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Museum Entrance


... Keet Seel prior to Navajos occupying the area in which Keet Seel is located. ... If you ever visit Keet Seel, you will see the toe holds that are imbedded in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Museum Entrance

Museum Entrance
Welcome to the Native American Housing Museum
Press for Curator
Room 2
Cliff Dwellings
Museum Entrance
Room 3
Museum Entrance
Room 4
Dine Hogans
Museum Entrance
Apaches on Horseback
  • Apaches were a nomadic tribe, which means that
    they travelled and did not typically stay
    anywhere permanently. Apaches were hunters and
    followed small game such as rabbits and deer.
    They constructed their houses out of nearby
    materials. There are bushes and trees that could
    have been gathered to build a wickiup. This is a
    prime location to set up camp due to the water
  • I chose this picture, because it portrays the
    tribe as nomadic, and the materials readily
    available for housing is apparent.

Image acquired at http//
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A Wickiup Under Construction
  • Bent branches form the framework of this
    Chiricahua Apache dwelling. This dome structure
    will soon be covered in grass or brush and tied
    in place with yucca by the women of the tribe.
    Women are the builders of the wickiups. These
    dwellings are waterproofed by covering the
    thatched grass with animal skins.
  • I chose this picture, because the internal
    framework is apparent, showcasing its
    beautiful-dome shape.

Image acquired at http//
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Traditional Wickiup
  • In a matter of days, the wickiup is completed.
    Any repairs need to be done will be completed by
    the women. The wickiup has a hole in the middle
    to allow the smoke to escape from a central fire.
    Pottery is stored outside the wickiup. When
    its time to move on, the wickiup is torched.
  • I chose this picture because it shows a
    completed dwelling. I like the artistry of the
    earthen jars.

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Chiricahua Wickiup
  • A Chiricahua family sits in the entrance
    of their wickiup. The family looks quite
    comfortable in their environmentally-friendly and
    camouflaged structure. This particular wickiup
    looks rather large. Most wickiups have a
    circular base of about 8 feet and a height of 5-6
  • I included this picture, because it reminded me
    of something I read in New Worlds For All. A
    Micmac chief asked French visitors in the 17th
    century, Do we not have in our dwelling all the
    conveniences and advantages that you have in
    yours, such as reposing, drinking, and sleeping,
    eating, and amusing ourselves with friends?

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Cliff Palace
  • Cliff Palace is located at Mesa Verde National
    Park. It has 217 rooms and 23 kivas (a place for
    ceremonies). Cliff Palace was constructed by
    Ancient Puebloans. They built apartment-like
    housing. Wooden ladders were used to access the
    upper stories. As population increased, they
    just built another room. At Mesa Verde National
    Park, there are many other cliff-side apartment
  • Cliff Palace is incredible. To complete such a
    task without the benefit of technology is
    astounding. Baskets and yucca sandals have been
    found at Mesa Verde National Park, giving some
    insight as to how the people lived.

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Keet Seel
  • The Hisatsinom built Keet Seel prior to Navajos
    occupying the area in which Keet Seel is located.
    Even though it is now on Navajo land, it is not
    a Navajo structure. It is an Ancient Puebloan
    dwelling. The term Hisatsinom replaces the
    term Anasazi. Anasazi is a Navajo word which
    means enemies of long ago. Hopis are
    descendants of the Anasazi. However, Hopis
    object to the term Anasazi, because they never
    refer to someone as their enemy.
  • I chose this picture because it provides a
    close-up view of a cliff dwelling. If you ever
    visit Keet Seel, you will see the toe holds that
    are imbedded in the rock that enabled the
    Hisatsinom to climb up to their house.

Image acquired at http//
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Masonry Example
  • This is a section of a wall to a building at
    Chaco Canyon. Sandstone, mortar and wooden beams
    were the three primary construction materials.
    The Ancestral Puebloans shaped each sandstone
    block using harder stones collected from nearby
    river beds. The mortar between the blocks is a
    mixture of soil, water, and ash. Tiny pieces of
    stone are fitted in the mortar. This is called
    chinking. Chinking stones fill in the gaps
    within the mortar and add structural stability to
    the walls.
  • I chose this picture, because it gives a
    detailed view of the construction of a typical
    Pueblo dwelling. Today, on the Hopi
    reservation, traditional Hopi homes are built
    using this method. Hopis are descended from
    Ancient Puebloans. Hopis refer to their
    ancestors as Hisatsinom.

