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An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY

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'Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low-cost, low ... Wireless telematics. 9/5/09. 8. Overview of Bluetooth History. What is Bluetooth? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY


1
An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY
2
CONTENT
  • Overview of Bluetooth History
  • The Bluetooth Specifications
  • Typical Bluetooth Scenario
  • Protocols
  • Profiles
  • Security
  • Comparison with other technologies
  • Future of Bluetooth
  • Summary

3
Example The Networked Home
4
What is Bluetooth?
  • Bluetooth wireless technology is an open
    specification for a low-cost, low-power,
    short-range radio technology for ad-hoc wireless
    communication of voice and data anywhere in the
    world.

One of the first modules (Ericsson)
A recent module
5
Ultimate Headset
6
Cordless Computer
7
Bluetooth Goals Vision
  • Originally conceived as a cable replacement
    technology
  • Short-Range Wireless Solutions
  • Open Specification
  • Voice and Data Capability
  • Worldwide Usability
  • Other usage models began to develop
  • Personal Area Network (PAN)
  • Ad-hoc networks
  • Data/voice access points
  • Wireless telematics

8
Overview of Bluetooth History
  • What is Bluetooth?
  • Bluetooth is a short-range wireless
    communications technology.
  • Why this name?
  • It was taken from the 10th century Danish King
    Harald Blatand who unified Denmark and Norway.
  • When does it appear?
  • 1994 Ericsson study on a wireless technology to
    link mobile phones accessories.
  • 5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special
    Interest Group (SIG) in 1998.
  • First specification released in July 1999.

9
Timeline
  • 1994 Ericsson study complete / vision
  • 1995 Engineering work begins
  • 1997 Intel agrees to collaborate
  • 1998 Bluetooth SIG formed Ericsson, Intel,
    IBM, Nokia Toshiba
  • 1999 Bluetooth Specification 1.0A
  • SIG promoter group expanded 3Com, Lucent,
    Microsoft Motorola
  • 2000 Bluetooth Specification 1.0B, 2000
    adopters
  • 2001 First retail products released,
    Specification 1.1
  • 2003 Bluetooth Specification 1.2
  • 2005 Bluetooth Specification 2.0 (?)

10
Special Interest Group
11
Technical features
12
Bluetooth FHSS
  • Employs frequency hopping spread spectrum
  • Reduce interference with other devices
  • Pseudorandom hopping
  • 1600 hops/sec- time slot is defined as 625
    microseconds
  • Packet 1-5 time slots long

13
Time-Division Duplex Scheme
  • Channel is divided into consecutive slots (each
    625 ?s)
  • One packet can be transmitted per slot
  • Subsequent slots are alternatively used for
    transmitting and receiving
  • Strict alternation of slots between the master
    and the slaves
  • Master can send packets to a slave only in EVEN
    slots
  • Slave can send packets to the master only in the
    ODD slots

14
Classification
  • Classification of devices on the basis of Power
    dissipated corresponding maximum Range.

15
Typical Bluetooth Scenario
  • Bluetooth will support wireless point-to-point
    and point-to-multipoint (broadcast) between
    devices in a piconet.
  • Point to Point Link
  • Master - slave relationship
  • Bluetooth devices can function as masters or
    slaves
  • Piconet
  • It is the network formed by a Master and one or
    more slaves (max 7)
  • Each piconet is defined by a different hopping
    channel to which users synchronize to
  • Each piconet has max capacity (1 Mbps)

16
Piconet Structure
  • All devices in piconet hop together.
  • Masters ID and masters clock determines
    frequency hopping sequence phase.

17
Ad-hoc Network the Scatternet
  • Inter-piconet communication
  • Up to 10 piconets in a scatternet
  • Multiple piconets can operate within same
    physical space
  • This is an ad-hoc, peer to peer (P2P) network

18
Bluetooth Protocol Stack
19
Baseband
20
Baseband
  • Addressing
  • Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR)
  • 48 bit IEEE MAC address
  • Active Member address (AM_ADDR)
  • 3 bits active slave address
  • all zero broadcast address
  • Parked Member address (PM_ADDR)
  • 8 bit parked slave address
  • This MAC address is split into three parts
  • The Non-significant Address Part (NAP)
  • Used for encryption seed
  • The Upper Address part (UAP)
  • Used for error correction seed initialization
    FH sequence generation
  • The Lower Address Part (LAP)
  • Used for FH sequence generation

