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Prescription Drugs


High probability that absolute safety does not exist. Potential for causing unanticipated and unintended drug reactions and experience ... Polypharmacy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prescription Drugs

Prescription Drugs
  • FWS 235

Prescription Drugs
  • Must be obtained with physicians direction
  • Rx symbol
  • Professional supervision
  • More powerful than OTCs
  • Treat specific disease conditions
  • Have more unexpected and adverse effects than

Prescription Drugs
  • Benefit-risk equation
  • High probability that absolute safety does not
  • Potential for causing unanticipated and
    unintended drug reactions and experience
    therapeutic effect
  • The good (anticipated effects) must outweigh the
    possibility of the bad (unintended or harmful
    side effects)

Prescriptions and Drug Labels
  • Prescription- a physicians order to a pharmacist
    to dispense a specific drug product to a patient
  • Labels on prescribed medicines
  • Name, address, and phone number of pharmacy
  • Prescription number
  • Prescribing physicians name

Prescriptions and Drug Labels
  • Date when prescription was filled
  • Patients name
  • Drug name, especially if a generic drug has been
  • Directions for use
  • controlled substances can not be transferred
    to another person
  • Expiration date
  • Number of allowable refills

Prescriptions and Drug Labels
  • Controlled drugs are restricted due to the
    Controlled Substances Act
  • Schedule I (i.e. heroin)
  • Schedule II (prescriptions must be written, not
    phoned in, and not refilled)
  • Schedule III IV (prescriptions may be written
    or phoned to a pharmacy, refilled up to five
    times within six months, with refills later)
  • Schedule V (prescription and OTC meds with
    approval by pharmacist to 18 and up)

Using Wisely
  • Before using
  • Name of med
  • When and how often to take the drug
  • What the med is supposed to do
  • If a new med, can it be taken with others?
  • Unwanted side effects that could occur
  • What precautions should be taken
  • Foods to avoid while using
  • Med to be taken until gone or not (antibiotics)

Using Wisely
  • Follow directions on label
  • Inform ones physician about medication problems
  • If pregnant, consult with physician
  • Inform ones physician, surgeon, or dentist about
    medications, if undergoing surgery
  • Discard any remaining drugs

Using Wisely
  • Store medications properly
  • Do not use outdated medications
  • Never give or borrow meds
  • Never take meds in dark or from unmarked

Prescription Drug Classes
  • Major categories of drugs share important
  • Chemical composition
  • Anticipated actions within the body

Prescription Drug Classes
  • Major drug classes
  • Analgesics relieve pain and produce insensibility
    to pain
  • Anorexics reduce ones appetite
  • Anti-alcohol preparations used in management of
  • Aniarthritics are anti-inflammatory action useful
    in treating various joint diseases

Prescription Drug Classes
  • Antihistamines block histamine, and thus prevent
    allergic reactions
  • Antiashtmatics relieve breathing difficulties
    associated with bronchial asthma
  • Anti-infective drugs inactivate and/or eliminate
    invading, disease-causing microbes
  • Antidepressants relive emotional depression

Prescription Drug Classes
  • Antidiabetic agents maintain diabetics blood
    sugar at a nearly normal level, keep the urine as
    free of sugar as possible
  • Antidiarrheals manage and control diarrhea
  • Antihypertensive drugs used to reduce high blood
  • Antineoplastics used in treating specific
    cancerous conditions

Prescription Drug Classes
  • Antispasmodics/anti-ulcer agents control various
    disorders of the stomach and intestinal tract
  • Cardiovascular drugs affect the function of the
    heart and blood vessels
  • Cholesterol-lowering drugs t reduce the amount of
    damaging blood fats
  • Diuretics help the body to pass excess water and
    salt and cause a sudden and copious flow of urine

Prescription Drug Classes
  • Diuretics help the body to pass excess water and
    salt and cause a sudden and copious flow of urine
  • Sedative-hypnotics induce sleep or produce a
    reduction in tension and anxiety
  • Stimulants speed up the function of the CNS

