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Jacksonian Democracy

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Jackson believed the people knew right from wrong by instinct ... People pulled money out of banks in the form of gold and silver specie ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Jacksonian Democracy


1
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Reference Chapter 9
  • The American Nation

2
Democratizing Politics
  • Jackson believed the people knew right from wrong
    by instinct
  • Western states eliminate property qualifications
    for voting and office holding
  • Delaware and South Carolina still had their state
    legislatures elect presidential electors
  • Other states selected them by popular vote
  • Free-school movement begins
  • Office seekers began to appeal for votes directly
    to the people
  • Voting becomes important, and this increases
    competition among the candidates
  • Money, people, and organization were needed to
    run for office

3
1828 The New Party System in Embryo
  • Jackson believed he had been cheated out of the
    election of 1824 and he began campaigning for
    1828 immediately
  • In 1828, Jackson avoided taking a stand on the
    issues
  • Both candidates slung mud and assassinated one
    anothers characters
  • Voter turnout was high in 1828
  • Jackson wins

4
The Jacksonian Appeal
  • Jackson was closer to Washington in terms of
    political beliefs, not Jefferson
  • He owned a large plantation and many slaves
  • He wasnt as rough as he pretended to be
  • Drew support from every section and every class
    in America
  • President of the common man

5
The Spoils System
  • Jackson rewarded his supporters with government
    jobs
  • He believed most government jobs were very
    simple, and anyone could do them
  • He believed in office rotation so that more
    citizens could participate
  • In reality, most of his appointees were of the
    upper class, not lower like he pretended
  • He did not practice rotation in the Navy and War
    Departments

6
President of All the People
  • Jackson considered himself a direct
    representative of the people
  • He vetoed more bills than all his predecessors
    combined
  • He had no desire to expand governmental authority
    at the expense of the states
  • He did make some unwise decisions because he did
    not like taking or getting advice

7
Sectional Tensions Revived
  • Jackson urged a slight reduction on the tariff,
    and small constitutional internal improvements
  • He had helped balance the budget
  • Wanted the federal surplus distributed to the
    states
  • This would not reduce the price of public land
  • Westerners wanted cheap land out West
  • Daniel Webster in the Senate blocked a West-South
    alliance to get cheap land and low tariffs

8
Jackson The BankI Will Kill It
  • Jackson wins reelection in 1832
  • Promised to destroy the Second Bank of the United
    States
  • Nicholas Biddle-head of the Bank
  • Wanted to use it to control credit and force
    state banks to hold money in reserve
  • Public opinion turned against Nicholas Biddle
    because of his conservative practices with the
    bank

9
Jacksons Bank Veto
  • Biddle becomes close to Henry Clay and Daniel
    Webster-two people President Jackson did not
    trust
  • Re-chartering of the bank passed Congress but
    Jackson vetoed it
  • After 1832, Jackson pulled all government funds
    from the bank
  • This hurt the bank, and Biddle had to stop
    extending so much credit, thus making him even
    more unpopular with the people
  • Panic sets in Jackson wont budge
  • Eventually, Biddle gave in and started loaning
    more money from the bank, and the national panic
    ended

10
Jackson versus Calhoun
  • Calhoun wanted to be president
  • He hated Jackson, and Jackson hated him
  • Jackson favored internal improvements, be
    preferred local projects be left to the states
  • He vetoed projects that were totally within the
    boundaries of a state, thinking that this was the
    responsibility of the state to fund

11
Indian Removal
  • Jackson took a states right stand in the
    controversy of Indian removal in Georgia
  • Some tribes resisted removal
  • Cherokees in Georgia attempted to hold their land
    by mending to white ways
  • Georgia refused to recognize the Cherokee
    government
  • Georgia declared Cherokee law void and Cherokee
    land part of Georgia

