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Mandated Reporter


Explain why Mandated Reporting is Important. Review Roles and Responsibilities ... form the foundation for children's future functioning (Perry & Pollard, 1995) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mandated Reporter

Mandated Reporter Training
  • Understand facts about Child Abuse and Neglect
  • Define Mandated Reporting
  • Explain why Mandated Reporting is Important
  • Review Roles and Responsibilities of a Mandated
  • Review Additional Resources Available to Mandated

Child and Family Resource Council
Mission To shape a community that protects
children from abuse and neglect.
  • History
  • The Council was formed in 1985 as a means to
    proactively deal with child abuse and neglect in
    Kent County. Since the beginning, the Council
    has utilized primary and secondary prevention
    strategies to accomplish its goals.
  • Why Prevention?
  • The Councils programs and services are provided
    before problems arise. In other words, while
    other organizations focus on treating the effects
    of child abuse and neglect, we work to stop abuse
    and neglect from ever happening.

How is Prevention Defined?
  • Primary services are available to all members of
    the general population and seek to promote
  • Secondary services are offered to adults and
    children who are considered "at risk" for abuse
    or neglect.
  • Tertiary services are offered to populations
    where child abuse and neglect has been
    substantiated with the focus on preventing
    further occurrences.

Prevention Saves More Than Lives
  • Experts believe that over 85 of child abuse and
    neglect can be prevented if the community comes
    together to address the issues that lead to them
  • In 2002, direct costs related to child abuse and
    neglect in Michigan totaled 1,783,926,271
  • The cost of prevention services is estimated to
    be less than three percent of intervention costs
  • One quarter of children from abusive households
    will require special education services

Council Programs and Services
  • Connections Offers helpful information about
    your childs development, parenting tips, and
    ideas for fun activities to do with your child.
  • Community Education Provides educational
    services and trainings such as Mandated Reporter
    Training, Shaken Baby Syndrome, parenting
    education, and other topics to help prevent child
    abuse and neglect.
  • Encouraging Family Foundations Provides a
    series of parenting and life skills classes to
    unmarried parents of children 0-2 years old.

Programs and Services (continued)
  • Family Resource Guide Comprehensive,
    easy-to-use directory of over 900 programs,
    services, and resources available to children and
    families in Kent County.
  • Kent County Healthy Start Provides support for
    first-time parents through home visitation, phone
    calls, and information.
  • RAVE (Resources Against Violent Encounters)
    Using the In Touch With Teens curriculum and peer
    education, RAVE helps teach adolescents about
    sexual assault and dating violence prevention.

What is Child Abuse?
  • The Child and Family Resource Council defines
    child abuse/maltreatment as a non-accidentalinjur
    y to a child which, regardless of motive, is
    inflicted or allowed to be inflicted by the
    person responsible for the child's care. 
    Maltreatment includes, but is not limited to,
    malnutrition, sexual molestation, deprivation of
    necessities, emotional maltreatment, or cruel

What is Child Neglect?
  • The Child and Family Resource Council defines
    child neglect as the failure, whether intentional
    or not, of the person responsible for the child's
    care to provide and maintain adequate food,
    clothing, medical care, supervision, and/or
  • Child neglect can also be defined as
    a parents (or parents) lack of responsiveness
    to a child's overall needs.

Child Abuse Occurs in Every Community
Which Children Are Most Vulnerable?
  • Research indicates very young children (ages 3
  • younger) are the most frequent victims of
  • fatalities.
  • NCANDS data for 2002 demonstrated children
  • younger than 1 year accounted for 41 of
  • This population of children is the most
  • for many reasons, including their dependency,
  • small size, and inability to defend
  • (NCCANCH April 2004)
  • Reported cases of fatalities caused by child
  • have increased by 48 in the past ten years.
  • (Broken Spirits Network, 2005)

MI Child Abuse and Neglect Deaths Identified by
Cause of Death, 2002
- MI Child Death Review Team 2005
Facts About Kent County
  • From 2001-2005, there was an average of 335
    removals of children by CPS from unsafe
    situations in Kent County which is about 3 of
    the average number of complaints during that same
    time period.
  • From 1996-2005, the number of child abuse and
    neglect reports in Kent County nearly doubled
  • In 2005, 2 children in Kent County died as a
    result of child abuse and neglect

