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FOCUS GROUPS 2

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FOCUS GROUPS 2. According to Edmunds (1999), focus group interviews ' ... Edmunds, H. 1999 The Focus Research Handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. NESSE- THE NINE ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FOCUS GROUPS 2


1
FOCUS GROUPS 2
  • According to Edmunds (1999), focus group
    interviews ... are either guided or unguided
    discussions addressing a particular topic of
    interest or relevance to the group and the
    researcher.

2
WATCH YOUR CARBS THE TATOR CREW
  • The agitator

3
WATCH YOUR CARBS THE TATOR CREW
  • The dictator

4
WATCH YOUR CARBS THE TATOR CREW
  • The commentator

5
WATCH YOUR CARBS THE TATOR CREW
  • The spectator

6
WATCH YOUR CARBS THE TATOR CREW
  • The hesitator

7
WATCH YOUR CARBS THE TATOR CREW
  • The facilitator

8
WATCH YOUR CARBS THE TATOR CREW
  • The imitator

9
REVIEW
  • History
  • World War II
  • Focus groups became a staple of marketing in the
    1950s
  • Rediscovered by social scientists in the 1980s
  • The focus group revival during the Clinton era

10
REVIEW
  • Qualitative method/critique
  • Qualitative research examines how people
    attribute meaning and interpret
    their world.
  • Should not generalize to a larger population
  • Beware of the Artificial element

11
DESIGNING A FOCUS GROUP
  • Clearly define your objective
  • experiences
  • knowledge
  • opinions
  • How does a focus group relate to the larger
    project?
  • 9 12 members
  • Location/time
  • Incentives?
  • How will you record and analyze the data?

12
QUESTIONNAIRE
  • Questions should be carefully sequenced
  • Questions- - from general to specific, from less
    sensitive to more sensitive
  • Structured to be how or what questions. Avoid
    Why do you...? - - unless your goal is to note
    rationalizations

13
QUESTIONNAIRE
  • Multiple groups/multiple facilitators-advisable
    to use a structured or semi-structured format
  • Progressive reiteration of question relevancy
    enhances validity

14
QUESTIONNAIRE
  • Opening question-
  • introduces and frames the topic
  • sets the tone of the discussion
  • provides participants time for self-reflection
  • provides all participants an opportunity to
    contribute
  • identify characteristics that participants have
    in common- -
  • nurtures conversation
  • assists in the discussion of sensitive topics

15
QUESTIONNAIRE
  • Final question
  • individual perspectives may change during the
    discussion (changes should be noted and can be
    addressed in a final question)
  • participants should be given an opportunity to
    clarify and summarize their thoughts

16
FACILITATING A FOCUS GROUP
  • Facilitators should explain the purpose and
    operation of the group
  • Introductory activity optional (e.g., their
    favorite hobby, occupation, etc.)
  • Primary goal is to nurture an atmosphere which
    encourages subjects to speak freely

17
FACILITATING A FOCUS GROUP
  • Short question-and-answer discussion-
  • ask a question with an open forum
  • ask each member the same question and then allow
    for group discussion.
  • Sensitive issues, such as drug use, deviant
    behaviors, mental health issues, etc.
  • approach the issue in broad terms to provide
    opportunity for more specific issues and
    responses.

18
FACILITATING A FOCUS GROUP
  • Verbal and non-verbal communication
  • Dramaturgical principle
  • Dramaturgical awareness
  • Four possibilities
  • an individual does not care how he/she is seen by
    others
  • an individual exudes an impression
    unintentionally
  • an individual wishes to communicate with others
    how he/she experiences the world
  • an individual consciously attempts to make a
    specific impression on others

19
REFERENCES
  • Brissett, Dennis and Charles Edgley
  • 1990 Life as Theater A Dramaturgical Source
    Book. Second edition. New York Aldine de
    Gruyter.
  • Berg, Bruce L.
  • 2004 Qualitative Research Methods For the
    Social Sciences.
    Fifth edition. Boston Allyn and Bacon.
  • Edmunds, H.
  • 1999 The Focus Research Handbook. Thousand
    Oaks, CA Sage.

20
NESSE- THE NINE
  • Question 9a- Preparing for class (studying,
    reading, writing, doing homework or lab work,
    analyzing data, rehearsing, and other activities
    related to your academic program).
  • Mean differences for Fr-
  • 2006 UCO-2006 Urban (-.29)
  • 2006 UCO-2006 Carnegie (-.36)
  • 2006 UCO-2006 NSSE (-.58)
  • The nine series value labels (hours per week)
  • 1 0, 2 1-5, 3 6-10, 4 11-15, 5 16-20
  • 6 21-25, 7 26-30, 8 30
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