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Quoting, Paraphrasing,


Block quotes ... lots of block quotes and assume that the ... In a now-famous study, [X] noted that... Sample introductory phrases. Smith points out... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Quoting, Paraphrasing,

Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing
  • Adapted from a presentation by
  • Enda P Guinan
  • Language Centre
  • NUI Maynooth

Using others ideas
  • All of us use others ideas to build on,
    challenge or disagree with
  • The writer must make it clear which ideas and
    words are his/hers, which belong to others
  • References add weight to your argument
  • Strict conventions exist on quoting others ideas
    or words

Incorporating the ideas of others
  • To weave the information youve gathered into
    your own writing you can
  • Quote directly
  • Paraphrase
  • Summarize

The Methods
  • Direct quoting involves adding the exact words,
    inside quotation marks, to your text
  • Paraphrasing, or indirect quoting, involves
    rewriting the ideas in your own words
  • Summarizing involves succinctly giving a synopsis
    of the main ideas in your own words

When to quote directly
  • Good writers only quote directly when the way a
    sentence or passage is worded is significant
  • According to Barton, Five times out of ten, a
    student writer is better off paraphrasing or
    summarizing than quoting directly.
  • Dont quote plain passages directly
  • Jordon writes, There were five chemists present
    during the experiment.

Stand alone quotations
  • Do not include a quotation in your document that
    stands alone. Use the ICE method
  • Introduce
  • Cite
  • Explain
  • An introduction can be simple
  • Barton writes,
  • Then the citation
  • The ICE method is easy to remember.
  • And the explanation, or justification for the
  • Most students can remember what the letters in
    ICE stand for even years afterwards.
  • Use quotations to support your points, not make

Block quotes
  • If the quotation is longer than three lines, it
    must be set apart in a block quote (indented,
    single-spaced, italicized with NO quotation
  • Professors usually dont appreciate lots of block
    quotes and assume that the student used them out
    of sheer laziness
  • Use long quotations sparingly you are better
    off paraphrasing

Incorporating direct quotations
  • To incorporate direct quotations into your text
    use introductory phrases
  • According to
  • A study by has shown that
  • Numerous studies indicate that
  • In a now-famous study, X noted that

Sample introductory phrases
  • Smith points out
  • Smith reports
  • Smith notes
  • Smith observes
  • Smith concludes
  • Smith recognises
  • According to Smith
  • To quote Smith
  • As Smith has indicated
  • Smith defines as

Be sure the direct quote does not interrupt the
flow of your sentence
  • Essays that use extensive direct quotations tend
    to lack voice, continuity, or authority.
  • If you offer quotations every few lines, your
    ideas become subordinate to other peoples ideas
    and voices. Your ideas are lost and the piece
    will not indicate that YOU have done any thinking
    or synthesizing.
  • Therefore, you are generally better off
    paraphrasing and summarizing material and using
    direct quotations sparingly.

  • Good writers paraphrase passages or material that
    wouldnt be useful to quote directly.
  • Original Passage
  • If the nation is to obtain the maximum benefit
    from its investments in information technology, a
    labor pool capable of using it appropriately is
  • Paraphrase
  • Interestingly, the Committee notes that the U.S.
    wont benefit from revolutionary new technologies
    unless the labor force is better trained.

Paraphrasing Guidelines
  • Do not alter the authors original message
  • Do not eliminate any significant background
  • Do not misrepresent the authors intentions
  • Do not copy the original wording too closely
  • Dont just change a few words or shuffle things
    around read the passage several times and
    completely rewrite it.