12
Indian Removal
  • Cherokees sued in the Supreme Court
  • Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia (court ruled that the
    Cherokees could not sue in court)
  • Worcester vs. Georgia (court ruled that the state
    could not control the Cherokee or their lands)
  • Corn Tassel (convicted of murder)
  • Jackson backs Georgia
  • Jackson says that no independent nation could
    exist within the United States
  • U.S. forces about 15,000 Cherokees to leave
    Georgia for lands in Oklahoma
  • 4,000 died along the way on The Trail of Tears

13
The Nullification Crisis
  • South Carolina farmers objected to the lowering
    of the tariff in 1832
  • They also resented northern agitation over
    slavery
  • South Carolina turns to Calhouns doctrine of
    nullification for defense
  • Jackson believed that if a state could nullify
    federal law, then the United States could not
    exist
  • South Carolina passes an ordinance of
    nullification

14
The Nullification Crisis Continued..
  • This ordinance forbids the collection of tariff
    duties in the state
  • Also authorizes the raising of an army
  • Jackson warns that disunion by force is treason
  • Congress compromises by reducing the tariff and
    granting the president the authority to enforce
    the collection laws
  • South Carolina repeals the Ordinance of
    Nullification

15
Boom and Bust
  • Increased currency causes land prices to soar
  • Lands sales wiped out the governments debts and
    caused a money surplus in government
  • Jackson issues an order requiring those who
    purchased government land to pay in gold or
    silver
  • This hurts the sale of land, and sends prices
    down
  • This causes people to default on mortgages, and
    banks could not recover their loans

16
Boom or Bust continued
  • People pulled money out of banks in the form of
    gold and silver specie
  • Banks exhausted their supply of gold and silver
  • Panic swept the nation
  • Jackson was partially responsible for the panic

17
Jacksonianism Abroad
  • Jackson exaggerated the importance of some
    foreign policy problems
  • He was successful on some things
  • He helped open more trade with Britain
  • Got France to pay for damages done during the
    Napoleonic Wars
  • Almost had to threaten France with war to get the
    money, however

18
The Jacksonians
  • Jacksonian Democrats included rich and poor,
    easterner and westerner, abolitionist and
    slaveholder
  • Democrats agreed on some things
  • Suspicion of special privilege and large business
    corporations
  • Freedom of economic opportunity
  • Political freedom
  • Ordinary citizens could participate in politics

19
The Jacksonians continued
  • Democrats also tended to favor states rights
  • Supported public education for the most part
  • Did not want to penalize the wealthy
  • Did not want to really get involved in economic
    affairs to aid the underprivileged

20
Rise of the Whigs
  • Opposition to Jackson remained less cohesive
  • Dissident groups called themselves Whigs
  • Those who did not like Jackson were drawn to the
    Whigs
  • Poor leadership made the rise of the Whigs slow
  • Ran a weak candidate for president in 1836

21
Martin Van Buren
  • Statemanlike with an engaging personality
  • Fought the Bank of the United States
  • Preferred the states to build roads and canals
    rather than the federal government fund it
  • Panic of 1837 hit when he took office-not his
    fault
  • The panic was short-lived

22
Martin Van Buren continued
  • After the panic, cotton prices decline by 1839
  • State governments defaulted on their debts
  • Investors are discouraged
  • Economic depression hit and lasts until 1843
  • He did not cause it, but his politics did nothing
    to help the depression
  • Van Buren decides to keep federal government
    funds somewhere else besides the state banks
  • He decides to remove the government from all
    banking activity

23
Van Buren cont
  • Independent Treasury Act-called for construction
    of government owned vaults to store federal money
  • All payments to the government were to be made in
    cash
  • Not a good system, but it did work well for a few
    years

24
The Log Cabin Campaign
  • Depression hurts the Democrats
  • It did not cause Van Burens defeat in 1840
  • Van Buren lost because the Whigs were better
    organized than before, and they nominated a
    popular general and praised the common man
  • William Henry Harrison
  • W.H.H. had not been born a commoner, but
    campaigned as one
  • Harrison wins in a landslide
  • A month after his inauguration, he dies of
    pneumonia, and John Tyler, his Vice President
    becomes the first Vice to become Pres upon the
    death of the President
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