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Church Reform and Crusades

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Chapter 14. Section 1. Church Reform and Crusades. Simony. This was selling positions in the church. ... Friars were a church group that owned nothing and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Church Reform and Crusades


1
Chapter 14
  • Section 1
  • Church Reform and Crusades

2
Simony
  • This was selling positions in the church.

3
St Francis of Assisi
  • Friars were a church group that owned nothing and
    begged for food.
  • St Francis of Assisi was a famous friar, who
    treated all creatures as his spiritual brothers
    and sisters.
  • He founded the Franciscans friars

4
Cathedrals-Cities of God
  • Gothic were the new style of Churches or
    Cathedrals.
  • They were towering structures that seemed to
    reach towards the heavens.
  • Light came through the stained glass windows.

5
The Crusades
6
Urban II
  • In 1093, The Byzantine emperor asked for help
    against the Muslims.
  • Pope Urban II to begin a crusade or a holy war.
  • He wanted Christians to gain control of the
    Jerusalem and the entire Holy Lands.

7
The first Crusades
  • It began in 1096.
  • Badly organized, yet the Crusaders did capture
    some of the Holy lands including Jerusalem.

8
Chapter 14
  • Section 2
  • Trade, Towns and Financial Revolution

9
Growing food Supply
  • Food supply increased because of three factors.
  • 1.Warmer weather between 800 and 1200.
  • 2. Horses were used because of a new type of
    harness, horses could do twice the work of an
    oxen.
  • 3. Three-field system- crop rotation, farmers
    would plant on 2 fields and left 1 field
    unplanted. This produced a greater yield of
    food.

10
guilds
  • Craft workers started make goods.
  • The workers joined a guild, which is an
    organization of workers of the same job.
  • As a town grew, craft guilds were formed.

11
moneylenders
  • Many of Europes Jews lived in towns and were
    money lenders. Christians could not lend money
    for interest. It was considered a sin called
    usury.
  • This was one of the few things that Jews could do.

12
Vernacular
  • During this time most writers wrote in Latin.
    Some writers started writing in the vernacular or
    the everyday language of their homeland.

13
Writers
  • Some of these writers were Date Alighieri who
    wrote The Divine Comedy (in Italian).
  • Geoffrey Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales (in
    English).

14
Scholastics
  • Men like Aquinas and other scholars that studied
    at universities were known as scholastics.
  • They used their knowledge of Aristotle to debate
    many issues of their time.
  • Their knowledge of law influenced much of western
    Europe.

15
Thomas Aquinas
  • A scholar who wrote that the most basic religious
    truths can be proved by logical argument.
  • He wrote the Summa Theologica.
  • He combined ancient Greek thought with Christian
    thought.

16
Section 3
  • England and France Develop

17
William the Conqueror
  • In Jan 1066, King Edward of England died without
    an heir to the throne.
  • William the duke of Normandy, was a cousin of
    Edward. William claimed the throne and invaded
    England.
  • His rival was Harold Godwinson, the Anglo-Saxon
    who claimed the throne.

18
Battle of Hastings
  • On Oct, 14, 1066, the Normans and the Saxons
    fought the battle that changed the course of
    English history, The battle of Hastings.
  • After Harold was killed by an arrow in the eye,
    the Normans won a decisive victory.
  • With this victory, William claimed all of England
    as his personal property.

19
Henry II
  • One of Williams descendants tried to hold and
    add to the land they had in France, as well
    increase control in England.
  • Henry II was one of the strongest of Williams
    descendants

20
Eleanor of Aquitaine
  • Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine, who had
    been married to King Louis VII of France.
  • From this marriage, Henry gained more territory
    in France.

21
Parliament
  • Another step toward limiting the king came in the
    1200s.
  • Edward I needed to raise taxes for a war against
    France.
  • He called for representatives from all of
    England. It was called Parliament.
  • His model of Parliament was attended by Bishops,
    nobles, and common people.

22
Magna Carta
  • Henry IIs son, King John had problems.
  • A poor military leader, his harsh rule caused his
    nobles to rebel against him.
  • In 1215, they forced him to sign the Magna Carta.
  • This put a limit on the Kings power and only
    protected the nobility.

23
Capetian Dynasty rules France
  • This was a new dynasty in France.
  • The first ruler was Hugh Capet.
  • One of the most successful kings of this dynasty
    was Phillip II, he tripled the land under his
    control and made a stronger central government.
  • His grandson Louis IX, he set up royal courts.
    King Phillip IV also called for a meeting of
    representatives which included common people.
  • This meeting was called the Estates General.

24
Section 4
  • A Century of Turmoil

25
Avignon
  • In 1300, the pope stated that he had power over
    King Phillip IV.
  • Phillip refused to obey him and held the pope
    prisoner and planned to put him on trial.
  • The pope was rescued but soon died.
  • The King then forced an election of a French
    pope, where the pope moved to Avignon in France.
  • This action weakened the church.

26
Great Schism
  • When the French pope died, an Italian pope was
    elected.
  • The French then elected their own pope.
  • Confusion resulted and church officials had two
    popes, one in France and the other in Rome.
  • This situation lasted 39 years and it was called
    the Great Schism.

27
John Wycliff
  • An English scholar who argued that Jesus Christ
    is the true head of the church not the pope.

28
John Huss
  • A Bohemian who argued that the bible not the pope
    had the final authority for Christian teachings.
  • Huss was then burned at the stake for being a
    heretic.

29
Bubonic Plague
  • This deadly disease struck in 1347 and lasted
    decades.
  • The disease wiped out one-third of European
    population

30
Hundred Years War
  • A century long war also helped bring the Middle
    ages to an end.
  • The last Captian king of France died without and
    heir.
  • Edward III of England claimed the throne.
  • In 1337, he began a war to win control of France.
  • This conflict is known as the Hundred years war.

31
longbows
  • The English won 3 important battles Crecy,
    Poitiers, and Agincourt.
  • The archers used longbows.
  • These weapons launched arrows that killed
    one-third of the French troops.

32
Joan of Arc
  • A French teenage peasant girl who led the French
    army and broke the siege at Orleans.
  • Joan was later captured by allies of the English
    turned over to the church.
  • She was tried as a witch and burned at the stakes.

33
End of the hundred years war
  • It ended in 1453.
  • Most of the fighting took place in France, which
    caused much suffering there.
  • The war did however, produce a strong national
    feeling in both France and England.
  • It provided the sense that the king was not just
    a feudal lord but a leader of a nation.
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