Prescription Drug Classes
  • Tranquilizers
  • Major- relieve psychotic symptoms
  • Minor- relieve anxiety and reduce tension
  • Other classes include
  • Anticoagulants (reduce blood clotting)
  • Anesthetics (produce loss of sensation)
  • Eye and ear preparations
  • Hormones (regulate body processes)
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Narcotic antagonists
  • Detoxification agents

Oral Contraceptives
  • Prescription that prevent pregnancy by keeping
    the ovaries from developing and releasing ova,
    blocking ovulation
  • Combination oral contraceptive estrogen and
    progestin (99 effective)
  • Minipill contains only progestin (97 effective)

Oral Contraceptives
  • Side effects
  • Cardiovascular disorders
  • Benign tumors of the liver
  • Primary liver cancer
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Hypertension

Oral Contraceptives
  • Non-contraceptive benefits of the pill
  • Protective effect against pelvic inflammatory
  • Relief from various menstrual symptoms
  • Lessening of premenstrual tension
  • Possible protection against ovarian cysts and
    ovarian and uterine cancer, with increased risk
    for breast and cervical cancers

Oral Contraceptives
  • Future of drug-based contraception
  • Will never be a perfectly safe contraceptive
  • New techniques are being developed
  • Depo-Provera
  • Subdermal implants (i.e. Norplant)
  • LHRH- affects ovulation cycle
  • Anti-pregnancy vaccines for women and
    anti-fertility vaccines for men
  • Gossypol (suppresses sperm production)

Oral Contraceptives
  • Morning After oral contraception
  • Mifepristone (RU-486)- causes shedding of the
    uterus lining and the implanted, fertilized egg
  • Other drugs
  • Viagra-treats impotence
  • Premarin- treats symptoms of menopause
  • Evista- prevents bone thinning in post-menopausal
  • Meridia- anti-obesity drug

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
  • Secondary side-effects due to sensitivities,
    allergies, and body chemistry changes
  • Minor side-effects include skin rash, mild
    headache, nausea, and drowsiness
  • Severe side-effects include prolonged vomiting,
    bleeding, extreme weakness, or impaired vision or
  • Prolonged use can cause nutritional deficiencies,
    bodys ability to absorb vitamins and minerals

Therapeutic Index
  • Measure that relates the dose of a drug required
    to produce a desirable effect to that dosage
    which produces an undesired effect.
  • The higher the ratio, the safer the drug
  • LD 50- lethal dose
  • ED 50-effective dose

Preventive Measures
  • Informing physician of previous adverse reactions
  • Reporting allergic drug reactions to ones
  • Respecting known contraindications (situations
    that would prohibit the use of the drug)
  • Exercising precautions in using drugs

Preventive Measures
  • Following prescribed dose recommendations
  • Recognizing and reporting early warning signals
    of adverse reactions
  • Having ones physician monitor drugs effects

  • The use of two or more drugs at the same time
    during the course of treatment for a particular
  • Drug interactions
  • Changes in drug absorption, distribution, and
  • Alteration of drug excretion
  • Independent drug reaction
  • Antagonistic drug reaction (drug reduce other
  • Additive drug reaction (combining two drugs
  • Potentiation/synergistic drug reaction- an
    exaggerated drug effect, multiplied reaction

Generic Drugs
  • Drug names
  • Chemical name describes chemical structure
  • Generic name refers to the drugs official name
    that is not patented
  • Brand name or trademark (patented) assigned by
    pharmaceutical company which suggests the
    pharmacological action
  • Generic drug use is increasing in this country

Generic Drugs
  • Bioavaliability- measure of a drugs activity
    within the body as determined by the measured
    levels of that particular drug in the blood
  • Bioequivalence- is the ability of one drug to
    produce the same therapeutic effect in the body
    as an apparently similar medication

  • Generics are they a good thing or not?
  • Are they as potent as regulatory drugs?
  • Do most people feel prescribed drugs are safe?
  • Advertising campaigns for prescription drugs do
    you agree or disagree?