PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

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Conditions that become apparent early in a child's development and affect all ... Tuberous sclerosis. Recessive genes. Genetic mutation. Phenylketonuria (PKU) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS


1
CHAPTER 15
  • PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  • ANDMENTAL RETARDATION

2
PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  • Conditions that become apparent early in a
    child's development and affect all major
    developmental systems (social, cognitive, and
    language)
  • Autistic disorder
  • Asperser's disorder
  • Childhood disintegrative disorder
  • Retts disorder

3
AUTISTIC DISORDER
  • Characteristics
  • Usually noticed by age of 3 years
  • Marked difficulty in social interaction and
    communication
  • Restricted range of interests
  • Strong desire for routine
  • 75 are mentally retarded

4
AUTISTIC DISORDER
  • Deficits
  • Theory of mind Inability to infer the mental
    states of others and to think abstractly
  • Executive functions Cognitive operations
    involved in planning and flexibility of response
  • Language Many never speak and those who do have
    stereotypical, repetitive, idiosyncratic speech
    patterns
  • Joint attention behaviors Inability to maintain
    eye contact and social interaction

5
AUTISTIC DISORDER
  • CAUSES
  • Brain abnormalities
  • Genetic factors
  • Stress or injury may interact with genetic
    vulnerability
  • TREATMENT
  • Behavioral Increase skills, reduce problem
    behaviors
  • Learning techniques to take into account
    cognitive strengths and weaknesses
  • Medications to treat some symptoms

6
HEREDITARY FACTORS IN AUTISTIC DISORDER
7
ASPERGERS DISORDER
  • May be a mild form of autism
  • Impaired social interaction
  • Restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior
    and interests
  • Does not include language delays and absence of
    autism
  • Does not include impaired cognitive development
    of autism
  • Usually not diagnosed until school age

8
CHILDHOOD DISINTEGRATIVE DISORDER
  • Normal development until age 3 or 4, followed by
    loss of previously acquired
  • Language, social, and motor skills and bowel and
    bladder control
  • Changes thought to be associated with
    deterioration in the nervous system
  • Very rare One in one million births
  • More common in boys than girls
  • Causes unknown

9
RETTS DISORDER
  • Progressive disorder appearing after normal
    development at about 5 months of age
  • Head stops increasing in size, so becomes smaller
    than normal (microcephaly)
  • Loss of previously acquired developmental skills
    (language, social, and motor)
  • Typically affects only girls
  • Most become severely retarded
  • No specific treatment

10
MENTAL RETARDATION
  • Characteristics
  • Subaverage intellectual function with significant
    limitations in adaptive functioning that begins
    before age 18
  • Levels
  • Mild IQ 50-55 to 70
  • Moderate IQ 35-40 to 50-55
  • Severe IQ 20-25 to 35-40
  • Profound IQ below 20 or 25
  • Incidence
  • One in every 100 individuals in the US

11
MENTAL RETARDATION
12
MENTAL RETARDATION
13
CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION
  • Genetically based
  • Dominant genes
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Recessive genes
  • Genetic mutation
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  • Chromosomal abnormalities
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Down syndrome
  • Polygenetic

14
FRAGILE X CHROMOSOME
15
DOWN SYNDROME
16
CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION
  • The fetal environment
  • Maternal infections
  • Chronic conditions
  • Blood incompatibilities between mother and child
  • Chemicals in fetal environment
  • Alcohol- Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Radiation
  • Malnutrition
  • Factors associated with age and stress of mother

17
CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION
  • Problems during birth
  • Prematurity
  • Low birth weight
  • Lack of oxygen during birth process
  • Too-rapid progress through the birth canal
  • Damage to the nervous system after birth
  • Infections (encephalitis)
  • Extreme malnutrition
  • Blows to the head
  • Tumors
  • Oxygen deprivation due to accidents (such as
    near drowning)
  • Environmental poisons (lead paint)

18
CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION
  • Psychosocial disadvantage
  • Impoverished environment
  • 30-50 of variation in intelligence test scores
    can be attributed to environmental influences

19
PREVENTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION
  • Primary prevention
  • Public education about need for prenatal care,
    dangers of pregnant women drinking, and dangers
    of exposure of children to lead
  • Amniocentesis and ultrasound scanning that may
    lead to termination of pregnancy
  • Secondary prevention
  • Treatment, as in special diet for PKU children
  • Tertiary prevention
  • Maximizing childs skills and potential
  • School- and community-based educational,
    vocational, and skills training programs

20
EARLY INTERVENTION FOR MENTAL RETARDATION
  • Children at psychosocial risk
  • Home-based interventions
  • Special centers with trained staffs, supplemented
    by home visits
  • School-based programs
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    (IDEA) guarantees free public education for all
    disabled children, including the mentally
    retarded
  • Least-restrictive placement
  • Mainstreaming versus special placement

21
VOCATIONAL AND SOCIAL SKILLS TRAINING FOR
MENTALLY RETARDED ADULTS
  • Job preparation Sheltered workshops
  • Learning how to deal with personal, financial,
    and sexual exploitation
  • Teach social skills and how to say no
  • Training in appropriate sexual behavior

22
RECOGNITION AND TREATMENTE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
PROBLEMS
  • Forty percent of mentally retarded meet criteria
    for some other disorder
  • Severely and profoundly retarded often have
    autism or pervasive developmental disorder
  • One-fourth have a personality disorder
  • Many adolescents have temper tantrums, aggressive
    and destructive behavior, and alcohol and drug
    abuse
  • Children with fragile-X syndrome often have ADHD
  • Children and adults with Down syndrome often
    suffer from depression
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