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Planning Differentiated Instruction

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Say that sound with me. / m/ mit. ... Say, 'Does mop start like bag or like mit or like rat?' (pp. 38-39) ... Say-it-and-move-it Script ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Planning Differentiated Instruction


1
Planning Differentiated Instruction
  • Michael C. McKenna
  • University of Virginia
  • Sharon Walpole
  • University of Delaware

2
Choose your clock partners!
12
9 3
6
3
Stage models of reading
  • When children are acquiring literacy developing
    the skills necessary for reading comprehension
    they tend to move through stages in which their
    focus is very different. All along, during each
    stage, they are developing oral language skills.

4
Work with your 1200 clock partner.
12
9 3
6
5
Start thinking . . .
  • If you were trapped on a desert island until you
    could come up with an ideal reading program for
    your school, what would it include?
  • To what extent does your current program include
    these things?
  • If there are missing elements, why dont you
    think the designers included them?

6
Overview
  • Define differentiation
  • Propose instructional diets and groupings
  • Introduce a planning process

7
  • At its most basic level, differentiation
    consists of the efforts of teachers to respond to
    variance among learners in the classroom.
    Whenever a teacher reaches out to an individual
    or small group to vary his or her teaching in
    order to create the best learning experience
    possible, that teacher is differentiating
    instruction.
  • Carol Ann Tomlinson, Differentiation of
    Instruction in the Elementary Grades. ERIC
    Digest. http//www.ericdigests.org/2001-2/elementa
    ry.html

8
(No Transcript)
9
Defining Differentiation (adapted from Tomlinson)
10
Lets think it through
  • Youve read aloud a piece of childrens
    literature to develop vocabulary and
    comprehension.
  • How could you differentiate for students on or
    above grade level, just below grade level, and
    well below grade level?
  • Would you choose to differentiate content,
    process, product, and/or learning environment?
    Why?

11
Lets think it through
  • Make it more complex. You have a class of 20
    students and a well-designed core reading
    program. Your goal is to develop at least
    grade-level competence in decoding, fluency, and
    comprehension.
  • How could you differentiate for students on or
    above grade level, just below grade level, and
    well below grade level?
  • Would you choose to differentiate content,
    process, product, and/or learning environment?
    Why?

12
Researchers have long tried to focus
differentiation for reading
  • Balanced reading was a critical concept in
    literacy history. It curricularized
    differentiation as one part of reading
    instruction. Teachers read aloud from childrens
    literature, engaged in shared reading from big
    books and posters, formed flexible groups for
    guided reading of little books and leveled books,
    and finally provided time for independent reading
    from a wide range of materials.

13
Guided reading …
  • takes advantage of social support and allows the
    teacher to operate efficiently, to work with the
    tension between ease and challenge that is
    necessary to support readers moving forward in
    their learning. (p. 6)
  • Fountas, I. C., Pinnell, G. S. (1996). Guided
    reading Good first teaching for all children.
    Portsmouth, NH Heinemann.

14
(No Transcript)
15
Defining Differentiation (Fountas and Pinnell)
16
Lets think it through
  • You have first graders, 12 of whom have been
    identified as at-risk in the area of decoding by
    your screening assessment.
  • How would a guided reading format support their
    development?
  • What would you gain by planning guided reading
    for all of them?
  • What would you lose by planning guided reading
    for all of them?

17
Approaches to Differentiation
  • By instructional level
  • By fluency level
  • By assessed needs

18
  • This text was dedicated specifically to coaches
    and teachers in Reading First schools. It is
    derived from challenges and lessons in
    implementing Reading First.

19
Differentiation is
  • instruction that helps children accomplish
    challenging tasks that are just out of their
    reach
  • instruction that targets a particular group of
    childrens needs directly and temporarily
  • instruction that applies a developmental model
  • Walpole, S., McKenna, M. C. (2007).
    Differentiated reading instruction Strategies
    for the primary grades. New York Guilford Press.

20
Stage models of reading
  • When children are acquiring literacy developing
    the skills necessary for reading comprehension
    they tend to move through stages in which their
    focus is very different. All along, during each
    stage, they are developing oral language skills.

21
Work with your 300 clock partner.
12
9 3
6
22
Take Five
Think about your most successful grade level.
How are you managing whole-group, small-group,
and intervention instruction? Discuss your
progress with a partner.
23
Think about last years instruction.
  • How well did your strongest students do?
  • How well did your middle group do?
  • How well did your struggling students do?

24
  • It may be hard to accept, but the results youre
    getting are the results youre supposed to be
    getting. In other words, whatever you are doing
    right now is bringing you the results you are
    getting right now . . . Change what you are doing
    and you can change your results. Pretty simple
    really.

