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HANDS ON

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To raise awareness of problems in language development for ... pronation/neutral. movement crossing midline. movement at midline. movement away from body ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HANDS ON


1
HANDS ON
  • Creative strategies for language development in
    signing children
  • Nicola Grove
  • AGOSCI
  • COMMUNICATION FEEL THE POWER
  • 7-9 May 2009

2
AIMS
  • To raise awareness of problems in language
    development for signing children
  • To provide evidence of language development in
    sign
  • To illustrate practical strategies

3
TOTAL COMMUNICATION
  • The use of all forms of communication that are
    useful to the child in any context
  • Sign and speech are both face to face, best for
    fast, interpersonal direct communication.
    Problems with memory and intelligibility
  • Sign and gesture good for dynamic action - verbs
  • Vocalisation and speech - calling attention,
    emotional meaning, names
  • Facial expression and body language, convey
    attitude and emotion
  • Picture boards slower, with double focus, but
  • Useful for names, specfic places and people,
    recall compensates for memory difficulties, more
    intelligible

4
ASSUMPTIONS
  • Sign is a useful route to language and
    communication development
  • Some children with ID will remain highly
    dependent on sign as their means of communication
  • They need support and teaching to help them
    develop their language skills in sign

5

CORTICAL REPRESENTATION
6
SIGN LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
  • LANGUAGES
  • Natural evolution
  • Structure independent of spoken language
  • Primary means of communication
  • Australian Sign Language, BSL, ASL
  • SYSTEMS
  • Devised
  • Structure based on spoken language
  • Used as means of education and remediation
  • Makaton, signed English PagetGorman

7
SIGN PARAMETERS
  • Handshape
  • Different languages have different subsets
  • ASLvs BSL
  • Location
  • Movement
  • Orientation
  • Handedness
  • Fingerspelling (from spoken language)
  • Facial gestures mouth, brow, head,

8
SYNTAX IN SIGN
  • Linguistic use of space
  • Pronominal reference
  • directionality
  • Tense markers

9
MORPHOLOGY IN SIGN
  • SASS
  • Incorporation
  • Location
  • Movement (path,manner)
  • Directional
  • Intensifiers
  • Repetition to show number

10
HISTORY OF SIGN SYSTEMS
  • Use with children and adults with ID began in
    1970s
  • Started with people who were Deaf, then with
    hearing people with problems in the perception
    and production of speech
  • Groups
  • Intellectual disabilities, SLI, ASD, CP,
    dysarthria and dyspraxia, children with oral
    tract damage,some adults after acquired brain
    injury

11
SIGNERS WITH DISABILITIES
  • Deaf children with intellectual/language
    /physical impairments
  • Hearing children with impairments affecting
    spoken language - eg.
  • Specific language impairment
  • Central auditory processing difficulties
  • Llandau-Kleffner syndrome
  • Aphonia
  • Children with Down Syndrome

12
PROGRESS IN SIGN AND SPEECH
  • Vocalisation gesture
  • Single words/ single signs
  • Points
  • Point Point Point word point sign
  • Sign Sign Sign Word Word Word

13
SIGN DEVELOPMENT
  • Children go through systematic stages of
    development of sign parameters
  • When looking at the sign use of children with
    disabilities, bear this normal trajectory in mind

14
HANDSHAPE
  • Hierarchy of production for young children and
    people with developmental delays-
  • 1. Unilateral 2. Bilateral 3.
    Dominant-Assister 4. Reciprocal.
  • Bilateral may be earlier than unilateral (mirror
    movements)
  • Handshape development
  • 1. A B 5
  • 2. O (baby O) C G
  • 3. Å F 5
  • 4. V H Y ?

15
LOCATION MOVEMENT
  • Location
  • Young children use neutral space, arm, head
    (cheek, temple, forehead and face)
  • Movement
  • simplegtcomplex
  • contactual action, movement towards signer, up
    and down movement
  • twisting, circular, convergent, crossing and
    entering movements.

