Minerals (continued)
  • Sodium and Chlorine are two minerals that
    regulate fluid balance
  • Dissolved salts are called electrolytes
  • Ordinary table salt is a major source of sodium
  • Too much sodium has been linked to high blood
    pressure, fluid around the heart, kidney
    problems, and irregular heart beat
  • Daily sodium intake should be less than 3,000 mg.
  • Calcium and Magnesium
  • Bone growth and development
  • Muscular contractions and relaxation
  • Iron
  • Helps prevent fatigue
  • Helps build red blood cells

Minerals (continued)
  • Potassium
  • Helps maintain normal metabolism
  • nerve and muscle function
  • Zinc
  • Needed for digestive enzymes
  • healing of wounds
  • plays a role in respiration
  • Chromium
  • necessary for proper blood sugar regulation
  • proper insulin activity

  • You need _at_ least 2 quarts or 64 ounces a day.
  • Makes up two-thirds of your body
  • Keeps levels of other nutrients in balance
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Transports water soluble vitamins
  • Allows for the passage of gases,nutrients, and
  • check the color of urine to find out it you are
    drinking enough water (dark urine means you need
    to increase your water intake)
  • A state of dehydration may occur if you lose more
    water than you take in.
  • dehydration may occur as a result of heavy
    physical activity, vomiting, diarrhea, or fever

  • Calories is defined as the amount of energy you
    obtain from food
  • One pound 3,500 calories
  • Eating 500 fewer calories per day will result in
    the loss of 1 pound of body fat per week
  • Males 2,000-2,800
  • Females 1,800-2,400

Food Intolerance
  • A negative reaction to a food or part of food
    caused by a metabolic problem
  • Milk, wheat, additives
  • Some are hereditary- inability to digest lactose
    (milk sugar)

Hunger vs Appetite
  • Hunger- the bodys physical response to the need
    for food
  • A feeling you are born with
  • Symptoms weakness, hunger pains, dizziness,
    nausea, loss of concentration
  • Appetite- the desire to eat based on the pleasure
    derived from eating
  • Factors taste, texture, or aroma of the food
  • Satiety- feeling of fullness

Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Eat a variety of foods
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and
  • Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, and grain
  • Use sugar in moderation
  • Use salt and other forms of sodium in moderation
  • Drink alcohol in moderation
  • 90 percent of people who diet gain it back within
    1 year

Food Guide Pyramid (NEW)
1. Orange Grains 2. Green Vegetables 3. Red
Fruit 4. Yellow Fats and oils 5. Blue Milk and
dairy 6. Purple Meats, beans, fish, and nuts
  • GRAIN/BREAD 6-8 ounces
  • VEGETABLE 2.5-3 cups
  • FRUIT 2 cups
  • OILS 5-6 teaspoons
  • MEAT/BEAN 5-6 ounces

Food pyramid
Vegetarianism4 of Americans
  • Lacto-ovo
  • Dairy (lacto) and eggs (ovo) in addition to plant
  • Lacto
  • Dairy foods and plant sources
  • Ovo
  • Eggs and plant sources
  • Fortified milk and soy cheese are substituted for
  • Vegan- No meat or dairy
  • Plant sources only
  • Fortified soy milk and cheese substituted

Nutrition Label
Food Labels
  • Light/Lite- calories have been reduced by at
    least 1/3 or the fat/sodium has been reduced by
  • Less- the food contains 25 less of a nutrient or
    of calories than the comparable food product
  • Free- food contains 0 or an insignificant amount
  • More- food contains 10 more of the Daily Value
    for vitamin/mineral/protein/or fiber
  • High, Rich, or Excellent Source Of- 20 or more
    of the Daily Value for
  • vitamin/mineral/protein/or fiber
  • Lean- meat, poultry, fish has less than 10 grams
    of total fat, less than 4 gram of saturated fat,
    and less than 95 mg. of cholesterol

