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Values and dimensions of culture

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Title: Values and dimensions of culture


1
Values and dimensions of culture
  • Lecture 11

2
Values
  • General goals that define more specific
    (instrumental) goals
  • Life guidelines
  • Criteria of evaluating goals, activities, and
    events
  • Hierarchical structure ultimate (autonomous)
    goals ? instrumental goals

3
Basic values do they exist?
  • Abraham Maslow
  • Deficit needs (food, security, self-esteem)
  • Growth needs (achievement, self-actualization)
  • Idea used by Ronald Inglehart in studies of
    nations values

4
Abraham Maslow Need Hierarchy
Growth needs
Self- actuali zation
Aesthetic
Cognitive needs
Deficiency needs
Esteem needs
Belongingness and love
Safety needs
Physiological needs
5
Gordon Allport
  • G. Allport six value types
  • economic
  • political
  • aesthetic
  • social
  • religious
  • theoretical

6
Value classifications
  • Milton Rokeach 36 values
  • Autonomous and instrumental values
  • Personal and social values
  • Competence and morality-related values
  • Shalom Schwartz 56 values, 10 categories
  • Three basic categories of demands
  • Biological demands of an organism
  • Demands of social interactions
  • Demands of smooth functioning of social groups
  • Two dimensions
  • openness to change conservatism
  • self-transcendence self-enhancement

7
Shalom Schwartz
Values circumplex
8
Shalom Schwartz theory of values
Conservation
Security
Power
Achievement
Tradition
Conformity
Self-enhancement
Self-transcendence
Hedonism
Benevolence
Stimulation
Self-direction
Uniwersalism
Openeness to change
9
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10
Self-enhancement
  • Power
  • Social status
  • Control albo dominance over people and resources
  • Values
  • Social power
  • Authority
  • Wealth
  • Preserving public image
  • Social recognition

11
Self enhancement
  • Achievements
  • Personal success due to own competences, in
    agreement with social standards
  • successful
  • Capable
  • Ambitious
  • Influential
  • Intelligent
  • Self respect

12
Openness to change
  • Hedonism
  • Pleasures and sensory gratifications
  • Pleasure
  • Enjoying life
  • Stimulation
  • Excitement, novelty, life challenges
  • Daring
  • Varied life
  • Exciting life

13
Openness to change
  • Self-direction
  • Independence of though and decison, creativity,
    exploration
  • Creativity
  • Freedom
  • Independence
  • Curious
  • Choosing own goals

14
Self-transcendence
  • Universalism
  • Undestanding, tolerance, caring about welfare of
    all people and nature
  • Open mind,
  • Broad-minded
  • Social justice
  • Equality
  • World peace
  • Beautiful world
  • Unity with nature
  • Inner harmony
  • Protect environment

15
Self-transcendence
  • Benevolence
  • Caring about well-being of close ones
  • Helpful
  • Honest
  • Forgiving
  • Loyal
  • Responsible
  • True friendship
  • Mature love

16
Conservatism
  • Tradition
  • Respecting customs
  • Belief that tradition, culture and religion serve
    individual
  • Humble
  • Accepting my role in life
  • Respect for tradition
  • Religiosity
  • Moderate

17
Conservatism
  • Conformity
  • Inhibition of actions and impulses that can hurt
    or are not accepted by others and that go against
    social norms.
  • Politeness
  • Obedience
  • Self-discipline
  • Honor elders

18
Conservatism
  • Security
  • Security, harmony and stability of society and
    own person
  • Family
  • Security
  • National security
  • Social order
  • Clean
  • Reciprocation of favors
  • Sense of belonging
  • Health

19
Another classification of values by Shalom
Schwartz
Hierarchy
Conservatism
Mastery
Security
Power
Achievement
Tradition
Conformity
Affective autonomy
Harmony
Hedonism
Benevolence
Stimulation
Self-direction
Egalitarian Commitment
Universalism
Intellectual autonomy
20
Studies with the Value Questionnaire
  • 56 values
  • 52 the 10 main types
  • 4 spiritual values
  • Autonomous vs. Instrumental values
  • 30 autonomous (nouns)
  • 26 instrumental (adjective)
  • Rating on 9-point scale
  • -1 against my values
  • 0 neutral for me
  • 7 highest importance

