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Down Syndrome

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In the U.S., approximately 4,000 children are born with Down Syndrome each year ... There is a 60% chance of a child with Down syndrome having an opthalmic problem. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Down Syndrome


1
Down Syndrome
  • Presented by
  • Hilary Burneka
  • Deanna Dwyer
  • Kim Griebel
  • Angela Michael
  • Heather Weiler

2
(No Transcript)
3
History
4
  • 1866 - John Langdon Down
  • Mongoloids
  • 1930s - Waardenburg and Bleyer
  • 1959 - Lejeune and Jacobs

5
  • 1960s - Ethnic insult
  • 1960s - Downs Syndrome
  • 1970s - Down Syndrome

6
Definition
7
What is Down Syndrome?
  • Chromosomal condition associated with mental
    retardation
  • Result of 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46
    chromosomes
  • Extra chromosome 21 material

8
Types of Down Syndrome
9
Trisomy 21
  • Also called non-disjunction
  • Entire extra 21 chromosome in all cells
  • 95 of individuals with Down syndrome

10
Mosaic Trisomy 21
  • Two populations of cells
  • The trisomy 21 cells, and a second cell line
  • 2-4 of Down syndrome population

11
Translocation Trisomy 21
  • Extra chromosome 21 is permanently attached to
    another chromosome
  • Recipient chromosome is usually chromosome 14
  • 3-4 of Down syndrome cases

12
Incidence
13
Incidence
  • In the U.S., approximately 4,000 children are
    born with Down Syndrome each year
  • One in every 800 live births
  • Risk increases with maternal age
  • Age 20 (1/1600)
  • Age 35 (1/350)
  • Increased risk for second child

14
Prenatal Screening and Diagnostic Tests
15
  • Amniocentesis
  • 14-18th week of pregnancy
  • Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
  • 9-11th week of pregnancy
  • Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling (PUBS)
  • 18-22nd week of pregnancy

16
Physical Characteristics
17
  • Hypotonia poor muscle tone
  • Slanting eyes with epicanthal folds
  • Hyper flexibility
  • Short, broad hands
  • Broad feet with short toes

18
  • Short, low set ears
  • Flat bridge of nose
  • Small head
  • Small oral cavity

19
Development
20
Early Communication
  • Slower to respond
  • May be sleepy
  • Undemanding
  • Smiles later

21
Early Communication Continued
  • Slower to begin vocalizing
  • Enjoys social games
  • Not as skilled using eye contact (due to
    Hypotonia in eye muscles)

22
Motor Development
  • Delayed reach and grasp
  • Delayed crawling and walking
  • Less mobile
  • Less well-developed fine motor skills

23
Hearing
  • Two-thirds of children with Down syndrome have a
    hearing loss
  • 33 conductive
  • 47 sensorineural
  • 19 both

24
Vision
  • There is a 60 chance of a child with Down
    syndrome having an opthalmic problem.
  • 5 born with congenital cataracts
  • 27 have crossed eyes

25
First Words
  • First words are nouns
  • Adults need to speak slowly and clearly

26
Speech
  • Speech production problems
  • Signing
  • Speech and Language Pathologist necessary

27
Memory
  • Auditory short term memory development is delayed
  • Visual memory better than auditory
  • Signs, pictures and written words effective

28
(No Transcript)
29
Literacy
  • Whole word recognition
  • Words must be meaningful
  • Pictures as visual cues
  • Vertical surface versus horizontal surface

30
Inclusion
31
Characteristics of a Successful Inclusive Setting
  • Effective leadership
  • Confidence among staff
  • Optimism for students success
  • Supporting staff

32
Successful Inclusion Continued
  • Balanced curriculum
  • Systematic procedures
  • Socialization
  • No retention
  • Collaboration

33
Guidelines for Teachers
  • Explain class rules and consequences
  • Be consistent
  • Clear directions
  • Individualized instruction
  • Structure transition times

34
Guidelines Continued
  • High level of interaction and feedback
  • Peer tutoring
  • Positive relationships with parents
  • Recognize positive student behaviors often
  • Dreams Video
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