Minimize Risk of Foodborne Illness
  • Clean
  • Separate
  • Cook
  • Chill

Health Problems Related to Diet
  • Short Term Effects
  • Fatigue
  • Bad Mood
  • Depression
  • Lack of Sleep

Health Problems Related to Diet
  • Long Term Effects
  • Obesity
  • Heart Disease/Stroke/High Blood Pressure
  • Adult-Onset Diabetes
  • Cirrhosis of Liver
  • Tooth Decay
  • Dietary Deficiency Diseases

Why diets dont work
  • Reduce your Basal Metabolic Rate
  • Many people cannot go long term on the
    restrictive eating plan
  • They are like people who try to stop smoking
    crabby and irritable
  • Lower self-esteem

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  • Amount of energy it takes to keep your body
    functioning normal when at rest
  • Differs with age, sex, and body type
  • On average, you burn about 1000 calories at rest.

Body Mass Index
Body Mass Index
  • Overweight
  • A person is heavier that the standard weight
    range for his/her height
  • Obesity
  • Having an excess amount of body fat
  • Athletes may be overweight because of excess
    muscle rather than fat
  • Underweight
  • A person is less than the standard weight range
    for his/her height

Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia
  • Constant dieting to little eating to no eating
  • Affects CNS-Depression-Death
  • Bulimia
  • Binges on food, then purging
  • Teeth, Heart Muscle, Glands
  • Binge Eating
  • Loss of control over eating behavior and the
    consumption of excess amounts of food within a
    short period of time

Anorexia Nervosa
  • Anorexia 1 of teenage girls
  • Not eating to the point where weight is 15 below
    ideal body weight.
  • Obsessive fear of becoming overweight.
  • Inaccurate perception that one is overweight.
  • The use of compulsive rituals to lose weight.
  • 90 of the anorexia cases involve women.
  • Appears to run in families.
  • Reasons include peer and societal pressure to be
    thin, fear of sexuality, and family conflicts.

Anorexia Nervosa
  • Anorexia Symptoms
  • Eliminate foods from their diet skip meals
    exercise obsessively they begin to feel fat.
  • Menstrual periods may stop.
  • Brittle nails and hair, constipation, anemia,
    swollen joints, feeling cold all the time, sores
    that do not heal, difficulty in thinking and
  • Over a ten year period, women can die having one
    of the following complications
  • Infections of the body
  • Mineral loss
  • Heart rhythm disturbances
  • Suicide

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  • Bulimia
  • Binge and Purge eating disorder.
  • Binge Rapid consumption of large quantities of
  • Purge Self-induced vomiting and/or overuse of
  • Usually begins in early or middle adolescence.
  • Studies show that it can be from a chemical
    malfunction in the brain and possibly from birth
  • Affects predominantly young females.
  • Statistics range from 4.5 to 18 are affected by
  • Bulimia is more common among women than anorexia

  • Bulimia Symptoms
  • Depression after a binge-purge episode.
  • Physical Effects
  • Fatigue/Weakness
  • Constipation/Bloating
  • Swollen salivary glands
  • Erosion of tooth enamel.
  • Sore throat (from stomach acids by repeated
  • Dehydration
  • Loss of potassium.
  • Tearing of the esophagus (caused by vomiting).
  • Overuse of laxatives cause dangerous loss of

Anorexia Nervosa/Bulimia
  • Treatment Options
  • Success rate is good if it is detected early on
    in life.
  • Hospitalization may be recommended if body weight
    drops below 30 below the ideal weight.
  • Cognitive Therapy
  • convince people that their view of being
    overweight is incorrect.
  • Behavioral Therapy
  • Develop a contract for the patient to gain weight
    in exchange for certain rewards.
  • Family Therapy Help families to understand the

Binge Eating
  • Most people with binge eating disorder are
  • Common Symptoms
  • Eating large amounts of food, even when not
    physically hungry
  • Eating until uncomfortably full
  • Eating alone out of embarrassment at the quantity
    of food being eaten
  • Feelings of disgust, depression, or guilt after
  • Complications
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Heart disease