21
Profiles (examples)(from Very much like me to
Not like me at all)
22
Cross-cultural studies
  • 97 samples (about 200 subjects in a sample)
  • 44 countries from all continents
  • Years 1988-1993
  • Samples
  • Teachers from elementary and high schools
  • University students and pupils
  • Together 25, 863 subjects

23
Factor analysis of mean national values
24
Main dimensions after factor analysis
Hierarchy
Conservatism
Mastery
Security
Power
Conservation-
Achievement
Tradition
Self-enhancemenet
Conformity
Affective autonomy
Harmony
Hedonism
Benevolence
Self-transcendence
Stimulation
Openness to change
Self-direction
Egalitarian Commitment
Universalism
Intellectual autonomy
25
Structure of values in postcommunist countries
Za Schwartz Bardi (1997)
26
Structure of values in postcommunist countries
Za Schwartz Bardi (1997)
27
Relations between values in different countries
  • Universal values (social justice, world peace,
    equality) opposite to security values (social
    order, national security)
  • In Eastern Europe no opposition

28
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29
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30
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31
Conservation
Ordering of countries (teacher samples) after
Schwartz
Georgia
Estonia
Slovakia
Poland
Malaysia
Russia
Turkey
Bulgaria
Hong Kong
Czech Republic
Tailand
Self- enhancement
Brasil
Portugal
Hungary
Italy
Mexico
Israel
Finland
USA
Australia
Slovenia
China
Japan
Spain
Denmark
Self-transcendence
New Zealand
Greece
Germany
Openness for experience
France
0
Switzerland
32
Schwartzs theory od values and social
orientations
33
Prisoners dilemma and social orientations
A
cooperates
defects
B
10
4
cooperates
4
-5
-5
-3
defects
10
-3
34
Social orientations as shown in social dilemmas
games
  • Individualism maximize own gain
  • Altruism maximize partners gain
  • Cooperation maximize joint profit
  • Competition maximize relative gain over partner
  • Equality minimize difference between own and
    partners gain
  • Agression maximize partners losses
  • Masochism maximize own losses
  • Martyrdom maximize relative gain of the partner
  • Sadomasochism mazimize joint loss

35
Social values according to McClintock (1988)
OTHER
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1
Aggression
competition
sadomasochism
individualism
masochism
MYSELF
1 2 3 4 5
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1
1 2 3 4 5
martyrdom
Cooperation
altruism
36
Theory of values of Shalom Schwartzand social
orientations
Competition
aggression
Martyrdom
Security
Power
Achievement
Tradition
Conformity
Hedonism
Altruism
Benevolence
Stimulation
Self-direction
Universalism
Individualism
Cooperation
37
Structure of values and social orientations
(cooperation vs. competition)
After Schwartz (1996)
38
Another presentation of value structure
Values beyond an individual
Tradition Security Conformity
Power achievement
competence
morality
Hedonism Stimulation Self-direction
Benevolence universalism
Values within an individual
39
Ronald Inglehart
The World Value Survey
  • Two dimensions of values
  • Secular-rational vs. traditional authority
  • Survival (materialistic) vs. post-materialistic
    values

40
Diagnostic questions materialism vs.
postmaterialism
  • People sometimes talk about what the aims of this
    country should be for the next ten years. On this
    card are listed some of the goals which different
    people would give top priority. Would you please
    say which one of these you, yourself, consider
    the most important? And which one would be the
    next most importanrt?
  • A high level of economic growth (M)
  • Making sure this country has strong defense
    forces (M)
  • Seeing that people have more to say about how
    things are done at their jobs and in their
    communities
  • Trying to make our cities and countryside more
    beautiful

41
  • If you had to choose, which one of the things on
    this card would you say is most important? And
    which would be the next most important?
  • Maintaining order in the nation (M)
  • Giving people more say in important government
    decisions
  • Protecting freedom of speech
  • Fighting rising prices (M)
  • Here is another list....
  • A stable economy (M)
  • Progress toward a less impersonal and more humane
    society
  • Progress toward soecirty in which ideas count
    more than money
  • The fight against crime (M)

42
Ordering of questions on the dimension of
materialism-postmaterialism (study 1974)
43
Traditional (religious) vs. secular values
  • (1) monoteism faith in one God
  • (2) family sacred (attitudes towards abortion,
    betrayal, prostitution, homosexualism)
  • (3) social order (attitudes towards theft, lie,
    agression)

44
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45
Generally speaking, would you say that most
people can be trusted or that you need to be very
careful in dealing with people? 1. Most people
can be trusted2. Need to be careful
Social trust
46
European Social Survey level of trust in
European countries
47
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48
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49
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50
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51
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52
Causes of value change
  • Cohort effects (generation)
  • Socialization factors in early childhood effect
    the rest of life
  • Historical period effects
  • Periods of economic depression ? increase in
    materialistic values
  • Age effects
  • As people grow older they become more
    materialistic (conservative?)