Child Abuse in Kent County
Kent County Child Abuse and Neglect Complaints
Child Abuse in Kent County
Kent County Total Removals
How Can Abuse Be Prevented?
  • Knowing the signs of abuse and neglect
  • Knowing what to look for if someone may be an
  • How to make an effective report to CPS
  • Knowing where to go for help

Abuse Can Be
  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Signs of Emotional Abuse
  • Eating disorders
  • Failure to thrive
  • Hyperactive/disruptive behavior
  • Lags in physical development
  • Shallow, empty facial appearance
  • Sleep disturbances and/or nightmares
  • Speech disorders
  • Fear or anxiety of certain people or
  • places
  • Unrealistic fears
  • Depression

Signs of Physical Abuse
  • Head injuries
  • Injuries inconsistent with explanations
  • Injuries inconsistent with medical history
  • Unexplained burns
  • Unexplained bruises and welts
  • Unexplained fractures and/or dislocations
  • Unexplained lacerations or abrasions

Handprint on leg (photo courtesy of Lawrence R.
Ricci, MD.)
Bruises inflicted with switch (photo courtesy of
Lawrence R. Ricci, MD.)
Bite marks (photos courtesy of Lawrence R. Ricci,
Burn inflicted with lighter (photo courtesy of
Lawrence R. Ricci, MD.)
Signs of Sexual Abuse
  • Bed wetting
  • Difficulty in walking or sitting
  • Pain, swelling, or itching in genital area
  • Pregnancy
  • Torn, stained, or bloody underclothing
  • Venereal Disease or other Sexually
  • Transmitted Infections
  • Withdrawn

Forms of Child Neglect
  • Physical
  • Consistent hunger
  • Inappropriate dress for current weather
  • Inappropriate food items for lunch
  • Poor hygiene
  • Poor growth pattern
  • Underweight

Forms of Child Neglect (continued)
  • Medical
  • Inadequate medical care
  • Making false allegations regarding childs
  • medical needs
  • Not following through with medical
  • recommendations

Forms of Child Neglect (cont.)
  • Malnutrition
  • Malnutrition, both before and during the first
    few years after birth, has shown to result in
    stunted brain growth and slower passage of
    electrical signals (Shonkoff Phillips, 2000).
  • These effects on the brain are linked to
    cognitive, social and behavioral deficits with
    possible long-term consequences (Karr-Morse
    Wiley, 1997).

The Impact of Neglect on the Brain
What We Know About Brain Development
  • It is now clear that what a child experiences in
    the first few years of life largely determines
    how his brain will develop and how he will
    interact with the world throughout his life
    (Ounce of Prevention, 1996).
  • Researchers agree that the experiences of the
    first few years form the foundation for
    childrens future functioning (Perry Pollard,

Who are the Abusers?
  • Perpetrators are, by definition, individuals
    responsible for the care and supervision of their
  • One or both parents (majority)
  • Other relative of child
  • Parents boyfriend or girlfriend
  • Babysitters

Signals That an Adult May Have Sexual Behavior
  • Downloads child pornography from Internet
  • Focuses intense attention on the physical
    maturation of children
  • Insists on hugging or kissing a child that does
    not want to be hugged or kissed
  • Shows sexual materials or exposes own genitals to
    younger children
  • Takes younger children to secret places
  • Talks about sexual fantasies with children
  • Tells you he or she does not want to be left
    alone with a child

The Reality of Child Abuse
  • Child abuse and neglect cross racial, economic,
    religious, and gender lines
  • Child abuse occurs in every community
  • Some parents may only target one of their

What is Mandated Reporting?
  • A Mandated Reporter is someone who is required by
    law to report suspected cases of child abuse or
  • All 50 states and Puerto Rico have some sort of
    reporting law
  • 25 states include clergy on list of Mandated
    Reporters (includes Michigan)
  • 18 states and Puerto Rico require any person who
    suspects child abuse and neglect to report them
    (does not include Michigan)

Michigans Mandated Reporters Include
  • Physician
  • Psychologist
  • Regulated Child Care Provider
  • Registered Dental Hygienist
  • Regulated Child Care Provider
  • School Administrator
  • School Counselor or Teacher
  • Social Work Technician
  • Audiologist
  • Dentist
  • Clergy
  • Law Enforcement Officer
  • Licensed Counselor
  • Licensed Emergency Medical Care Provider
  • Marriage and Family Therapist
  • Medical examiner
  • Nurse
  • Physician Assistant