Aerobic vs Anaerobic
  • Aerobic uses oxygen
  • Uses big muscles, maintained continuously for
    long periods of time (10 min 3xs or 20-30 min
  • walking, running, rowing, cross country skiing,
    aerobic classes
  • Anaerobic does not use oxygen
  • Short term, concentrated muscle group
  • Weight training, football, wrestling, golf

  • Find one you enjoy
  • Warm up
  • Stretch
  • Workout
  • Cool down
  • Stretch
  • Stretching prevents injury and soreness

Elements of Fitness
  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance - the ability of the
    heart, lungs, and blood vessels to utilize and
    send fuel and oxygen to the bodys tissues during
    long periods of moderate-vigorous activity
  • Muscular Strength the amount of force a muscle
    can exert
  • Muscular Endurance the ability of the muscles
    to perform physical tasks over a period of time
    without being fatigued
  • Flexibility the ability to move a body part
    through a full range of motion
  • Body Composition the ratio of body fat to lean
    body tissue, including muscle, bone, water, and
    connective tissue such as ligaments, cartilage,
    and tendons

Principles of a WorkoutF.I.T.T.
  • Frequency- how often you do the activity each
  • Intensity- how hard you work at the activity per
  • Time/duration- how much time you devote to a
  • Type- which activities you select

Types of Resistance Exercise
  • Isometric
  • Uses muscle tension to improve muscular strength
    with little or no movement of the body part
  • Push against wall or an immovable object
  • Isotonic
  • Combines muscle contraction and repeated movement
  • Push-ups, pull-ups, sit-ups, using dumbbells
  • Isokinetic
  • Resistance is moved through an entire range of
    motion at a controlled rate of speed
  • Stationary bike, treadmill, cable machines

Target Heart Rate
  • Maximum Target Heart Rate - exercising above this
    rate can result in injury
  • Target Heart Range keep your target heart
    within this range to safely build
    cardiorespiratory endurance- 70-85
  • Minimum Target Heart Rate exercising below this
    rate will not build cardiorespiratory endurance
  • Take pulse for 6 seconds and multiply by 10
  • 220 age maximum heart rate
  • Subtract your resting heart rate from maximum
    heart rate
  • Multiply the number you arrived at in step 3 by
    70 and again by 85, round to nearest whole
  • Add your resting heart rate to the s you
    arrived at in step 4
  • The results are your target heart range

Benefits of Exercise
  • Burns fat and calories
  • Increases BMR
  • Sleep Better
  • Lowers Cholesterol
  • Raises Self-Esteem
  • Reduces Depression
  • Slower heart rate

Benefits of Exercise - Continued
  • Lowers heart disease risk
  • Lowers risk of certain cancers
  • Metabolize sugars better
  • Increase Oxygen flow

Training at Peak Performance
  • Nutrition/ Hydration
  • Adequate Rest
  • Avoid Harmful Substances
  • Tobacco, alcohol, steroid,
  • some supplements

  • Health Screening
  • Personal Safety
  • Using Proper Equipment

Physical Activity Injuries
  • Weather Related
  • Heat Related
  • Over exertion- overworking the body
  • Heat cramps- muscle spasms that result from loss
    of large amounts of salt and water
  • Heat stroke- body loses ability to rid itself of
    excessive heat through perspiration
  • Cold Related
  • Frostbite- body tissues become frozen
  • Hypothermia- body temp. dangerously low

Minor Injuries
  • Muscle cramp
  • Spasm or sudden tightening of a muscle
  • Strain
  • Damage to a muscle or tendon
  • Sprain
  • Injury to ligament surrounding a joint

Major Injuries
  • Rest
  • Ice
  • Compression
  • Elevation
  • Fracture/Dislocation, Tendonitis, Concussion
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