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Montezumas Castle
  • Montezumas Castle is located near Camp Verde,
    Arizona. It was mistakenly named after an Aztec
    chieftain. However, this cliff dwelling was
    occupied by Sinagua Indians 1100 1400, several
    years before Christopher Columbus stepped foot on
    North America. It was built inside a rock
    overhang 70 feet above Beaver Creek. Montezumas
    Castle has 5 stories and 20 rooms. Around 1400,
    this dwelling was abandoned for reasons unknown.
  • I picked this picture, because Montezumas
    Castle is high above the ground. Standing 70
    feet below this high-rise dwelling, one realizes
    how dangerous it was to go home and leave home.
    How many people fell? What did they do to mend
    broken bones? Did they have a way to hoist game
    or water? Montezumas Castle is camouflaged
    inside the cliff, which leads me to wonder, who
    or what were they afraid of?

Image acquired at http//
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Longhouse Construction
  • Houses reflect the materials available. The
    northeast had an abundance of trees. Therefore,
    tribes, such as the Iroquois, constructed
    longhouses out of trees. Rows of posts were put
    into holes dug into the ground. Wood is bent to
    form a semi-circle frame. The Iroquois tied the
    bent poles and posts together with long strips of
  • I chose this picture because it shows the
    framework of a longhouse. It shows bent wooden
    poles in the shape of a semi-circle.

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Bark Covered Longhouse
  • After the framework was put into place, the
    longhouse was then covered with sheets of elm
    bark. Bark was peeled from large trees. Then,
    it was flattened, and rocks were placed on the
    bark to keep it from curling as it was drying.
    Elm tree bark has deep grooves. The Iroquois
    used these grooves to channel rain water. After
    the bark was placed over the frame, small poles
    were placed on the outside of the longhouse to
    keep the wind from ripping off the bark.
  • I chose this picture because the bark and the
    outside poles are visible. Furthermore, the
    picture shows how tall a longhouse can be.
    Behind the longhouse, there are lots of trees.
    The forests were an important part of their
    culture. Deforestation by the colonists
    exhausted the Iroquois building materials.

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Longhouse Interior Lay-Out
  • The interior of a longhouse was divided into
    compartments. One family would live in the
    compartment on the left, and another family would
    live in the compartment on the right. A fire
    burned in the middle of the aisle. There could
    have been several fires burning in the aisles at
    one time. The Iroquois put holes in the roof to
    allow the smoke to escape. A piece of bark was
    used to the hole so that the flap could be opened
    and closed depending on the weather. A platform
    was added to provide storage for corn, pots, or
    tobacco. The framework poles provided drying
    racks for corn or fruit.
  • I chose this picture because it reproduces
    Iroquois life inside the longhouse.

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Inside a Longhouse
  • The Iroquois lead a communal life. Many
    families who were of the same clan would share a
    longhouse. The length of the longhouse depended
    on how many people lived inside. Longhouses
    ranged from 30 feet to 220 feet. European
    influences changed Iroquois housing. The
    Iroquois started building single-family log
    cabins. Communal living decreased, and the bonds
    between Iroquois families weakened.
  • I chose this picture because it shows the
    openness of Iroquois living. Today people live
    private lives. The ties between members of the
    Iroquois community had to be incredibly strong to
    live daily life under the scrutiny of others.
    What if I had to live with my mom, dad, brother,
    sister-in-law, sister, brother-in-law, aunts,
    uncles, nieces, and nephews in a longhouse?

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Male Hogan
  • This is a picture of an early Navajo Hogan.
    This is called a forked-stick hogan or male
    hogan. It is a cone-shaped structure made out
    of packed mud. Male hogans were built during
    the 1600s and 1700s. Navajos began herding
    sheep. The introduction of sheep brought about a
    lifestyle change. As they acquired more and more
    sheep, Navajos accumulated more possessions.
    More possessions meant that they needed a bigger
    hogan. So they built a female hogan.
  • I chose this picture because it is rare to see a
    male hogan. Today, male hogans are used for
    sweat lodges. The female hogan is the place
    where the family eats and sleeps. Also, the
    people outside the hogan indicate that the hogan
    was a home regardless of his rudimentary

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Female Hogan
  • With the introduction of sheep and farming,
    Navajos needed more space. They built a larger
    rounder dwelling. This is called a female
    hogan. It is female because the hogan resembles
    a flared skirt. Ceremonies are held in hogans.
    A hogan is a large open room with a stove in the
    middle. All movements made inside the hogan are
    clockwise. Nails are not used. Door hinges
    used to be constructed from the soles of shoes.
  • I chose this picture because it contrasts the
    male and female hogan. On the Navajo
    reservation, these kinds of hogans can still be
    seen. Even though they are not usually inhabited
    on a long-term basis, Navajos still stay in them
    when they are herding sheep.

