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Multiple comparisons

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A priori comparisons are planned before the data are collected. ... For example, with three comparisons, set a at .0167, so that the total Type I ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Multiple comparisons


1
Multiple comparisons
  • What do we do with a significant
  • F ratio?

2
A priori (planned) comparisons
  • A priori comparisons are planned before the data
    are collected.
  • One strategy is to allow the Type I error rate
    for the study to rise, in order to maximize power
    and minimize Type II error rates.
  • For that strategy to be effective, make very few
    two-group comparisons -- the ones specified in
    your research hypotheses.

3
Planned comparisons
  • Another strategy for planned comparisons sets the
    a level lower than .05, in order to keep the
    experimentwise error rate at a.
  • For example, with three comparisons, set a at
    .0167, so that the total Type I error rate will
    be .0167 .0167 .0167 .05
  • That approach sacrifices power, and increases
    Type II error. Sound familiar?

4
Orthogonality in planned comparisons
  • Some scholars insist that planned comparisons
    must be orthogonal or independent. Only k - 1
    comparisons can be orthogonal.
  • Orthogonal comparisons have coefficients which
    when multiplied together sum to 0
  • Contrast A 1 -1 0 S 0
  • Contrast B .5 .5 -1 S 0
  • Product (A x B) .5 -.5 0 S 0

5
Using t for planned comparisons
  • Using either orthogonal contrast coefficients or
    a minimum number of contrasts (textbook
    approach), you could compare two groups using the
    independent samples t or ANOVA.
  • t M1 - M2 M1 - M2
  • SM1 -M2 SS1 SS2 1 1
  • n1 n2 - 2 n1 n2
  • But, since you already know MSW, use it


6
t with MSW
  • t M1 - M2 M1 - M2
  • MSW 1 1 sW2 1 1
  • n1 n2 n1 n2
  • Obviously, if n1 n2, the denominator
  • simplifies to 2sW2/n

7
A posteriori tests
  • Several post hoc tests have been developed to
    find the differences between means if the ANOVA F
    ratio is significant.
  • Tukeys HSD keeps the total Type I error rate
    (the experimentwise error rate) at a.
  • Newman-Keuls keeps the Type I error rate at a for
    each comparison.

8
Tukeys HSD
  • Both Tukey and Newman-Keuls use the studentized
    range distribution, q, rather than t or F.
  • qobt Mi - Mj
  • MSW/n
  • where i refers to the larger mean and n is the
    sample size, with all samples being the same
    size..

9
Evaluating Tukey
  • Use table B-5 to find the critical value of q.
  • If qobt gt qcrit, reject H0. If not, retain H0.
  • Analogous to the confidence interval approach,
    you can simplify multiple Tukey HSD tests by
    determining the size of the mean difference (Mi
    Mj ) that is significant
  • HSD q MSW/n
  • Any mean differences that equal or exceed HSD are
    significant.

10
Newman-Keuls test
  • Calculation of qobt is the same as for Tukeys
    HSD.
  • The value of qcrit differs for each comparison,
    depending on r, the number of means encompassed
    by the two means being compared.
  • Compare qobt to the appropriate qcrit starting
    from the largest and moving down as far as
    necessary Logic.

11
The case of unequal sample sizes
  • If sample sizes are not equal, but are not
    greatly different, either, you may use Tukeys
    HSD or Newman-Keuls.
  • However, what value of n should you use in the
    equation?
  • Use the harmonic mean
  • n k .
  • (1/n1) (1/n2) (1/nk)


12
The Scheffe test
  • This is a very conservative test, with relatively
    low power.
  • F is still equal to MSB / MSW , but MSB is
    re-computed using only the two groups being
    compared.

MSB
F is compared to the same critical value as for
the ANOVA.
13
Type I Error and Power
  • Which of the three approaches has the highest
    risk of Type I error?
  • Which has the most power?
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