Vitale, J. (2006). Life's missing instruction
manual The guidebook you should have been given
at birth. Hoboken, NJ John Wiley and Sons.
25
I define insanity as doing the same thing over
and over and expecting to get different
results. Einstein
26
Our school visits in Virginia and other states
indicate that differentiated instruction is not
yet fully realized.
27
Setting the stage for differentiation requires
careful analysis of the core.
28
Decide what to teach when.
  • We are more likely to achieve improvements in
    vocabulary and comprehension for K and 1st grade
    during whole-group read-alouds, using both core
    selections and childrens literature.
  • We can introduce and practice phonemic awareness
    and phonics concepts during whole group, but
    were more likely to achieve mastery during
    small-group time.

29
Decide what to teach when.
  • We are more likely to achieve improvements in
    fluency and comprehension in 2nd and 3rd grade if
    we introduce them in whole-group and practice in
    small-group time.
  • We can introduce word recognition concepts during
    whole-group time, but we will likely achieve
    mastery only during small-group time.

What do we have to do to accomplish this?
30
Make more time for small groups.
  • Reading coaches and grade-level teams must
    determine exactly how to use the core program
  • Sort core instructional components from extension
    and enrichment activities
  • Moderate and control instructional pacing so that
    early introductions and reviews are fast

What do we have to do to accomplish this?
31
Make a very simple stations rotation.
  • Look for materials already in the core.
  • Consider daily paired readings and rereadings.
  • Consider a daily activity linked directly to your
    read-aloud. Your children can write in response
    to that text every day.
  • Make your stations coherent! They are not
    babysitting stations but tools to reinforce and
    extend what you teach.
  • Consider a daily activity linked directly to your
    small-group instruction. Your children can
    practice the things youve introduced.

What do we have to do to accomplish this?
32
Considerations for K stations
  • Strategic and intensive children are struggling
    with letter naming
  • Computer station?
  • Letters for distributed practice at home?
  • Some of the children are not on firm footing with
    phonological awareness
  • Picture sorts
  • Pictures to say and spell

33
Considerations for 1st-grade stations
  • Fluency
  • Paired rereading of old stories
  • Paired reading of additional texts (benchmark)
  • Phonics
  • Picture sorts, word sorts
  • Spelling for sounds
  • Vocabulary/Comprehension
  • Listening station

34
Considerations for 2nd-grade stations
  • Fluency
  • Assisted fluency work for intensive
  • Paired rereading of old stories for strategic
  • Paired reading of additional texts for benchmark
  • Phonics
  • First-grade materials?
  • Intervention materials?
  • Practice with core vocabulary
  • Vocabulary/Comprehension
  • Listening station with retelling sheet
    (intensive)
  • Leveled books and expository texts with retelling
    sheets (strategic and benchmark)

35
Considerations for 3rd-grade stations
  • Fluency
  • Assisted fluency work for intensive
  • Paired rereading of old stories for strategic
  • Paired reading of additional texts for benchmark
  • Phonics
  • First-grade materials?
  • Intervention materials?
  • Practice with core vocabulary
  • Vocabulary/Comprehension
  • Listening station with retelling sheet
    (intensive)
  • Leveled books and expository texts with retelling
    sheets (strategic and benchmark)

36
Now you have set the stage for differentiated
reading instruction.
  • Its time to plan.
  • Gather your resources.
  • Consider your childrens needs.
  • Try it out.

37
A Basic Template
38
A Basic Template
39
A three-week cycle for differentiated instruction
  • Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition
  • Word Recognition and Fluency
  • Fluency and Comprehension
  • Vocabulary and Comprehension

40
Differentiating Instruction for Phonemic
Awareness, Phonics, and Word Recognition
41
Questions
  • Who needs this type of instruction?
  • What data must be gathered?
  • What planning decisions must be made?
  • What are some tricks of the trade?

42
  • We are combining ideas from Chapters 3 and 4

43
What are we trying to teach?
  • These children still need to work on learning
    letter names and sounds, and they are not yet
    able to segment phonemes automatically.
  • They will work on coordinated activities to
    manipulate phonemes, learn new letters and
    sounds, and review letters previously taught.
  • They will work with letters and words during
    small-group time.

44
How will we know when weve accomplished our goal?
  • When children are able to segment and blend
    sounds easily, we should change our focus to word
    recognition and fluency. In that group, we will
    continue to work with word recognition, but we
    will be using phonics-controlled text for
    practice.
  • Remember that our goal is to make each of our
    groupings temporary and targeted.

45
A Stairway to Proficiency
Vocabulary Comprehension
Fluency and Comprehension
Word Recognition and Fluency
PA and Word Recognition
46
Who is likely to need this type of differentiated
instruction?
47
Letter naming and phonological awareness data
suggest problems
  • We KNOW These children are not on track for
    achieving the spring first-grade fluency goals
  • We NEED to know Which letter names they need and
    whether they have been taught

48
Lets find out
  • Give a letter-name inventory (in random order) to
    see which letters they need.
  • Use your phonics scope and sequence to see
    whether theyve had an opportunity to learn those
    letters yet!
  • (For early emergent readers, find out whether
    they can sing, say, and finger-point the alphabet
    with an alphabet strip.)