53
Cohort effects
Age effects
Cohort historical period
Results
54
Inglehart vs. Schwartz
55
Schwartz vs. Inglehart (?)
survival
traditional
Hierarchy
Conservatism
Mastery
Security
Power
Conservation-
Achievement
Tradition
Self-enhancemenet
Conformity
Affective autonomy
Harmony
Hedonism
Benevolence
Openness to change
Self-transcendence
secular
Stimulation
Well-being
Self-direction
Egalitarian Commitment
Universalism
Intellectual autonomy
56
Level of happiness and Ingleharts dimensions
r(59)0,870
r(59)-0,205, n.i.
57
Level of happiness and Schwartz dimensions
r(27)0,646
R(27)0,045
58
Other ways of measuring values
  • If I had a million....

59
Regiony wybrane do badania (N1328)
Ziemie Zachodnie i Pólnocne
Sciana Wschodnia
Galicja
60
Ukraina zachodnia, N450
Ukraina wschodnia N450
Ukraina
61
Spending a milion percent that mentioned the
goal
Poland
62
Spending a milion percent of the amount
Poland
63
Spending a milion percent mentioned
64
Spending a milion percent of the amount
65
Three clusters
Cluster I (materialistic) (N695)
Cluster II (mixed) (N217)
Cluster III (family) (N364)
Poland
66
Generational changes (Poland)
Lewicka (2003)
Inglehart (1990)
67
Polish value shift?
  • Poland - shift from postmaterialistic to
    materialistic values

68
Dimensions of cultures - Geert Hofstede
Cultures Consequences Comparing Values,
Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across
Nations (2002)
69
Investigating cultures methodological problems
  • Emic vs. Etic
  • Equivalent of the linguistic distinction of
    (fon)emic and (fon)etic aspect of speech
  • emic studying culture from inside, as member
    of the culture
  • etic studying culture from outside, as
    external observer, comparing cultures on common
    dimensions

70
Emic vs. etic
71
Steps in investigating cultures (after Berry,
1989)
Culture B (other)
Culture A (own)
Activity of researcher
Step
Start from own culture
1
Emic A
Imposed etic
2
Trasnfer to other culture
Emic B
Discover other culture
3
4
Compare both cultures
Emic A
Emic B
Comparison impossible
5-1
Emic A
Emic B
5-2
Comparison possible
A
B
Derived Etic
72
Methodological approaches to cross-cultural
comparisons
  • 10 cultures x 20 Item-questionnaire x 100
    Subjects per culture
  • Ecological level analysis Cross-cultural
    approach means from 100 Ss for each culture (20
    items x 10 cultures)
  • Individual level analysis Intra-cultural
    approach separate (matrices) for each culture
    (10 analyses) (Emic)
  • Universal level analysis Pancultural approach
    combining all 10 x 100 Ss together (20 items x
    1000 Ss) (Etic)

73
Dimensions of culture
  • G. Hofstede years 70s and 80s
  • Studies of 117 000 IBM employes in 66 countries
  • Attempt at finding etic dimensions which would
    differentiate cultures
  • Hierarchy
  • Intolerance of ambiguity
  • Individualism-collectvism
  • Masculinity-feminity
  • time perspective (emic Chinese dimension)

74
Dimensions suggested by Hofstede
  • Power distance degree of pecking order in
    organizations
  • Uncertainty avoidance intolerance of ambiguity,
    need for clear rules and laws
  • Individualism collectivism Caring for oneself
    vs own goup
  • Masculinity-feminity focus on masculine goals
    (finances, achievement, assertiveness) vs.
    feminine goals (friendship, caring for others)

75
Power distance - Family
  • Low PDI
  • Parents treat children as equals
  • Children should enjoy leisure
  • Infertility no reason for divorce
  • Children treat parents and old relatives as equal
  • Children expected to be socially competent at
    young age
  • Children play no role in old-age security of
    parents
  • Small enterprises set up for job reasons
  • High PDI
  • Parents teach children obedience
  • Children should work hard
  • Infertility reason for divorce
  • Respect for parents and older relatives is a
    basic virtue
  • Children not seen as competent
  • Children a source of old-age security
  • Small enterprises for family interests

