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Psychology 1230: Psychology of Adolescence

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If A = Poor peer relations, and B = Psychopathology, then. A B. 21 ... If A = Poor peer relations, and B = Psychopathology, then. B (early) B (late) A. 22 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology 1230: Psychology of Adolescence


1
Psychology 1230 Psychology of Adolescence
  • Don Hartmann
  • Fall 2005
  • Lecture 18 Peers I

2
WEB Discussion Topic 27
  • 27. How peers can help. Psyched III.
    (Summary/Evaluation due on Monday, October 21st).
    Peers can have a variety of impacts on us for
    good or ill. Relate a peer event that profoundly
    affected you, and indicate the nature of the
    impact (e.g., on your sense of self on your
    notion of what is acceptable), and why it had
    this impact. Also comment on another
    discussants commentary.

3
WEB Discussion Process
  • Group 3 due 4 due
  • Whippets 10/27 (10/26) 11/14
  • 4?1? 10/28 (10/28) 11/18
  • GypsyMafia 10/24
  • JusticeLeague 11/15
  • PithHelmets 11/09
  • MAJACS 10/25 (10/25) 11/11
  • Psyched 11/21
  • ----------
  • Note Anyone can contribute to any WEB
    discussion group members are responsible to
    summarizing the discussion. The last day to
    contribute to any discussion is 3 days before the
    due date. Dates in parenthesis indicate the date
    handed in. Bolded dates indicate that material
    handed in was incomplete more is required.
  • Where is the summary??

4
Handout Summary
  • Handout WEB
  • Date
    Date
  • 37. Study Guide 9 10/26
  • 37. Lect. 15b Moral Devel (Kohlberg) 10/27
  • 38. Lect. 16 Attachment 10/28
  • 39. Quiz 2 from Spring 05 10/31
  • -----
  • 40. Lect. 17 Autonomy 11/07
  • 41. Handout Supplemental Project 2 11/04
  • 42. Handout Supplemental Project 3 11/07
  • 43. Lect. 17b Family Conflict 11/08
  • 44. Study Guide 10 11/08
  • 45. Lect. 18 Peers 11/10

5
Quiz 2, Multiple Choice
  • Maximum43 Range 20-42 (3 students scored 42)
    10042 Mdn.34.5
  • Score f
  • 40- 7
  • 35-39 21
  • 30-34 19
  • 25-29 6
  • 20-24 3

6
Method of Grading Essays
  • Don graded all of question 1 and about 25 of
    questions 2 through 4
  • Don checked all papers for which the grades for
    the two questions differed by 3 or more points
    (approximately 20 papers). Approximately 1/3 of
    question grades I checked were changed between -1
    and 1.5 points. If your question grade was
    modified (by the note on your paper of a value
    with my initials) it was slightly more likely to
    be reduced.
  • The scores on question 1 ranged from 1-10,
    question 2 from 0-11, question 3 from 2-11, and
    question 4 from 1-11.
  • -----
  • Note about 10 of test takers experienced a
    penalty between -.5 and -1 for failure to follow
    instructionse.g., put names on front of essay
    test rather than back, put answers on wrong pile.

7
Quiz 2, Essay
  • Maximum 20bonus points Range 2-22 10020 (4
    students had a score of 20) Mdn.16
  • Score f
  • 20- 6
  • 15-19 25
  • 10-14 20
  • 5-9 4
  • 0-4 1

8
Quiz 2, Total
  • Max.63bonus Range 23-62 10058 Mdn.49
  • Score f Grade
  • 60- 3 A
  • 55-59 9 A to A
  • 50-54 15 B to A
  • 45-49 15 C to B
  • 40-44 5 D to C
  • 35-39 7 D- to D
  • lt35 2 E

9
Supplementary References
  • Bagwell, C. L. , Newcomb, A. F. , Bukowski, W.
    M. , (1998) . Preadolescent friendship and peer
    rejection as predictors of adult adjustment.
    Child Development, 69 (2), 140 - 153.
  • Parker, J. G., Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer
    relations and later personal adjustment Are
    low-accepted children at risk? Psychological
    Bulletin, 102, 357-389.
  • Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W., Parker, J. G.
    (1998). Peer interactions, relationships, and
    groups. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) N. Eisenberg
    (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 3
    Social, emotional, and personality development
    (5th ed., pp. 619-700). New York Wiley.