49
Ability to segment words into phonemes is weak
  • We KNOW These children are not on track for
    achieving the spring-first grade fluency goals.
  • We can FIGURE OUT Whether they can segment to
    onset-rime or phoneme-by-phoneme.

50
Lets find out
  • For children with extremely low scores, use an
    informal phonological awareness screening to see
    whether they can respond to syllables or onsets
    and rimes.

51
Phonics data suggest a problem
  • We KNOW These children are not on track for
    achieving the spring first-grade fluency goals
  • We NEED to know What letter sounds letter
    patterns they need to learn and whether they can
    blend sounds.

52
Lets find out
  • Give a letter-sound inventory (in random order)
    to see which sounds they need
  • Use your phonics scope and sequence to see
    whether theyve had an opportunity to learn those
    sounds yet!

53
Lets find out
  • Use your scope and sequence documents to identify
    all of the words that youve taught already
  • Give a high-frequency word inventory only for
    those words.

54
And one more thing
  • Find out whether these children have concept of
    word (the ability to finger-point while
    pretending to read a memorized text).
  • You can do this with any poem or text that youve
    already used often enough that the children have
    memorized it, but it must have at least some
    two-syllable words.

55
It was raining.
56
It was raining.
Teacher You can push these cards together so
that the words are covered up. Watch!
57
It was raining.
Teacher You can push these cards together so
that the words are covered up. Watch!
58
It was raining.
Teacher Now you push them together so that just
one word is covered.
59
It was raining.
60
Now youre ready!
  • Do you have one group or two?
  • There may be one small group of extremely weak
    students, without any real alphabet knowledge.
  • Generally, it will be difficult to work with more
    than 5 students at a time
  • Combine all of the items that they dont know
    into one list.

61
Combining these results will provide you a
collection of known and unknown items for each
child their needs will probably not be exactly
the same.
62
To make your plan, start with the letter names
and sounds
  • Divide them into sets of two (and then you can
    add a review letter each day to make three)
  • Now choose your Phonemic Awareness strategy.
    Read pages 36-47. Think about whether you have
    pictures and manipulatives to use.

63
Initial Sound Sorting Script
  • Today we are going to work with words that have
    different beginning sounds. Some of our words
    will sound like /b/ bag, /b/ bag, /b/ bag. Say
    that with me. /b/ bag. Others will sound like
    /m/ mit, /m/ mit, /m/ mit. Say that sound with
    me. /m/ mit. The rest of the words we will work
    with sound like /r/ rat, /r/ rat, /r/ rat. Say
    that one with me. /r/ rat. Then introduce the
    first additional picture for the day. Say, Does
    mop start like bag or like mit or like rat? (pp.
    38-39)

64
Segmenting and Blending Script
  • Ill say the sounds in a word slowly, then you
    say them fast. ffff/iiii/zzzz. Say them fast.
    Fizz. mmmm/aaaa/nnnn. Say them fast. Man.
    p/iiii/nnnn. Say them fast. Pin.
  • Lets say the sounds in the word fizz slowly.
    /ffff/ /iiii/ /zzzz/. I hear three sounds in
    fizz. Lets say the sounds in man. /mmmm/ /aaaa/
    /nnnn/. I hear three sounds in man. Say the
    sounds in pin. /p/ /iiii/ /nnnn/. I hear three
    sounds in pin. (p. 41)

65
You can use a slinky to demonstrate sound
stretching!
66
Say-it-and-move-it Script
  • Line up your markers on your arrow, and get your
    finger ready to say it and move it. Ill say a
    word. You say my word slowly. Then you say it
    and move it.

67
Say-it-and-move-it Script
  • ffffffffff

68
Say-it-and-move-it Script
  • iiiiiiiiiii

69
Say-it-and-move-it Script
  • zzzzzzz

70
Move to Word Recognition Instruction
  • For your very weakest children, youll need to
    teach letter names and sounds read pages 56-58.
  • You can also teach them high-frequency words.

71
Choose your Strategies
  • Read pages 58 to 67. Sounding and blending is
    appropriate for students who know at least a few
    letter sounds (including at least one vowel).
    Letter patterns are for students who can already
    sound and blend. Decoding by analogy is too hard
    for this group!

72
Letter-Name and Letter-Sound Script
  • The name of this letter is ___. What name?
    (Students respond chorally.) The sound of this
    letter is ____. What sound? (Students respond
    chorally.) For new letters, some additional
    instruction might be useful. Here is a new
    letter. Watch me write it. The teacher
    demonstrates, verbalizing the strokes. Now you
    write it with me (in the air or on dry-erase
    boards). The name of this letter is ____. What
    name? (Students respond chorally.) The sound of
    this letter is ____. What sound? (Students
    respond chorally.) (p. 58)

73
Sounding and Blending Script
  • We are going to start today by sounding and
    blending some words. The way that you do that is
    to look at each letter, say each sound out loud
    and then say them fast to make a word. Listen to
    me. /p/ /i/ /g/ pig. Now you try /p/ /i/ /g/
    pig. When you come to a word that you dont know
    you can sound and blend it. (p. 61)

74
  • You can use Elkonin boxes to teach letter sounds
    as well as phonemes.

p
i
g
75
Letter Patterns Script
  • Today we will work on reading and spelling three
    vowel patterns. The /at/ pattern is the sound at
    the end of the word cat. It is spelled a-t. The
    /et/ pattern is the sound at the end of the word
    pet. It is spelled e-t. The /it/ pattern is the
    sound at the end of the word sit. It is spelled
    i-t. First I want you to listen to words and
    tell me whether they sound like cat, pet, or
    sit.
  • Lets look at the spellings for all of the words
    that sound like cat. Notice that words with the
    /at/ sound have the a-t pattern. You can use
    that pattern when you read or spell a-t words.