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Hexagonal Hogan
  • The building of the railroad brought new
    materials, such as railroad ties. The railroad
    ties changed the hogans shape from round to
    hexagon. The doorway always faces the east to
    welcome the morning sun. Because Navajos are
    sheepherders, the women weave rugs with intricate
    designs. A beautiful Navajo rug hangs in the
    doorway of a hogan.
  • I chose this picture because it shows the
    changes of the hogan over time. Technology
    brought changes to housing structures. Also,
    the Navajo rug gives some insight into their
    culture. Navajo rugs are popular today. Rugs
    cost anywhere from hundreds of dollars to
    thousands of dollars.

Image acquired at http//
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Modern Hogan
  • Hogans are an important part of the Navajo
    culture. On the Navajo reservation, it is common
    to see hogans. They are no longer built with
    railroad ties and mud, but they still have
    retained their shape and their ceremonial
    significance. Hogans have one room and are about
    23 feet in diameter. If they are not occupied,
    they are used for healing ceremonies. If you
    ever enter a hogan always walk clockwise. Men
    sit on the south side, and women sit on the north
    side. If someone of great importance enters the
    hogan, he or she sits on the west side.
  • I chose this picture because after hundreds of
    years Navajos still retain some of their culture,
    a culture that Europeans attempted to stamp out.
    Plus, this is a peaceful picture which
    symbolizes the tranquil nature of the occupants
    of the hogan.

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Traditional Navajo Rug
  • This is the right half of a large
    pictorial-style rug, woven in 1984 by Isabel
    John, a Navajo elder. She lives in Many Farms,
    Arizona. She depicts in her weaving the 9th day
    of a Yeibeichai healing ceremony. Hogans are
    visible in the foreground and background.
    People have come for a ceremony that will take
    place in a hogan, or perhaps, due to the amount
    of sheep, it is time for butchering.
  • I chose this picture because of the artistry.
    It also depicts Navajo lifesheep herding
    butchering, ceremonies, and family togetherness.

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Monica Modesitt
  • Recently, I moved from Tuba City, Arizona to
    Las Vegas, Nevada. In Tuba City I taught 1st
    grade Navajo and Hopi 1st graders for several
    years. Also, I worked with the Hopi Tribe to
    develop a Hopi Culture Curriculum for grades K-6.
    Currently, I teach 4th grade at McMillan
    Elementary School.
  •  While working on my museum, I listened to
    De-Has-De-Na, a song by Sidney Poolheco who is a
    member of the Hopi tribe. The sound of his voice
    calmed my nerves and enabled me to complete this
    project. This project afforded me the
    opportunity to practice with technology before
    introducing it to my students.
  • I learned that there is a rich pictorial
    history of Indigenous People, and a picture adds
    a dimension that words couldn't account for. I
    was surprised to learn that the introduction of
    the railroad brought design changes to the hogan.
    I also learned that the Vikings lived in
    longhouses too. The media basically portrays all
    Native Americans as feather-headdress wearing
    tipi dwellers. This project shows the diversity
    of housing among the tribes, from cliff dwelling
    to hogan to igloo to longhouse to tipi to wickiup
    to wigwam. Completing this project has made me
    want to go back home to the reservation, where in
    some places there is no electricity or running
    water and sand blows in the cracks of the windows
    and coal has to be gathered for heat. Outsiders
    think we're poor, and we live in squalor. But it
    is our home and we are rich with the sound of the
    buffalo dance and the sound of the katsinas
    emerging from the kiva. There definitely is a
    spirit of peace and tranquility, one that can
    only be felt, never explained.
  • Monica Modesitt

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Note Virtual museums were first introduced by
educators at Keith Valley Middle School in
Horsham, Pennsylvania. This template was designed
by Dr. Christy Keeler based on one of the sample
virtual museums provided by the Keith Valley
staff at ISTEs NECC 2005. Contact Dr. Keeler for
more information on using this template.