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Invasive Alien Species: Future Challenges

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Title: Invasive Alien Species: Future Challenges


1
Invasive Alien SpeciesFuture Challenges
  • ____________
  • Jamie K. Reaser
  • Ecos Systems Institute
  • Smithsonian Institution

2
The Global Supermarket and other things
Levetin and McMahon, 1996
3
Lufthansa
4
Problem Definition(s)
  • Alien Species
  • with respect to a particular ecosystem, any
    species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or
    other biological material capable of reproducing
    that species, that is not native to that
    ecosystem.
  • (E.O. 13112, 3 February 1999)
  • exotic, non-native, non-indigenous

5
Problem Definition(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • an alien species whose introduction does or is
    likely to cause econ. or environmental harm or
    harm to human health
  • (E.O. 13112) invasive alien species, alien
    invasive species

6
What Makes a Good Invader?
  • Some examples -
  • rapid growth rate
  • great dispersal capabilities
  • large reproductive output
  • broad environmental tolerance

Western Extermination Company
7
Problem Definition(s)
Vectors the means by which an invasive species
is moved modes (NISC limited to
disease/parasite)
Freight Solutions Intl.
8
Problem Definition(s)
  • Pathways
  • the routes along which an invasive species is
    moved
  • (NISC means of movement)

9
Problem Definition(s)
  • Intentional Introduction
  • Unintentional Introduction

USGS
Stowaways Hitchhikers
10
Causes - The 3 Ts
  • Globalization
  • Trade -Travel -Transport
  • More - Faster - Further

11
Causes - Environmental
Global Climate Change
Land Use Change
12
Consequences - Environmental
  • Invasive species are the 2nd or 3rd most
    significant driver of environmental change
    globally (Sala et al. 2000).
  • Invasive species are the 2nd greatest threat to
    Threatened and Endangered species in the U.S.
    (Wilcove et al. 1988).

13
Consequences - Environmental
  • Significant impact on the structure and function
    of ecosystems and their resultant services.
  • Fire regimes
  • Nutrient cycling
  • Hydrology
  • Energy flow

(c) Jamie K. Reaser
14
Consequences - Environmental
  • Recreation
  • Boating
  • Fishing
  • Hiking/Camping

(c) Jamie K. Reaser
15
Consequences - Economic
Introduced from Latin America as a high protein
food source, the golden apple snail caused losses
to Philippine rice crops during the 1980s of _at_
1 billion (Naylor 1996).
Losses to agriculture globally 55-248
billion/year. Costs to U.S. estimated to be at
least 100 billion/year (Pimentel et al. 2000).
16
Consequences - Human Health
  • Disease epidemics
  • Increased pesticide use
  • Food and water shortages

17
Consequences - Human Health
Giant African Snail (Achnatina fulica)
Thought to have been introduced into Pacific
Basin during military activities associated with
WWII. Now in pet trade. Now established in
Hawaii and Guam (D. Robinson pers. com.). Florida?
Intermediate host for rat lungworm
(Angiostrongylus cantonensis) which can infect
the human brain, causing headache, fever,
paralysis, coma, and even death (Roberts and
Janovy 1996).
18
Consequences - Political
Barriers to Sustainable Development
  • Food Security
  • Human Health
  • Regional Conflict
  • Water Security
  • Poverty
  • Migration

19
Consequences - Political
Opportunities for Sustainable Development
  • Food Security
  • Water Security
  • Employment
  • Education
  • Health Care

South Africas Working for Water Programme
20
Consequences - Political
  • Invasive alien species could prevent governments
    and industries from
  • Selling some types of food products
  • Selling living commodities
  • Using certain kinds of containers

Barriers to international trade and economic
growth
Freight Solutions Intl.
21
Consequences - Political
Biosecurity
  • Deliberate attacks using biological agents
  • Humans
  • Wildlife
  • Domestic animals and agriculture

22
Addressing the Problem
National Invasive Species Council (NISC)
  • Established by Executive Order 13112 in 1999.
  • Non-Federal Invasive Advisory Committee
  • National Invasive Species Management Plan
    released Jan. 2001.

www.invasivespecies.gov
23
Management Plan
Plan contains 57 actions items, plus many
subelements Government-wide action Two year time
period One of the first in the world
24
Thematic Coordination
Federal Interagency Committee for the Management
of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW) http//blueg
oose.arw.r9.fws.gov/ficmnewfiles/ficmnewhomepage.h
tml Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force (ANSTF)
http//www.anstaskforce.gov
25
Addressing the Problem
  • GOALS
  • Prevention
  • Early Detection
  • Eradication
  • Control
  • Restoration

26
Addressing the Problem
  • Processes
  • Risk Assessment Management
  • Research - Monitoring - Education
  • Policy Regulation - Information Management
  • International Cooperation Capacity Building!