76
High-Frequency Word Script
  • Today we are going to learn to read and spell
    some really useful words. The first word is
    from. Say that word. Now watch me count the
    sounds in from. /f/ /r/ /u/ /m/. We hear four
    sounds. Say the sounds with me. Now watch me
    spell the word from. The first sound we hear in
    from is /f/, and it is spelled with the letter f.
    The second sound we hear in from is /r/, and it
    is spelled with the letter r. The third sound we
    hear in from is /u/, and it is spelled with the
    letter o. The last sound we hear in from is /m/,
    and it is spelled with the letter m.

77
High-Frequency Word Script (cont.)
  • Three of the letters and sounds in from are easy
    to remember. The only one that is tricky is the
    o. Remember that in the word from, the /u/ sound
    is spelled with the letter o. If you remember
    that, you can easily read and spell from. (p. 66)

78
Gather all of your materials
  • Word lists, word cards, Elkonin boxes, teaching
    scripts, white boards, notebooks everything you
    need
  • (Use books with word lists in them its faster)
  • Remember that our goal is that you plan for three
    weeks at a time

79
The very weakest group
Minute allocations are simply an example based
on a 20-minute session.
80
A more typical group
Use the same words for both activities!
Minute allocations are simply an example based
on a 20-minute session.
81
A more advanced group
Use the same words for both activities!
Minute allocations are simply an example based
on a 20-minute session.
82
Try it out!
  • Remember that we are hoping for a cycle, with
    teacher reflection. Your goal is to move this
    group into a word recognition and fluency group,
    but youve got to be successful here first.
  • At the end of the three weeks, you can use data
    collected as part of the instruction to inform
    your next moves.

83
Work with your 600 clock partner.
12
9 3
6
84
Divide the tasks.
  • First partner reads pp. 36-46, three key PA
    strategies.
  • Second partner reads pp. 56-67, four key word
    recognition strategies.
  • Take turns presenting the strategies to each
    other.
  • Recap key points, but also add critical
    commentary.

85
A three-week cycle for differentiated instruction
  • Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition
  • Word Recognition and Fluency
  • Fluency and Comprehension
  • Vocabulary and Comprehension

86
Differentiating Instruction for Word Recognition
and Fluency
87
Questions
  • Who needs this type of instruction?
  • What data must be gathered?
  • What planning decisions must be made?
  • What are some tricks of the trade?

88
  • We are combining ideas from Chapters 4 and 5

89
What are we trying to teach?
  • These children still need to work on decoding,
    but they can segment and blend phonemes to read
    some words.
  • They will work on coordinated activities to learn
    new letter patterns and review patterns
    previously taught.
  • They will work with words and with
    phonics-focused texts during small-group time.

90
How will we know when weve accomplished our goal?
  • When childrens initial readings of their
    phonics-focused texts are accurate, we can
    redirect our small-group time to fluency and
    comprehension.
  • Remember that our goal is to make each of our
    groupings temporary and targeted.

91
A Stairway to Proficiency
Vocabulary Comprehension
Fluency and Comprehension
Word Recognition and Fluency
PA and Word Recognition
92
Who is likely to need this type of differentiated
instruction?
93
In K, data show adequate phonological awareness
but deficient phonics
  • We KNOW These children are not quite on track
    for achieving the spring first-grade fluency
    goals.
  • We NEED to know Which letter sounds and patterns
    they need and whether they have been taught.

94
Lets find out
  • Give a phonics inventory or a spelling inventory
    to see which sounds and patterns they need.
  • Use your phonics scope and sequence to see
    whether theyve had an opportunity to learn them
    yet!

95
1st grade data show good phonological awareness
but poor phonics
  • We KNOW These children are not on track for
    achieving the spring first-grade fluency goals.
  • We NEED to know Which letter sounds and patterns
    they need and whether they have been taught.

96
Lets find out
  • Give a phonics inventory or a spelling inventory
    to see which sounds and patterns they need.
  • Use your phonics scope and sequence to see
    whether theyve had an opportunity to learn them
    yet!

97
2nd-grade data show weak fluency
  • We KNOW These children are not on track for
    achieving end-of-third-grade goals.
  • We NEED to know Whether it is strictly a fluency
    problem, or whether there are underlying word
    recognition problems.

