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Project Management


Project Management usually takes between 4 and 8 weeks of intensive training. ... Project management control can only be achieved when cost, time, performance ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Project Management

Project Management
  • April 26, 2005

Between Now and Lunch
  • Before we begin.
  • What is Project Management?
  • The Project Management Triangle.
  • Project Methodology
  • The Project Life Cycle
  • The Movie
  • Planning and Establishing the Project Baseline.
  • Roles and Responsibilities
  • Where Do Projects Fail?
  • Is IT Really Different
  • Questions?

Before We Begin
  • Project Management usually takes between 4 and 8
    weeks of intensive training.
  • Another 2 3 years to apply that knowledge.
  • The information given here in the next 3 hours is
    an abridged version, covering the basics.

What is Project Management?
  • Project management is a set of principles,
    practices, techniques, and facilitation of the
    planning, scheduling, and control of all
    activities that must be done to meet project
    objectives. It is a disciplined way of
    organizing a job and leading a team to help
    control costs, manage scope, performance, and
    outcomes and also to mitigate risks.

Project Management (Cont.)
  • There are two aspects of Project Management
    What and How.
  • The What is the task to be performed.
  • The How relates to the process used to reach
    the desired outcome. Process includes both the
    solving of the task itself, and how the team
    functions in total how they interact, solve
    problems, make decisions, run meetings, and every
    other aspect of team performance.

Project Management (What)
  • The What -- every project has three primary
  • To create something (like a product, procedure,
    process or other deliverables).
  • Deliverables are those clearly defined results,
    goods or services produced during the project or
    at its outcome.
  • To finish all tasks within an agreed upon
  • To complete the project within an established

Project Management (What cont.)
  • Secondary goals are goals other than the primary
    goals that must be specified to actually define
    the project, sometimes referred to as objectives
    and/or outcomes that are mutual expectations and
    define the scope of work.

Project Management (How)
  • Process (How) will always affect task performance
  • In manufacturing, managers have studied every
    step of their process to eliminate
    non-value-added steps, to reduce scrap and
    re-work, and to optimize the process as much as
  • This same kind of scrutiny can improve
    non-manufacturing processes as well, to allow
    faster, smoother processes that can drastically
    improve task performance and produce a more
    consistent process.

Project Management (How cont.)
  • Most projects fail from the beginning because
    they are not clearly defined and poorly planned.
    Processes are ignored in favor of speed to
    complete the project The drive to just get it
  • If we do not have good processes, any tools used
    will only help us to document failures with great
  • Organizations and project teams consist of
    people. Yet so much time is used for managing the
    physical resources, inventory, tools, schedules,
    status reports, and other activities which takes
    time from the project, that the "people" part is
    easily overlooked. And, if people do not perform
    well, neither will the processes and the
    project's outcome suffers.

Project Management (How cont.)
  • All the people within a project (programmers -
    for an IT project, Sponsors, business personnel,
    etc.), their performance, and their communication
    are part of the Businesses culture.
  • Culture comprises accountability, communications,
    ownership, learning, and embracing change.
  • Culture is related to people. It describes the
    sum total of the values, attitudes, traditions,
    and behaviors that exist in an organization. One
    way to know when people are talking about their
    culture is when they say, "We don't do it that
    way here."

The Project Management Triangle
  • Project management control can only be achieved
    when cost, time, performance objectives and scope
    are clearly documented, realistically derived,
    and deliberately managed.

The Project Management Triangle
  • When managing any project, there are four
    constraints you must take into consideration.
    These constraints apply to both large and small
  • Performance (P) refers to the project's
    requirements and objectives and the quality level
    of each. What results must the project produce?
    What features should it have? What will be needed
    to meet the customer's satisfaction? What are
    the deliverables and outcomes?

The Project Management Triangle (cont)
  • Cost (C) refers to the labor cost to do a job.
    (This may or may not include capital equipment
    and material costs which may by accounted for
  • Time (T) refers to the time required to complete
    the project.
  • The area of the triangle adds another constraint
    scope (S). Scope is the amount of work that must
    be done to complete the project it is the
    magnitude of the job.

The Project Management Triangle (cont)
  • When one of these constraints changes, at least
    one of the others must change, too, to
  • For instance, if the time to compete is reduced,
    you must either reduce the performance
    requirements/objectives or increase the cost
    (meaning resources).
  • Also, if new tasks are added to the project,
    increasing the scope, then one or more of the
    other pieces performance or cost or time must
    be increased to accommodate the change.