76
Power distance at school
  • Low PDI
  • Teachers treat students as equal
  • Students treat teachers as equals
  • Student-centered education
  • Students inititate some communication in the
    class
  • Teachers are experts who transfer impersonal
    truths
  • Educational system focuses on middle levels
  • High PDI
  • Students depend on teachers
  • Students treat teachers with respect, even
    outside class
  • Teacher-centered education
  • Teacher initiate all communication in the class
  • Teachers are gurus who transfer personal wisdom
  • Educational system focuses on top level

77
Power distance in the work organization
  • Decentralized decision structures less
    concentration of authority
  • Flat organization pyramids
  • Subordinates expect to be consulted
  • Narrow salary range between top and bottom of
    organization
  • Manual work same status as clerical work
  • Centralized decision structures more
    concentration on authority
  • Tall organization pyramids
  • Subordinates expect to be told
  • Wide salary range between top and bottom of
    organization
  • White-collar jobs valued more than blue-collar
    jobs

78
Power distance in political systems
  • Low PDI
  • Pluralist government based on outcome of majority
    vote
  • Usually social democratic governments
  • Strong center, relatively weak right and left
    wings
  • Gradual changes in form of government (evolution
    and stability)
  • Power, status and wealth do not need to go
    together
  • Small income differentials in society, further
    reduced by the tax system
  • Less corruption scandals end political career
  • Citizens read more newspapers
  • High PDI
  • Military, autocratic or oligarchic government
  • Usually right-wing government
  • Polarization between left and right with weak
    center
  • Sudden changes in the form of government
    (revolution and/or instability)
  • Status consistency power brings status and
    wealth
  • Large income differentials in society, further
    increased by the tax system
  • More corruption scandals expected to be covered
    up
  • Citizens watch more television

79
Power distance
Low PD Students treat teachers as equals
We should give him something, after all it is our
professor of music
80
Individualism vs. collectvism
  • Individualism societies in which relations
    between individuals are loose, concern for
    oneself and closest family
  • Collectivism societies in which individuals
    from early childhood learn to integrate with
    strong, coherent groups which in return for
    absolute loyality guarantee them security and
    protection.

81
Individualism - collectivism and societal norms
  • Low IDV
  • In society, people are born into extended
    families or class, which protect them in exchange
    for loyality
  • we consciousness
  • Gemeinschaft (community)
  • Value standards differ for in- and out-group
    particularism
  • shame culture
  • Emphasis on belonging membership ideal
  • Private life invaded by institutions and
    organizations to which one belongs
  • Survival
  • High IDV
  • In society, everyone is supposed to take care of
    him-herself and his or her immediate family only
  • I consciousness
  • Gesellschaft (society)
  • Value standards should apply to all universalism
  • guilt cultures
  • Emphasis on individual initiative and
    achievement leadership ideal
  • Everyone has a right to private life
  • Hedonism

82
Individualism-collectivism and family
  • High IDV
  • People live in nuclear or one-parent families
  • Children are supposed to take care of themselves
    as soon as possible
  • Weak family ties, rare contacts
  • More divorces
  • Aged relatives should care for themselves
    ancestors unknown, irrelevant
  • Mothers expected to live apart in their old age
  • Privacy is normal
  • Financial independence of relatives, few family
    rituals
  • Living with in-laws undesirable independence of
    income and religion
  • Low IDV
  • People live with or close to relatives or clan
    members
  • Family provides protection in exchange for
    life-long loyality
  • Strong family ties, frequent contacts
  • Fewer divorces
  • Care for aged relatives and worship of ancestors
  • Mothers expect to live with children in their old
    age
  • Nobody is ever alone
  • Financial and ritual obligations to relatives
  • Living with in-laws and shared income and
    religion normal

83
Individualism-collectivism at school
  • Low IDV
  • Teachers deal with pupils as a group
  • Pupils individual initiatives discouraged
  • Harmony, face and shaming in class
  • Students will not speak up in class or large
    groups
  • Purpose of education is how to do
  • Diplomas provide entry to higher-status groups
  • High IDV
  • Teachers deal with individual pupils
  • Pupils individual initiatives encouraged
  • Students selves to be respected
  • Students expected to speak up in class or large
    groups
  • Purpose of education is learning how to learn
  • Diplomas increase economic worth and/or
    self-respect