27
Addressing the Problem
More than half of the States have some sort of
invasive species council/committee.
28
Addressing the Problem
The Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP)
SCOPE - IUCN - CABI
  • Informing policy and translating
  • policy into practice

http//www.gisp.org
IISD
29
GISP PHASE I PRODUCTS
30
Future Patterns/Trends
  • Increases in
  • rate
  • volume
  • species diversity
  • vector diversity
  • pathway diversity
  • of invaders

Trade Travel Transport Globalization
31
Future Patterns/Trends
  • Markets

Technologies
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
32
Future Patterns/Trends
  • Synergies
  • Climate Change

GMOs/LMOs
Super Critters Enhancement of traits that
contribute to invasiveness
  • Establishment of new IAS
  • Increased burns drier conditions/types of
    invasives
  • Increased disturbance from burnsyet more
    invasives
  • IAS impacting climate change

(c) Jamie K. Reaser
33
Future Patterns/Trends
Ecosystems
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
  • Cascading changes in
  • Composition
  • Structure
  • Function
  • Services

(c) Jamie K. Reaser
Increasing spatio-temporal scales of impacts
(c) Jamie K, Reaser
34
Future Patterns/Trends
Protected Areas?
(c) Chuck Savall
35
Future Patterns/Trends
Novel Species Level Interactions
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
36
Future Patterns/Trends
Cross-Over Problems
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
37
Future Patterns/Trends
Areas of Impact
Islands
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
Freshwater Systems
Disease
38
Future Patterns/Trends
Conflicts
Land Use
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
Messaging/Decision Making
39
Barriers/Opportunities
  • Knowledge of what to do in science and management
    is NOT the primary barrier!

NISC, ANSTF, FICMNEW, indiv. agencies, State
Councils, NAS, IUCN, GISP, CEC, CBD, Ramsar,
IPPC, 8 regional workshops, numerous meetings and
publications.
40
Barriers/Opportunities
  • Socio-Political
  • Lack of will!
  • Lack of coordination
  • Lack of awareness
  • Conflicting policies
  • Policy gaps
  • Costs

41
Barriers/Opportunities
  • Ethical
  • Animal rights
  • Risks of pesticides
  • Risks of biocontrol

42
Barriers/Opportunities
  • Scientific
  • Complexity
  • Uncertainty
  • Mobility
  • Time lags
  • Definition

43
Barriers/Opportunities
What is an invasive species?

?
(c) Jamie K. Reaser
this shift of focus to invasion stages renders
moot the issue of whether the taxa involved are
native regionally or originate from other
biogeographical areas. (Colautti and MacIssac
2004, Diversity and Distributions)
44
Priorities
Prevention
14. By December 2003, the Council will develop a
fair, feasible, and risk-based comprehensive
screening system for evaluating first-time
intentionally introduced non-native species. To
accomplish this task, appropriate Federal
agencies will take the lead in developing and
testing the screening system based on input from
other Council members, ISAC, State governments,
scientific and technical experts and societies,
and other stakeholders -- including affected
industries and environmental groups. The system
will include recommendations regarding
implementation issues, including the scope of
taxonomic coverage, the degree of initial
screening coverage, and the role of appropriate
regulatory and non-regulatory risk-reducing
tools.
Species Pathways - Ecosystems
45
Priorities
Prevention
20. By January 2003, the Council will implement a
system for evaluating invasive species pathways
and will issue a report identifying, describing
in reasonable detail, and ranking those pathways
that it believes are the most significant. The
report will discuss the most useful tools,
methods, and monitoring systems for identifying
pathways, including emerging or changing
pathways, and for intervening and stopping
introductions most efficiently.
Pathways report October 2003
46
Priorities
Early Detection/Rapid Response 21. The Council
will improve detection and identification of
introduced invasive species, recognizing the need
for jurisdictional coordination, by taking the
following steps (c) By January 2003,USDA,
Interior, Commerce, and EPA will institute
systematic monitoring surveys of locations where
introductions of invasive species are most likely
to occur (e.g., ports, airports, railroads,
highway rights-of-way, trails, utility
rights-of-way, logging and construction sites).
In addition, by January 2002, highly vulnerable
sites that may warrant more intensive and
frequent monitoring than other sites will be
identified.
(www.hazardmaps.org)
47
Priorities
Information Management 22. Starting in January
2001, Interior (especially USGS/Biological
Resources Division) and USDA, in cooperation with
the NSF and SI, will expand regional networks of
invasive species databases e.g., the
Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network,
(IABIN) and produce associated database
products, to cooperate with the Global Invasive
Species Programme (GISP) and other partners to
establish a global invasive species surveillance
and rapid response system.
48
Be Effective!
Profile for Success
You can not solve a problem at the level it was
created. Albert Einstein
Systems Thinking Results-oriented Proactive Fle
xible Long-term.vision and commitment Decisive
People-oriented
People Programs - Institutions
49
Be Effective!
People are the solution the only solution We
must manage peoples values, beliefs, and
behaviors
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