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III. Ideal Gas Law

- Ch. 11 - Gases

A. Avogadros Principle

- Equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of

moles - at constant temp pressure
- true for any gas

A. Ideal Gas Law

Merge the Combined Gas Law with Avogadros

Principle

PV T

- V
- n

PV nT

R

UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT R0.0821 L?atm/mol?K

You dont need to memorize these values!

A. Ideal Gas Law

PVnRT

UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT R0.0821

L?atm/mol?K R8.315 dm3?kPa/mol?K

You dont need to memorize these values!

C. Ideal Gas Law Problems

- Calculate the pressure in atmospheres of 0.412

mol of He at 16C occupying 3.25 L.

GIVEN P ? atm n 0.412 mol T 16C 289 K V

3.25 L R 0.0821L?atm/mol?K

WORK PV nRT P(3.25)(0.412)(0.0821)(289)

L mol L?atm/mol?K K P 3.01

atm

C. Ideal Gas Law Problems

- Find the volume of 85 g of O2 at 25C and 104.5

kPa.

GIVEN V ? n 85 g T 25C 298 K P 734 mm

Hg R 8.315 dm3?kPa/mol?K

2.7 mol

PV nRT (.966)V(2.7) (.0821) (298) atm

mol L atm/mol?K K V 68.4 L

C. Molar Volume at STP

1 mol of a gas22.4 L at STP

C. Molar Volume at STP

LITERS OF GAS AT STP

Molar Volume (22.4 L/mol)

MASS IN GRAMS

NUMBER OF PARTICLES

MOLES

Molar Mass (g/mol)

6.02 ? 1023 particles/mol

D. Stoichiometry Problems

- How many grams of KClO3 are reqd to produce 9.00

L of O2 at STP?

2KClO3 ? 2KCl 3O2

? g

9.00 L

9.00 L O2

1 mol O2 22.4 L O2

2 mol KClO3 3 mol O2

122.55 g KClO3 1 mol KClO3

32.8 g KClO3

IV. Gas Stoichiometry at Non-STP Conditions(p.

347-350)

- Ch. 10 11 - Gases

A. Gas Stoichiometry

- Moles ? Liters of a Gas
- STP - use 22.4 L/mol
- Non-STP - use ideal gas law
- Non-STP
- Given liters of gas?
- start with ideal gas law
- Looking for liters of gas?
- start with stoichiometry conv.

B. Gas Stoichiometry Problem

- What volume of CO2 forms from 5.25 g of CaCO3

at 103 kPa 25ºC?

CaCO3 ? CaO CO2

5.25 g

? Lnon-STP

Looking for liters Start with stoich and

calculate moles of CO2.

1 mol CaCO3 100.09g CaCO3

5.25 g CaCO3

1 mol CO2 1 mol CaCO3

1.26 mol CO2

Plug this into the Ideal Gas Law to find liters.

B. Gas Stoichiometry Problem

- What volume of CO2 forms from 5.25 g of CaCO3

at 103 kPa 25ºC?

WORK PV nRT (103 kPa)V(1mol)(8.315dm3?kPa/mol

?K)(298K) V 1.26 dm3 CO2

GIVEN P 103 kPa V ? n 1.26 mol T 25C

298 K R 8.315 dm3?kPa/mol?K

B. Gas Stoichiometry Problem

- How many grams of Al2O3 are formed from 15.0 L of

O2 at 97.3 kPa 21C?

4 Al 3 O2 ? 2 Al2O3

15.0 L non-STP

? g

WORK PV nRT (97.3 kPa) (15.0 L) n

(8.315dm3?kPa/mol?K) (294K) n 0.597 mol O2

GIVEN P 97.3 kPa V 15.0 L n ? T 21C

294 K R 8.315 dm3?kPa/mol?K

Given liters Start with Ideal Gas Law and

calculate moles of O2.

NEXT ?

B. Gas Stoichiometry Problem

- How many grams of Al2O3 are formed from 15.0 L of

O2 at 97.3 kPa 21C?

4 Al 3 O2 ? 2 Al2O3

15.0L non-STP

? g

Use stoich to convert moles of O2 to grams Al2O3.

2 mol Al2O3 3 mol O2

0.597 mol O2

101.96 g Al2O3 1 mol Al2O3

40.6 g Al2O3

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