84
Individualism-collectivism and consumer behavior
  • Low IDV
  • Live in apartments or flats
  • Live with human companions
  • Security by social networks
  • Ask friends for job around the house
  • Read fewer book, use fewer home computers, enjoy
    TV more
  • Social network main source of information
  • High IDV
  • Live in detached houses with private gardens
  • Live with cats and/or dogs
  • Security by home and life insurance
  • Do-it-yourself for jobs around the home
  • More books, use computer, use answering machines
  • Media main source of information

85
Individualism-collectivism and political systems
  • Low IDV
  • Collective interests supposed to prevail over
    individual interests
  • Economy based on collective interests
  • State capitalism or state socialism
  • Economic monopolies
  • Private life is invaded by public interests
  • Rigid social and occupational class system
  • Small share of national budget spent on education
  • High IDV
  • Individual interests supposed to prevail over
    collective interests
  • Economy based on individual interests
  • Market capitalism or market socialism
  • Competition stimulated
  • Everyone has a right to privacy
  • Social and occupational mobility
  • Large share of national budget spent on education

86
Individualism-collectivism
High IDV Emphasis on individual initiative
It is a free country and everybody can do what
one wants
87
Individualism-collectivism comparison (after
Kim, Triandis et al. 1994)
Individualism
Collectivism
Basic assumption Rationality, Reason
Basic assumption Relatedeness
Principles
Regulations, principles, law
Duties, obligations
Common goods harmony
Individuation
Autonomy
interdependence
support
Self-actualization
Freedom of choice
nurturance
help
uniqueness
Assertiveness
conciliation
Common fate
88
Romania
China
Russia
Estonia
Slovakia
Czechia
Poland
Bulgaria
Hungary
89
Uncertainty avoidance
  • Low UAI
  • Lower work stress
  • Emotions have to be controlled
  • More subjective well-being
  • Less hesitation to change employer
  • Company loyalty is not a virtue
  • If necessary, employees may break rules
  • Less resistance to changes
  • Most people can be trusted
  • High UAI
  • Higher work stress
  • Expression of emotion normal
  • Less subjective well-being
  • Tendency to stay with same employer
  • Company loyality is a virtue
  • Company rules should not be broken
  • More resistance to changes
  • One cant be careful enough with other people,
    not even with family

90
High uncertainty avoidance
Nowadays even own dog cannot be trusted
91
China
Estonia
Czechia
Hungary
BLG
Romania
Poland
Russia
Slovakia
92
Masculinity-feminity
  • High MAS
  • Challenge and recognition in jobs important
  • Values of women and men very different
  • Promotion by protection
  • Work very central in a persons life space
  • Higher well-being in poor countries
  • Low MAS
  • Cooperation at work important
  • Values of women and man hardly different
  • Promotion by merit
  • Work not central in a persons life space
  • Higher well-being in rich countries

93
Masculinity-feminity and societal norms
  • Low MAS
  • Relationship orientation
  • Quality of life and people are important
  • Sympathy for the weak
  • Small and slow are beautiful
  • Men and women should be modest
  • Minimum emotional and social role differentiation
    between the genders
  • High MAS
  • Ego orientation
  • Money and things are important
  • Sympathy for the strong
  • Big and fast are beautiful
  • Men should be and women may be assertive and
    ambitious
  • Maximum emotional and social role
    differentiattion between genders

94
Masculinity - feminity
Low MAS Relationship orientation
Write I love Joan !
95
China
RO
BLG
Russia
Czechia
Estonia
Poland
Slovakia
Hungary
96
Hofstede vs. Schwartz
  • Hofstede
  • Originally no post-communist countries in the
    sample (added later)
  • Sample limited to employees of big corporations
  • Studies in years 1967-1973
  • Before changes in Europe in 1989
  • No acknowledgement of postmaterialistic
    changes in structure of values in Western Europe

97
Schwartz vs. Hofstede
High power distance
Collectivism
High UA
Masculinity
Power
Security
Achievement
Tradition
Conformity
Hedonism
Benevolence
Stimulation
Self-direction
Universalism
Individualism
Feminity
Low power distance
Low UA
98
Factor analysis of Schwartz, Inglehart and
Hofstede
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