16
COMMON ERRORS
  • add body contact
  • bring into vision
  • mirror movements
  • lack of inhibition of movement
  • substitute simpler handshape

17
FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT
18
USER GROUPS
  • Children who can speak but need signs to aid
    receptive language
  • Children who need signs as a transitional stage
    in developing spoken language
  • Children using sign as a back up
  • Children dependent on sign and gesture as their
    main means of communication

19
TYPICAL SITUATION
  • Isolated - no community of users
  • Signers have lower status than speakers
  • Poor models - one sign per clause(if youre
    lucky)
  • Small vocabularies dominated by nouns

20
OPTIONS FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • Use spoken language as template - intermodal
    language
  • Word order
  • Morphology
  • finger spelling suffixes only
  • Develop structure within sign
  • Sign order
  • Morphology - inflect signs

21
FINDINGS
  • Children who are reliant on sign do not use
    spoken language input as template
  • Sign combinations are strings with no underlying
    structure
  • Word order is erratic, in speech as well as sign
  • They seem to independently discover creative
    modifications to sign
  • They can be taught to change the sign to
    communicate complex meanings

22
WHY?
  • Asymmetry between input and output
  • (also seen in picture board users Smith Grove)
  • Lack of models of contrastive order in sign in
    the input

23
SYNTAXprocesses in SEN
  • Children learning sign with English
  • (Makaton, Signalong, PGSS)
  • Sign strings
  • ABA structures
  • SV
  • OV/VO- inconsistent
  • Does not seem to reflect English WO
  • Neg usually headshake

24
MODIFICATIONS SHOWN BY CHILDREN
  • Handshape classifier incorporated in spatial verb
  • Doubling for plurals, intensifiers
  • Use of facial expression
  • Size shape indicator
  • Displacement
  • Also found in home signers
  • Usually recognised by conversation partner
    (teachers anyway!)

25
IDENTIFYING MODIFICATIONS
  • A change to the citation form of the sign that is
    consistent with a change in meaning
  • Minimise possibility of underestimating what the
    child is doing
  • Look for the childs version of the citation form
    in unmarked contexts
  • Check with your knowledge of production errors

26
RULES FOR MORPHOLOGY
  • Contrast
  • Weak walk/walk-ed
  • Strong walk-ed/walk-ing
  • Consistency
  • Should appear more than once in appropriate
    context
  • Generalisation
  • Seen across types
  • Walk-ed climb-ed
  • (5-6 exemplars usually needed)

27
INTERVENTION
  • Hand awareness
  • Moulding/shaping
  • Imitation
  • Associated training (in functional contexts)
  • Compensatory approach
  • Use the childs space, dont sign opposite

28
ASSESSMENT
  • Use activities that maximise contrast
  • Dynamic activities, encourage child to tell you
    what to do
  • Video narratives, retell to naïve listener
    immediately (Spider Sandwich)

29
INTERVENTION
  • Teach morphological contrasts
  • Provide complex interesting stimuli with built in
    contrasts
  • Encourage gesture and mime

30
EVIDENCERudd, Grove Pring, 2007
  • 8 children
  • Baseline assessments showed some evidence of
    spontaneous modification
  • Intervention taught specific contrasts, using
    matrix training with verbs and nouns
  • Post intervention showed significant improvements
  • Two children showed full productive control with
    sign modifications contrasted, generalised and
    used consistently over a limited range

31
Supersign challenges
  • Designed to stimulate children into creative
    modifications of sign and gesture
  • Based around sign inflections
  • Face children with a communication challenge
    where they have to create their own solutions

32
Some challenges
  • Sports event - running, jumping, climbing,
    swimming - fast/slow high/low up/down
  • Hide and seek - use displacement to say where to
    hide or find and object
  • Spells - harry potter - versions of popular
    spells eg expelloramus - up,down, round and
    round, over and over again, different people
  • Giving objects - change handshape to show SASS
  • Barrier communication games - matching objects,
    picture drawing
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