21
Packet Structure
22
Connection State Machine
23
Channel Establishment
  • There are two managed situations
  • A device knows the parameters of the other
  • It follows paging process
  • No knowledge about the other
  • Then it follows inquiring paging process
  • Two main states and sub-states
  • Standby (no interaction)
  • Connection (working)
  • Seven more sub-states for attaching slaves
    connection establishment

Connection State Machine
24
Channel Establishment (contd.)
  • Seven sub-states
  • Inquiry
  • Inquiry scan
  • Inquiry response
  • Page
  • Page scan
  • Master response
  • Slave response

25
Link Manager Protocol
26
Link Manager Protocol
  • The Link Manager carries out link setup,
    authentication link configuration.
  • Channel Control
  • All the work related to the channel control is
    managed by the master
  • The master uses polling process for this
  • The master is the first device which starts the
    connection
  • This roles can change (master-slave role switch)

27
L2CAP
  • Service provided to the higher layer
  • L2CAP provides connection-oriented and
    connectionless data services to upper layer
    protocols
  • Protocol multiplexing and demultiplexing
    capabilities
  • Segmentation reassembly of large packets
  • L2CAP permits higher level protocols and
    applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data
    packets up to 64 kilobytes in length.

28
Middleware Protocol Group
  • Additional transport protocols to allow existing
    and new applications to operate over Bluetooth.
  • Packet based telephony control signaling protocol
    also present.
  • Also includes Service Discovery Protocol.

29
Middleware Protocol Group (contd.)
  • Service Discovery Protocol (SDP)
  • Means for applications to discover device info,
    services and its characteristics.
  • TCP/IP
  • Network Protocols for packet data communication,
    routing.
  • RFCOMM
  • Cable replacement protocol, emulation of serial
    ports over wireless network.

30
IP Over Bluetooth
  • IP over Bluetooth v 1.0

31
IP Over Bluetooth
  • IP over Bluetooth v 1.1

32
File Transfer Profile
  • Profile provides
  • Enhanced client-server interactions
  • - browse, create, transfer folders
  • - browse, pull, push, delete files

33
Headset Profile
  • Profile provides
  • Both devices must provide capability to initiate
    connection accept/terminate calls.
  • Volume can be controlled from either device.
  • Audio gateway can notify headset of an incoming
    call.

34
Core Bluetooth Products
  • Notebook PCs Desktop computers
  • Printers
  • PDAs
  • Other handheld devices
  • Cell phones
  • Wireless peripherals
  • Headsets
  • Cameras
  • CD Player
  • TV/VCR/DVD
  • Access Points
  • Telephone Answering Devices
  • Cordless Phones
  • Cars

35
Other Products
  • 2004 Toyota Prius Lexus LS 430
  • hands free calls
  • Digital Pulse Oximetry System
  • Toshiba Washer Dryer
  • Nokia N-gage

36
Security
  • Security Measures
  • Link Level Encryption Authentication.
  • Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device
    access.
  • Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys).
  • These keys are not transmitted over wireless.
    Other parameters are transmitted over wireless
    which in combination with certain information
    known to the device, can generate the keys.
  • Further encryption can be done at the application
    layer.

37
A Comparison
WLAN
38
Bluetooth vs. IrD
  • Bluetooth
  • Point to Multipoint
  • Data Voice
  • Easier Synchronization due to omni-directional
    and no LOS requirement
  • Devices can be mobile
  • Range 10 m
  • IrD
  • Point to point
  • Intended for Data Communication
  • Infrared, LOS communication
  • Can not penetrate solid objects
  • Both devices must be stationary, for
    synchronization
  • Range 1 m

39
Bluetooth Today Tomorrow
40
Will Bluetooth become a household name?
41
Future of Bluetooth
  • Success of Bluetooth depends on how well it is
    integrated into consumer products
  • Consumers are more interested in applications
    than the technology
  • Bluetooth must be successfully integrated into
    consumer products
  • Must provide benefits for consumer
  • Must not destroy current product benefits
  • Key Success Factors
  • Interoperability
  • Mass Production at Low Cost
  • Ease of Use
  • End User Experience

42
Summary
  • A new global standard for data and voice
  • Eliminate Cables
  • Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devices
  • Future Improvements
  • Master-Slave relationship can be adjusted
    dynamically for optimal resource allocation and
    utilization.
  • Adaptive, closed loop transmit power control can
    be implemented to further reduce unnecessary
    power usage.

43
Things that think dont make sense unless they
link.
- Nicholas Negroponte, MIT Media Laboratory
44
Thank You
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