Michigans Reporting Law
  • Act 238 went into effect on October 1, 1975
  • It has been amended and updated several times
  • since then
  • The law states
  • Those who have reasonable cause to
  • suspect child abuse or neglect shall make
  • immediatelyan oral report.
  • Within 72 hours after making the oral report,
  • the reporting person shall file a written

Clergys Responsibility to Report
  • In December 2002, former Governor John Engler
    approved Public Act 693, adding members of the
    clergy to the list of individuals who are
    mandated reporters of suspected child abuse or
  • The Act took effect March 1, 2003
  • The passage of this important bill was the direct
    result of the advocacy efforts of many
    individuals in our own community and in
    communities across the state

Why are Mandated Reporters Important?
  • Mandated Reporters are typically professionals
    who see children and families on a daily basis
  • Many have access to information/secrets that
    others do not
  • They can help prevent many cases of abuse and
  • They are a vital link between children who need
    help and the services that can help them

The Roles and Responsibilities of Mandated
How Do You Respond to Disclosures?
  • Believe the child
  • Do not overreact
  • Try to reduce the childs level of anxiety
  • Speak calmly and friendly
  • NEVER ask questions such as, Why didnt you tell
    me about this sooner?
  • Reassure them that what happened is NOT THEIR
  • Dont push them to say more than they are willing
    to say

When Reporting, Attempt to Provide the Following
  • Alleged victim's full name, birth date, and
  • Alleged perpetrator's full name and
    relationship to
  • alleged victim (if known)
  • Child's current address
  • Context of the disclosure. (For example, was
  • child asked about the injury or did they
  • the information?)
  • Current address and the address where the
  • alleged incident happened (if different)
  • If the alleged perpetrator lives with the child
  • Why you think the child is being maltreated

Example of CPS Report
After You File a Report
  • Intake worker receives report
  • CPS will determine whether to open case for
  • CPS will begin investigation
  • CPS will assess the risk of harm or threat of
    harm to child and, based on the assessment, will
    take certain actions
  • CPS will talk to parents, family members, and
    perhaps teachers to gather information

After You File (Continued)
  • 6. CPS will make decision regarding action to
  • May not be able to take any action if report is
    anonymous or cannot find perpetrator
  • Recommend community services like counseling or
    parent education classes
  • If significant risk, may put the child in safe
    place (St. Johns Home)
  • In most serious situations, the child will be
    placed in foster care and eventually moved to
    another permanent home, but this is only after a
    lot of time and effort are put into getting
    parents help and trying to give the parents every
    possible chance to positively care for the child.

All CPS Reports Will Fall Under One of the
Following Categories
  • Category V Services Not Needed
  • Category IV Community Services
  • Recommended
  • Category III Community Services Needed
  • Category II Child Protective Services
  • Category I Court Petition Required

Important to Remember
  • The goal is to lessen the trauma for the child
  • regardless of the situation.
  • Personal feelings must not prevent us from
  • reporting suspected child abuse.
  • Mandated Reporters are neither detectives nor
  • investigators.
  • Failing to report allows the problem to
  • Those who report in good faith are kept
  • confidential and are immune from civil or
  • criminal lawsuits (722.625 Sec. 5)
  • You will not be called to testify

Additional Community Resources
  • Family Resource Guide Council (454-4673)
  • Mandated Reporter Guide Council (454-4673)
  • Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Childrens
    Assessment Center (336-5160)
  • Child Sexual Abuse Intervention YWCA
  • (459-4672)
  • Parenting Classes
  • Arbor Circle (456-7775)
  • Council (454-4673)
  • Family Outreach Center (247-3815)
  • Life Guidance Services (774-0633)
  • YWCA (459-4681)

  • There is no trust more sacred than
  • the one the world holds with children. There
  • is no duty more important than ensuring
  • that their rights are respected, that their
  • welfare is protected, that their lives are free
  • from fear and want and that they grow up in
  • peace.
  • Kofi A. Annan
  • Secretary-General of the United Nations

For more information, contact the Council at
616.454.4673 or look at our websitewww.childres