98
Lets find out
  • Give a phonics or spelling inventory to see which
    patterns they need.
  • Do a high-frequency word inventory to see which
    words they need to learn.
  • If these data are adequate, then you will know
    that you need to focus on fluency and
    comprehension rather than word recognition and
    fluency.

99
Now youre ready!
  • Do you have one group or two?
  • Think about the word recognition data group
    children with similar specific needs (e.g.,
    consonant blends, or short vowels, or
    r-controlled vowels).
  • Think about how low their oral reading fluency
    is. Will you be able to use any of the
    grade-level materials, or will you have to use
    materials designed for an earlier grade level?
  • Combine all of the items that they dont know
    onto one list.

100
Combining these results will provide you a
collection of known and unknown items for each
child their needs will probably not be exactly
the same. However, group so that unknown patterns
are as similar as possible.
101
To make your plan, start with the patterns
  • Rank order them according to the order in which
    they were taught in the scope and sequence, so
    that we teach the simpler ones first.
  • Link them into like sets of two (and then you can
    add a review pattern each day to make three).
  • For example, you could link two specific initial
    consonant blends (bl-, cr-).
  • For example, you could link short a and short e.
  • For example, you could link -or and -ar.
  • For example, you could link -ai and -ea.

102
Now find your texts
  • Gather all of the phonics-controlled texts that
    come with your core or supplemental materials.
    Work with your coach and your team to find
    specific titles that are the best match to the
    phonics items that you need to teach. Consider
    texts for your grade level and also for the grade
    below yours.
  • Let the phonics items you have selected provide
    the order for the texts you will use.

103
Now choose your strategies
  • Read pages 58 to 69. Letter names and sounds
    (earlier in the chapter) should be too simple for
    this group. Choose sounding and blending if the
    phonics data show intensive needs. Choose letter
    patterns or teaching by analogy if the needs are
    isolated to vowel patterns.
  • All children are likely to benefit from the
    high-frequency word strategy.

104
Vary how your students respond
  • Remember that there are many ways for students to
    respond to instruction in small groups. Build in
    variety to increase engagement.
  • In addition to oral responses, children can
  • spell words
  • signal their answers in an every pupil response
    format (e.g., holding up one finger or two
    against the chest).

105
Sounding and Blending Script
  • We are going to start today by sounding and
    blending some words. The way that you do that is
    to look at each letter, say each sound out loud
    and then say them fast to make a word.
  • Listen to me. /p/ /i/ /g/ pig. Now you try /p/
    /i/ /g/ pig.
  • When you come to a word that you dont know you
    can sound and blend it.

106
Letter Patterns Script
  • Today we will work on reading and spelling three
    vowel patterns. The /at/ pattern is the sound at
    the end of the word cat. It is spelled a-t. The
    /et/ pattern is the sound at the end of the word
    pet. It is spelled e-t. The /it/ pattern is the
    sound at the end of the word sit. It is spelled
    i-t.
  • First I want you to listen to words and tell me
    whether they sound like cat, pet, or sit.
  • Lets look at the spellings for all of the words
    that sound like cat. Notice that words with the
    /at/ sound have the a-t pattern. You can use
    that pattern when you read or spell a-t words.

107
Decoding by Analogy Script
  • When I dont know a word, I look for the first
    spelling pattern (the vowel and what comes
    after). I think about my clue words and find a
    word with the same pattern. The clue word might
    be located on the word wall under the vowel
    letter. I tell myself that if I know this clue
    word, the new word must sound like it. Then I
    look for the next spelling pattern. When Ive
    come to the end, I blend the syllables together
    and check to see that my word makes sense.

108
Linnea Ehris Decoding Phases
109
zat
110
Example of a Decoding-by-Analogy Word Wall
111
(No Transcript)
112
Child encounters shrill
113
High-Frequency Word Script
  • Today we are going to learn to read and spell
    some really useful words. The first word is
    from. Say that word. Now watch me count the
    sounds in from. /f/ /r/ /u/ /m/. We hear four
    sounds. Say the sounds with me. Now watch me
    spell the word from. The first sound we hear in
    from is /f/, and it is spelled with the letter f.
    The second sound we hear in from is /r/, and it
    is spelled with the letter r. The third sound we
    hear in from is /u/, and it is spelled with the
    letter o. The last sound we hear in from is /m/,
    and it is spelled with the letter m.

114
High-Frequency Word Script (cont.)
  • Three of the letters and sounds in from are easy
    to remember. The only one that is tricky is the
    o. Remember that in the word from, the /u/ sound
    is spelled with the letter o. If you remember
    that, you can easily read and spell from.

115
Now think about fluency procedures
  • Read pages 70-79. You will need to consider
    several things your level of support and
    strategies for organizing repeated readings.
  • Remember that your goal is to allow the children
    to practice using the phonics patterns that they
    are learning these texts will not likely lend
    themselves to discussion.

116
  • Since your goal is to allow the children a chance
    to practice decoding, try to start at the bottom,
    with whisper reading.