The Project Management Triangle
Project Methodology
  • Documentation about the consistent way of running
    projects is called a methodology. It prescribes
    what kinds of steps must be taken, what kinds of
    documents must be produced at each step, what
    kinds of approvals are needed for certain aspects
    of the project, how changes will be handled, and
    what records must be filed when the project is
    closed out.
  • It must also specify what approvals are needed
    for various actions, such as procurement, changes
    to plan, budget variances, and risks.

Project Methodology (cont.)
  • It should tell who is responsible for various
    aspects of the project, and it should spell out
    the roles and responsibility of each member of
    the team and their accountability and also the
    limits of each stakeholder's authority, .
  • The project methodology spells out how a kick-off
    meeting is to be held, who should attend, what
    they are required to have ready for the meeting,
    and when it is to take place. The same is true
    for status, data model, business process model,
    and design review meetings.
  • The methodology documents the project
    requirements and also the entrance and exit
    criteria for each of the phases of project
    development life cycle.

Project Life Cycle
  • Projects have a life cycle. A complete
    development process that takes each project from
    beginning to end. Life cycles are divided into
    phases to help structure and manage the project.
  • Different businesses may use different life
    cycles, with differing numbers of phases and
    differing phase names, but they are all similar
    and all contain the same essential activities.
    This training will use the following life cycle

Project Life Cycle (cont)
Planning and Establishing the Project Baseline
  • Before you can develop a project's baseline you
    must complete the following tasks involved in the
    Definition and Planning phases
  • Identify the major stakeholders
  • Establish feasibility based on priority and goals
  • Define the projects performance, time, cost,
    scope constraints, and clear understandable
  • Develop a Risk Analysis
  • Identify an overall strategy for accomplishing
    the project results.

Planning and Establishing the Project Baseline
  • The first priority during implementation planning
    is to identify all of the tasks that have to be
    completed to meet the goals of the project and
    put it into a form that is easy to view and
    quickly understand.
  • The work breakdown structure (WBS) is a method of
    subdividing work into smaller and smaller
    increments to permit accurate estimates of
    durations, resource requirements, and costs.

Planning and Establishing the Project Baseline
  • The WBS plays a big role during implementation
    planning because it is the foundation upon which
    other project elements are based.
  • As a detailed portrait of all the work involved
    in a project, a WBS also illustrates the scope
    (or magnitude) of a project.
  • This is important because stakeholders are
    sometimes surprised at the cost estimates, and
    the WBS helps to see why the project is going to
    cost as much as you have estimated.

Planning and Establishing the Project Baseline
  • Because the WBS lists all project tasks, it also
    provides the basis upon which resource
    assignments and task durations can be made. The
    task duration estimates are used to calculate
    labor costs for all work so that a labor budget
    and schedule for the project is developed.

Planning and Establishing the Project Baseline
  • A finished WBS looks similar to an organizational
  • It is a graphical listing of the hierarchy of
    work to be accomplished.
  • A finished WBS, sequences the tasks using a
    technique called a network diagram, break
    identified tasks down into greater levels of
    detail .

Planning and Establishing the Project Baseline
  • The final step in developing the WBS is to
    distribute the final draft to key stakeholders
    for review.
  • Using a ski trip as an example, you ask you
    develop and review the following WBS.

Planning and Establishing the Project Baseline
  • Further a network diagram is developed
  • It represents project tasks in a logical order,
    going left to right and allow you to put the
    tasks (from the WBS) into a graphical
    representation that shows the work flow and the
    relationships between project tasks.
  • It is the roadmap for the project and identifies
    the critical path for the project.
  • The critical path is the longest path it takes to
    complete the project, from start to finish.

Planning and Establishing the Project Baseline
  • The illustration pinpoints what tasks must
    precede others, those dependent on other tasks,
    which are parallel and also those tasks which can
    be completed at the same time.

Roles and Responsibilities
  • Project Sponsor
  • Project Manager
  • Project Programming Team
  • Focus Group of Customers/Users
  • Stakeholders

Process Review
  • The purpose of a process review is to learn from
    experience so that we can avoid those things that
    were not done well and continue doing those
    things that were done well.
  • It is not a witch-hunt. If we go about it in a
    "blame and punishment" way, people will hide
    their faults. If we go on a witch-hunt, we risk
    creating witches where none existed before.

Where do Projects Fail?