10
Very Early Heterosexual Dating Relationship
Nipped in Bud
11
Overview of Peer Relations I Lecture
  • Lecture
  • Who Are Peers?
  • Why Study Peers?
  • Animal Human longitudinal studies
  • Contributions of Peer Relationships
  • Types of Peer Relationships
  • Coordinates with Text, pp. 351-53, 361-62,
    365-66.
  • Next Lect. 19 Peers II (Popularity
    Friendship)

12
Peers Who are they?
  • In age-graded societies, children within a year
    of age of one another of a similar level of
    behavioral complexity
  • However, wider age variation
    true of neighborhood
    social groups

13
Parental vs. Peer Relationships
  • Parents Peers
  • Hierarchical Equalitarian
  • Nurturance Competition
  • Dependency Reciprocity

14
The Declining Influence of Parents?
15
What do children do with their peers? High Tech
Method
  • Hi tech (Csikszentmihalyi Larsen) Experience
    time sampling

16
What do children do with their peers? Low Tech
Method
  • Diaries (Zarbatany et al. Hartmann et al.)
  • 10-14 Hanging out, Team sports, Classroom
    activities
  • 5-9 Recreational activities, individual sports,
    study/rehearsal, eating

17
Who Cares?
  • Increasing evidence that
    peers are critical to our
    eventual adult functioningand the influence can
    be either good or bad
  • Animal studies
  • Longitudinal studies of children who have faulty
    peer relations, particularly those who are either
    aggressive or rejected. The review by Parker
    Asher (1987 Psychological Bulletin review),
    indicates that these children are at risk for
    later problems.

18
Harlows work
  • Raised groups of rhesus monkeys
    with their mothers and denied them the
    opportunity to play with peers.
  • Detrimental effects abnormal behavior -
    aggressive sexual behavior, withdrawn never
    acquire appropriate social behavior rarely
    engage in social play

19
The Sexual Behaviors of Peer-Isolated Monkeys
  • When the isolate females were smaller than the
    sophisticated normally reared males, the girls
    would back away and sit down facing the males an
    inadequate attempt at sexual posturing, looking
    appealingly at these would-be consorts. Their
    hearts were in the right place, but nothing else
    was. When the females were larger than the
    males, we can only hope that they misunderstood
    the males' intentions, for after a brief period
    of courtship, they would attack and maul the
    ill-fated male. Females show no respect for a
    male they can dominate. Isolate males were
    equally unsatisfactory. They approached the
    normal females with a blind...misdirected
    enthusiasm. Frequently, the males would grasp
    the females by the side of the body and thrust
    laterally....working at cross purposes with
    reality. Even the most persistent attempts by
    these females to set the boys straight came to
    naught. Finally, these females either stared at
    the males with complete contempt or attacked them
    in utter frustration Harlow, 1962, p. 5

20
Longitudinal Studies of Children with Faulty Peer
Relations
  • Particularly at risk are those who are either
    aggressive or rejected (extensive review by
    Parker Asher, 1987 Psychological Bulletin
    review)
  • Alternative interpretations
  • "NECESSITY-NOT-LUXURY" view of peer interaction.
    Good peer relations are necessary i.e.,
    friendships, belonging to a crowd, "acceptance
  • If A Poor peer relations, and B
    Psychopathology, then
  • A B

21
Alternative Interpretation of Longitudinal Studies
  • INCIDENTAL MODEL--Model assumes that early forms
    of disorders (e.g., personality disorders) that
    will emerge fully in adulthood have a negative
    effect/influence on interpersonal relationships
    in childhood i.e., early forms of disorder are
    responsible for both early disturbance in peer
    group adjustment ultimate maladaptive outcomes.
  • If A Poor peer relations, and B
    Psychopathology, then

B (early) B (late)

A
22
What do Peer Relations do for US?
  • Ashers (e.g., 1978) 5 reasons
  • Emotional security
  • Exploration
  • Coping
  • Establish Norms (e.g., male group that require so
    many scores to become member)
  • Skill acquisition (Instructione.g., peer
    tutors)
  • Social skills
  • Athletic skills

23
More on What they do for Us
  • Socialization Experiences
  • Sex roles (Maccoby)
  • Identity formation
  • Peers facilitate Life Adjustment.

24
Types of Peer Relations (non-exhaustive)
  • Sociometric Status (SMS) or popularity groups
  • Activity groups
  • Chumships
  • Friendships
  • Cliques
  • Crowds
  • Romantic relationships (dyads)

25
What Kind of Peer Relationship was that Again?
26
DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN PEER RELATIONS
  • Elementary school Interactions become
    increasingly sophisticated. Some identification
    with groups, such a Brownies and Cubs (6-10).
  • Preadolescence (8.5-10) Chumships (Sullivan)
  • Early Adolescence Same-sex cliques (Dunphy)

27
MORE DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN PEER RELATIONS
  • Mid Adolescence Heterosexual cliques crowds
    (Brown)
  • Old Adolescence Dating dyads

28
Summary of Peer I Lecture
  • Who Are Peers?
  • Why Study Peers?
  • Animal Human longitudinal studies
  • Contributions of Peer Relationships
  • Types of Peer Relationships
  • Development Changes
  • Next Time Lect. 19 Peers II (Popularity
    Friendship)
  • Go in Peace

29
Sociometric Classifications
Negative Nominations Many Few
Controversial
Popular
Positive Nominations Few Many
Rejected
Neglected
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