117
Gather or make all of your materials
  • Word lists, word cards, phonics-controlled books,
    teaching scripts, white boards, notebooks
    everything you need
  • (Hint Use books with word lists in them its
    faster.)
  • Remember that our goal is that you plan for three
    weeks at a time

118
The very weakest group
Minute allocations are simply an example based
on a 20-minute session.
119
A more typical group
Minute allocations are simply an example based
on a 20-minute session.
120
A more advanced group
Minute allocations are simply an example based
on a 20-minute session.
121
Try it out!
  • Remember that we are hoping for a cycle, with
    teacher reflection. Your goal is to move these
    children into a fluency and comprehension group,
    but youve got to be successful here first.
  • You may need to repeat a particular lesson for
    two days. Thats fine. You also may need to step
    in with echo or choral reading. Thats fine too.
  • At the end of the three weeks, you can use data
    collected as part of the instruction to inform
    your next moves.

122
Work with your 900 clock partner.
12
9 3
6
123
Divide the tasks.
  • First partner reads pp. 67-69, decoding by
    analogy.
  • Second partner reads pp. 78-79, choral partner
    reading.
  • Take turns presenting the strategies to each
    other.
  • Recap key points, but also add critical
    commentary.

124
A three-week cycle for differentiated instruction
  • Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition
  • Word Recognition and Fluency
  • Fluency and Comprehension
  • Vocabulary and Comprehension

125
Differentiating Instruction for Fluency and
Comprehension
126
Questions
  • Who needs this type of instruction?
  • What data must be gathered?
  • What planning decisions must be made?
  • What are some tricks of the trade?

127
  • We are combining ideas from Chapters 5 and 7

128
What are we trying to teach?
  • These children possess relatively strong decoding
    skills, but they lack adequate automaticity for
    fluent reading.
  • They will work to build fluency in texts that are
    at or slightly below grade level during
    small-group time.
  • They will build comprehension through the same
    texts.
  • Limited word-recognition instruction may be
    provided.

129
How will we know when weve accomplished our goal?
  • When childrens fluency is adequate, we can
    redirect our small-group time to vocabulary and
    comprehension.
  • Remember that our goal is to make each of our
    groupings temporary and targeted.

130
A Stairway to Proficiency
Vocabulary Comprehension
Fluency and Comprehension
Word Recognition and Fluency
PA and Word Recognition
131
Who is likely to need this type of differentiated
instruction?
132
In grade 2, fluency data suggest they are at
risk, but they have acquired nearly all basic
decoding skills
  • We KNOW These children have mastered short
    vowel patterns but may need work in more advanced
    orthographic patterns.
  • We NEED to know Which orthographic patterns they
    still need help with and which high-frequency
    words they need to learn.

133
In grade 3, fluency data suggest they are at
risk, but they have nearly all basic decoding
skills. Informal phonics data reveal mastery of
most vowel patterns.
  • We KNOW These children have mastered short
    vowel patterns but may need work in more advanced
    patterns.
  • We NEED to know Which orthographic patterns they
    still need help with and which high-frequency
    words they need to learn.

134
Lets find out
  • Give a phonics or spelling inventory to see which
    patterns they need.
  • Do a high-frequency word inventory to see which
    sight words they need.
  • Given their decoding foundation, a limited amount
    of targeted instruction may be planned around the
    deficits identified if the needs here are great,
    students should be served in a phonics and
    fluency group.

135
What about comprehension?
?
  • Do not attempt to identify comprehension
    deficits.
  • Using texts that are at or slightly below grade
    level will provide many opportunities to
    reinforce comprehension.
  • Children will differ in their ability to apply
    comprehension strategies, but assessing this
    ability is not necessary.

136
Now youre ready!
  • Do you have one group or two?
  • Think about the word recognition data if
    possible group children with similar specific
    needs so that you can address them quickly.
  • Think about how slow their oral reading rate is.
    Will you be able to use grade-level texts, or
    will you have to use texts slightly below grade
    level?

137
Combining these results will provide you with a
collection of known and unknown items for each
child their needs will probably not be exactly
the same.
138
To make your plan, start with words and patterns
  • Set aside some time at the beginning of
    small-group work to address them.
  • Do not worry that the patterns may be more
    familiar to some group members than to others.
    Those who are more familiar will benefit from the
    review.
  • Do not limit yourself to
  • one-syllable words

139
Now find your texts
  • Do not use phonics-controlled texts. You are
    looking for texts that
  • are at or slightly below grade level,
  • are rich in content, and
  • represent both fiction and nonfiction.

Some of these texts may already be provided in
your core program!
140
Now find your texts
  • Try to find enough texts that children are
    reading a new text or a new section of text each
    day part of increasing fluency is increasing
    reading volume.
  • This will allow you to choose longer texts you
    can read them over consecutive sessions.

141
Now choose your strategies
  • Since word recognition needs will be minimal, we
    will not review the methods here. See pp. 62-64
    for strategies that target patterns and 64-67 for
    strategies that target high-frequency words.
  • Planning should focus mainly on fluency and
    comprehension we propose a very simple framework.

