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CURRICULUM DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EVALUATION

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Title: CURRICULUM DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EVALUATION


1
CURRICULUM DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EVALUATION
  • WEEK 5 - EDU 685

2
COMPONENTS OF DESIGN
  • Objectives - What is to be done?
  • Subject matter - What subject matter is to be
    included?
  • Method organization - What instructional
    strategies, resources, and activities will be
    used?
  • Evaluation - What methods and instruments will be
    used to assess results?

3
SOURCES OF DESIGN
  • Science
  • Society
  • Eternal Divine
  • Knowledge
  • The Learner

4
KEY DIMENSIONS
  • Scope
  • Sequence
  • Continuity
  • Integration
  • Articulation
  • Balance

5
SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGNS
  • Subject
  • Discipline
  • Broad fields
  • Correlation
  • Process

6
LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGNS
  • Child-centered
  • Experience-centered

7
PROBLEM-CENTERED DESIGNS
  • Life-situation
  • Social problems

8
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
  • APPROACHES

9
TECHNICAL-SCIENTIFIC APPROACH
  • Curriculum development is a plan or blueprint
  • structuring the learning environment
  • coordinating personnel, materials, and equipment
  • Curriculum development has a high degree of
    objectivity, universality, and logic
  • Reality can be defined and represented in
    symbolic form
  • Believers prize optimum growth, maximum
    efficiency and effectiveness of the system
  • The world is viewed as a machine that can be
    observed and manipulated

10
THE TYLER MODEL
  • Purposes of school
  • Educational experiences related to purposes
  • Organization of these experiences
  • Evaluation of the purposes

11
THE TABA MODEL
  • Diagnosis of needs
  • Formulation of objectives
  • Selection of content
  • Organization of content
  • Selection of learning experiences
  • Organization of learning activities
  • Evaluation and means of evaluation

12
NONTECHNICAL-NONSCIENTIFIC APPROACH
  • Stresses the subjective, personal, aesthetic,
    heuristic, transactional
  • Stresses the learner through activity-oriented
    approaches to teaching and learning
  • Curriculum evolves rather than being planned
  • World is viewed as a living organism

13
CURRICULUM EVALUATION
  • MODELS
  • AND
  • METHODS

14
EVALUATION
  • A process or cluster of processes that people
    perform in order to gather data that will enable
    them to decide whether to accept change, or
    eliminate something -- the curriculum in general
    or an educational textbook in particular.

15
MEASUREMENT vs EVALUATION
  • The assignment of numerals to objects or events
    according to rules
  • The gathering and combining of data in relation
    to a weighted set of goals or scales so that
    people can make judgments about worth

16
EVALUATION MODELS
  • The Eight Year Study
  • The Provus Evaluation Model
  • Stakes Congruence-Contingency Model
  • The CIPP Model
  • Eisners Educational Connoisseurship and
    Educational Criticism Model

17
THE EIGHT YEAR STUDY
  • Oldest model
  • Purpose was to determine whether secondary school
    curriculum could be freed from domination by
    colleges
  • Seven-step format - Ralph Tyler

18
THE PROVUS MODEL
  • Originally known as the Pittsburgh Evaluation
    Model
  • Purpose was to evaluate projects funded under the
    Elementary-Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
  • Five stages of evaluation
  • Compares performance with standards

19
STAKES CONGRUENCE-CONTINGENCY MODEL
  • Purports use of three categories of data
  • Antecedents
  • Transactions
  • Outcomes
  • Congruence
  • The degree of agreement between goals and
    outcomes
  • Contingency
  • The relationship between one variable and another
  • For example, time on task and the learning of
    skills

20
THE CIPP MODEL
  • Context - pupil needs related problems
  • Input - program development
  • Process - quality-control monitoring
  • Product - measurement of the effectiveness
  • Considers evaluation to be a continuous process

21
EISNERS EDUCATIONAL CONNOISSEURSHIP MODEL
  • Connoisseurship - the art of appreciating events
    that have educational significance
  • Uses deeper, more wide-ranging observation, the
    results of which can be expressed in a written
    statement
  • describes
  • interprets
  • appraises

22
ALTERNATIVE TRADITIONAL
  • Based on observation and subjective judgment
  • Student experiments
  • Debates
  • Portfolios
  • Student products
  • Student participates in assessment
  • Based on objective recording and interpretation
    of scores
  • Multiple-choice tests
  • True-false tests
  • Completion tests
  • Matching tests
  • Teacher controls assessment

23
MAJOR ISSUES
  • What role should authentic assessment play in
    curriculum evaluation?
  • Should teacher pay be tied to student test
    results?
  • Should a schools performance assessment be tied
    to how students score on standardized tests?
  • Should students have to pass competency exams in
    order to receive a diploma ?

24
SUMMARY
  • Design decisions are complex
  • Five major sources for design
  • Three major types of designs
  • Two approaches to development
  • Evaluation assumes a variety of forms
  • Evaluation designs should fit situation

25
PRINCIPLES OF DECISION MAKING AND PROCESS
  • A SUMMARY OF WEEKS 2 - 5
  • EDU 685

26
PRINCIPLE 1
  • Curriculum decisions should be made for valid
    educational reasons, not for specious or
    noneducational reasons.

27
PRINCIPLE 2
  • Curriculum decisions of a permanent nature should
    be made on the basis of the best available
    evidence.

28
PRINCIPLE 3
  • Curriculum decisions should be made in a context
    of broadly conceived aims of education.

29
PRINCIPLE 4
  • Curriculum decisions should be made within a
    context of previously made decisions and of needs
    for additional decision making so that balance
    and other important curriculum considerations may
    be safeguarded.

30
PRINCIPLE 5
  • Curriculum decisions should be made by achieving
    a resolution of forces originating in the nature
    and development of learners, the nature of
    learning processes, demands of the society at
    large, requirements of the local community, and
    the nature and structure of subject matter to be
    learned.

31
PRINCIPLE 6
  • Curriculum decisions should be reached
    cooperatively by persons who are legitimately
    involved in the effects of the decisions, with
    full participation being accorded those persons
    who are most concerned with the effects.

32
PRINCIPLE 7
  • Curriculum decisions should take into account new
    facts of human life such as the proliferation of
    knowledge and a need for a new sense of unity
    within our diversity.

33
PRINCIPLE 8
  • Curriculum decisions should take into account the
    many differences among learners, especially with
    reference to learners potential for development,
    their intellectual powers, their styles of
    thinking, their ability to withstand peer
    pressures, and their need for education in values
    and appreciations.

34
PRINCIPLE 9
  • Curriculum decisions should be made with a
    realistic view of certain organizational or
    engineering matters that can affect the quality
    of the decisions themselves correlation versus
    separation of subjects, the distinction between
    curriculum content and pupils experiences, and
    the uses of time, for instance.

35
PRINCIPLE 10
  • Curriculum decisions should be made with some
    forethought about ways in which they may be
    communicated and shared.

36
PRINCIPLE 11
  • Curriculum decisions should be made only with
    reference to subject matter and pupil experiences
    that cannot be offered as satisfactorily outside
    the school.
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