Paraphrasing Tips
  • Change vocabulary
  • Change word category
  • Synthesis

Change vocabulary
  • Substitute verbs or nouns with the same meaning
  • Shaw examines the difficulties that
  • Shaw investigates the difficulties that
  • The finding was made in 2001
  • The discovery was made in 2001

Change word category
  • Change nouns into verbs, verbs into adjectives,
  • The reports were completed in April
  • The completion of the reports in April ensured
    that the students had time to revise before their

  • Integrate the ideas several sources, combining
    two or more viewpoints.
  • Santiago operates with the salad bowl metaphor,
    the belief that America is a rich nation
    precisely because of its distinctive ethnic
    groups. Hayakawa operates with a melting pot
    metaphor, the belief that in coming to America
    foreigners should relinquish what makes them
    separate in order to blend into the American

  • Condensing a writers ideas into a much shorter
    piece with your words
  • Summaries allow you to sort through the
    information in the source and report only what
    you consider to be essential.
  • Example

Culture Shock
  • Culture shock is the state of being confused
    when in contact with a different and unfamiliar
    civilization. Shock suggests something that is
    negative this may be true, especially at first.
    Typically, a person going to study in another
    country for the first time may miss family and
    friends and, consequently, feel homesick. The
    person may have sleeping difficulties and, in
    extreme cases, may become depressed or ill.
  • (67 words)

  • Culture shock is the confusion caused by contact
    with an alien society. Initially, reactions may
    be negative.
  • (17 words)

Referring to your sources
  • Ideas are the property of the person who first
    produced them
  • Copying these ideas without acknowledging the
    creator is stealing - plagiarism
  • Possibly the most serious academic crime

Acknowledging your sources
  • There are conventions for indicating the source
    of the quotations and ideas youve used in your
  • 1. The bibliography (aka references, works cited)
    at the end of the paper
  • 2. Parenthetical citations that follow an
    individual quotation or reference in your text
  • Your essays will require BOTH

What is a parenthetical citation or reference?
  • An acknowledgement, at the point of usage, that
    you are making use of another writers ideas or
    data in your writing.
  • The author comically stated that "Maybe man
    would not overrun the planet, but his pet poodles
    and Siamese cats might" (Westin 6).
  • As Donner (1997) points out, low inflation does
    not always lead to low interest rates.

Why use them?
  • To avoid the charge of plagiarism
  • To lend more authority to your writing it shows
    you are familiar with other research on the topic
  • To allow the reader to find the original source

Which of these need references?
  • A mention of facts or figures from another writer
  • An idea of your own
  • Some data you have found from your own research
  • A theory suggested by another researcher
  • A quotation from a work by any author
  • Something that is agreed to be common knowledge

Putting a quotation into your essay
  • Every quote must refer to the source
  • Different techniques or styles exist - - MLA,
    APA, Chicago make sure you know which style is
    required for your paper

Parenthetical citation when the author is not
mentioned in your text
  • For MLA style put the following in parentheses
    after the quote or paraphrase
  • Authors surname only
  • Page number of reference
  • Infectious disease is no longer the major cause
    of human deaths in Australia (Morgan 261).

Parenthetical citation when the author is
mentioned in your text
  • Immediately after authors name - in parentheses
  • Page number
  • Postgate (245) believes that flush toilets are
    quite unhygienic.
  • As Postgate (245) says, flush toilets are quite
    unhygienic devices.

Direct Quote Conventions
  • Use three dots to show you have removed
    material from a quote
  • Original The most useful way of making a world
    survey is to identify families of languages,
    preferably using criteria such as those worked
    out by myself in 1933, showing relationships by
    origin and development (Brook 98).
  • Quote The most useful way of making a world
    survey is to identify families of languages
    showing relationships by origin and development
    (Brook, 197898).

Single quotations marks
  • Single quotation marks are used when youre
    referring to a quote within a quote.  In those
    instances, single quotation marks are placed
    around the innermost direct quote. 
  • "John F. Kennedy said, 'Ask not what your country
    can do for you, ask what you can do for your

A final reminder
  • Whether you chose to quote directly or to
    paraphrase, remember this
  • Whenever you put a quotation - direct or indirect
    - into a paragraph, the sentence in which it
    occurs must still remain grammatical

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