142
Now think about fluency procedures
  • Read pages 70-84. You will need to consider
    several things your level of support and
    strategies for organizing repeated readings.
  • All effective fluency procedures have certain
    things in common teacher support and repetition.

143
Remember the goal is to build fluency. During
each session, you must plan for both repetition
for the children and support from the teacher.
144
Remember that fluency is more than rate!
Consider that reading faster is not the goal
of fluency building. Fluency includes accuracy,
rate, and prosody. Students need teacher modeling
of appropriate rate and phrasing.
145
Consider motivational techniques
Students may benefit from timing themselves and
one another incorporate such procedures if they
serve your main goal using your small-group
time to build fluency through repeated (and
assisted) practice.
146
Now think about comprehension methods
  • Read pages 104-107.
  • In order to preserve time for the students in
    this group to actually read repeatedly, we have
    chosen one high-utility comprehension strategy
    that should be useful for most any text.

147
(No Transcript)
148
Critical Judgments Reading beyond the
lines Inferential Implicitly stated
facts Reading between the lines Literal Explici
tly stated facts Reading the lines
149
Critical Judgments Reading beyond the
lines Inferential Implicitly stated
facts Reading between the lines Literal Explici
tly stated facts Reading the lines
150
Critical Judgments Reading beyond the
lines Inferential Implicitly stated
facts Reading between the lines Literal Explici
tly stated facts Reading the lines
151
Pluto The planet Pluto is currently the furthest
of the nine planets from the sun. It consists of
frozen methane and ammonia so that some
scientists have described it as a snowball in
space. Pluto has a surface temperature of
395ºF. It has no gaseous atmosphere. Pluto is
a dark place, so distant that the sun appears to
be no more than a bright star. Like earth, Pluto
has one moon (Charon). Pluto is much smaller than
earth, however, and has only a tenth of earths
gravitational pull.
152
Questions about Pluto How cold is Pluto? Is
there life on Pluto? Should we send people to
Pluto? If Goofy can talk, why cant Pluto?
153
Questions about Pluto How cold is Pluto? Is
there life on Pluto? Should we send people to
Pluto? If Goofy can talk, why cant Pluto?
154
Questions about Pluto How cold is Pluto? Is
there life on Pluto? Should we send people to
Pluto? If Goofy can talk, why cant Pluto?
155
Questions about Pluto How cold is Pluto? Is
there life on Pluto? Should we send people to
Pluto? If Goofy can talk, why cant Pluto?
156
Questions about Pluto How cold is Pluto? Is
there life on Pluto? Should we send people to
Pluto? If Goofy can talk, why cant Pluto?
157
Remember to be strategic!
Your goal is fluency first, and then
comprehension. You will not be discussing the
text at the end of each page rather, you will be
targeting your questioning at strategic spots,
and using repetitive, generic language that
students may eventually generalize to other texts.
158
Gather or make all of your materials
  • Word lists, books, question scripts, timer,
    recording sheets, notebooks everything you
    need.
  • Texts could be selections from the previous
    years core anthology if multiple copies are
    available.
  • They could also include texts used in recent
    whole-class read-alouds or trade books, if you
    have multiple copies.
  • Remember that our goal is that you plan for three
    weeks of wide, repeated, assisted reading at a
    time.

159
A typical group
If you can extend the time for this group, add
minutes to the childrens reading time.
Minute allocations are simply an example based
on a 20-minute session.
160
Try it out!
  • Remember that we are hoping for a cycle, with
    teacher reflection. Your goal is to move these
    children into a vocabulary and comprehension
    group, but youve got to be successful here
    first.
  • You may need to repeat a particular lesson for
    two days. Thats fine. You also may need to step
    in with echo or choral reading. Thats fine too.
  • At the end of the three weeks, you can use data
    collected as part of the instruction to inform
    your next moves.

161
A three-week cycle for differentiated instruction
  • Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition
  • Word Recognition and Fluency
  • Fluency and Comprehension
  • Vocabulary and Comprehension

162
Differentiating Instruction for Vocabulary and
Comprehension
163
  • We are combining ideas from Chapters 6 and 7

164
What are we trying to teach?
  • These children are performing at benchmark.
  • They will work to build their vocabularies and
    comprehension proficiency.
  • The texts may include core selections used in
    FORI, the days read-aloud, or sets of trade
    books that are not phonics-controlled.

165
How will we know when weve accomplished our goal?
  • Our goal will never be achieved. We must continue
    to build vocabulary and comprehension.
  • Temporary and targeted instruction in the other
    areas allows new children to enter this group.

166
Who is likely to need this type of differentiated
instruction?
167
In Kindergarten, PA and Phonics data are good In
First Grade, Phonics and sight words are good
  • We KNOW These children are at benchmark in
    alphabet skills, but can still build their
    vocabulary and comprehension.
  • We NEED to know What specific texts, when read
    aloud to them, will best advance their vocabulary
    and comprehension.

168
Second-Grade fluency is at grade level
Third-Grade fluency is at grade level
  • We KNOW These children are fluent.
  • We NEED to know What specific texts will best
    advance their vocabulary and comprehension.

169
Lets find out
  • Even though all are at benchmark, it is still
    important to consider text difficulty think
    about texts that provide a reasonable challenge
    and maximize interest and engagement.
  • This is true both for texts that your second and
    third graders will read in small groups and that
    your kindergartners and first graders will hear.
  • Optimal text selection for this group will
    require some trial and error be flexible.

170
What about comprehension?
?
  • Do not attempt to identify comprehension
    deficits.
  • Using multiple challenging texts will provide
    many opportunities to reinforce strategy
    instruction.
  • Children will differ in their ability to apply
    these strategies, but assessing this ability is
    not necessary.

171
What about vocabulary?
?
  • Do not attempt to pretest word meanings.
  • Stick to Tier 2 words (and content area words for
    nonfiction texts) that are useful for
    comprehending the text. Do not worry that you may
    be introducing a word for some and reviewing it
    for others.

172
Now youre ready!
  • We recommend that there be only one group, even
    though their reading levels may vary slightly.
  • This will allow you to spend more time with
    strugglers in other groups.

173
Find your texts
  • Do not use phonics-controlled texts.
  • You could use core selections, class read-alouds,
    or sets of trade books.
  • In any case, you are looking for texts that
  • are interesting and engaging,
  • are rich in content, and
  • represent both fiction and nonfiction.

174
Now choose your strategies
  • For this group, word recognition needs are not an
    issue. (The second and third graders can read the
    the texts you will be using, and you will read
    them to the kindergartners and first graders.)
  • Planning should focus entirely on vocabulary and
    comprehension.
  • You will need to strike a balance between these
    areas and vary the instructional techniques you
    use.

175
Think about vocabulary methods
  • Read pages 91-102. You will need to be selective
    since you will not have time to apply all of
    these approaches in a single session. Vary them
    across the three weeks.
  • Remember that your choices will depend in part on
    the text you will use and whether it will be read
    aloud to the children. Some methods will be more
    appropriate than others for certain texts.

176
Key SBRR Approaches
177
(No Transcript)
178
Teaching Tier Two Words
  • We are going to learn the word _____. Say the
    word _____.
  • In our story, the author used the word ______ to
    mean ______.
  • The word _____ means ______.
  • (Provide other examples.)
  • (Children provide examples.)
  • Remember that our word is _____.

179
Concept of Definition
Category
Description
Description
Concept
Example
Example
Example
180
Feature Analysis
181
Now think about comprehension methods
  • Read pages 110-123. You will need to be
    selective since you will not have time to apply
    all of these approaches in a single session. Vary
    them across the three weeks.
  • Remember that your texts provide opportunities to
    build comprehension skills and strategies. This
    means that many of the instructional approaches
    should work.

182
Key SBRR Approaches
183
QAR Chart
184
Story Mapping
Setting
Characters
Problem
Resolution
Theme
185
Text Structure Instruction
Compare
Contrast
Contrast
186
Text Structure Instruction
187
Text Structure Instruction
Event 1
Event 2 Cause
Effect Problem
Solution
188
Direct Explanation
189
Direct Explanation
190
Direct Explanation
191
Direct Explanation
192
Summarization
  • Make sure you understand.
  • Reread to check your understanding, marking
    important parts.
  • Rethink, making sure that you can say the main
    idea of each paragraph. Write the main idea as a
    note to yourself.
  • Write your summary, checking to make sure that
    you have avoided lists, included or created topic
    sentences, gotten rid of unnecessary details, and
    combined paragraphs. Check your summary, and
    edit it so that it sounds natural.

193
Gather or make all of your materials
  • Texts, pictures, word cards, blank story maps,
    graphic organizers, QAR chart, questions,
    notebooks everything you need.
  • Texts could be selections from the previous
    years core anthology if multiple copies are
    available.
  • They could also include texts used in recent
    whole-class read-alouds.
  • Remember that our goal is that you plan for three
    weeks at a time.

194
A typical group
Minute allocations are simply an example based
on a 15-minute session.
195
Try it out!
  • Remember that we are hoping for a cycle, with
    teacher reflection. Your goal is to move these
    children into more challenging texts.
  • You may need to repeat a particular lesson for
    two days. Thats fine. You also may need to step
    in with echo or choral reading in grades two and
    three. Thats fine too.
  • At the end of the three weeks, you can use data
    collected as part of the instruction to inform
    your next moves.

196
Work with your 1200 clock partner.
12
9 3
6
197
Divide the tasks.
  • First partner reads pp. 91-102 (but skip 93-94),
    vocabulary approaches.
  • Second partner reads pp. 113-123, comprehension
    approaches.
  • Take turns presenting the strategies to each
    other.
  • Recap key points, but also add critical
    commentary.

198
mmckenna_at_virginia.edu http//curry.edschool.virg
inia.edu/reading/projects/garf
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