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Lung Volumes and Capacities

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The total volume contained in the lung at the end of a maximal inspiration is ... Body Plethysmograph. Lung Capacities. Total Lung Capacity: TLC ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lung Volumes and Capacities


1
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • The total volume contained in the lung at the end
    of a maximal inspiration is subdivided into
    volumes and subdivided into capacities.

2
There are 4 volume subdivisions
  • They do not overlap
  • They can not be further divided
  • When added together equal total lung capacity

3
Lung Capacities
  • Are subdivisions of the total volume that include
    two or more of the 4 basic lung volumes

4
Basic Lung Volumes
  • Tidal Volume TV
  • The amount of gas inspired or expired with each
    normal breath.
  • About 500 ml

5
Basic Lung Volumes
  • Inspiratory Reserve Volume IRV
  • Maximum amount of additional air that can be
    inspired from the end of a normal inspiration.

6
Basic Lung Volumes
  • Expiratory Reserve Volume ERV
  • The maximum volume of additional air that can be
    expired from the end of a normal expiration.

7
Basic Lung Volumes
  • Residual Volume RV
  • The volume of air remaining in the lung after a
    maximal expiration. This is the only lung volume
    which cannot be measured with a spirometer.
  • Gas dilution tech
  • nitrogen
  • helium
  • Body Plethysmograph

8
Lung Capacities
  • Total Lung Capacity TLC
  • The volume of air contained in the lungs at the
    end of a maximal inspiration.
  • Called a capacity because it is the sum of the 4
    basic lung volumes
  • TLC RVIRVTVERV

9
Lung Capacities
  • Vital Capacity VC
  • The maximum volume of air that can be forcefully
    expelled from the lungs following a maximal
    inspiration.
  • Called a capacity because it is the sum of
    inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume and
    expiratory reserve volume.
  • VC IRVTVERV TLC - RV

10
Lung Capacities
  • Functional Residual Capacity FRC
  • The volume of air remaining in the lung at the
    end of a normal expiration.
  • Called a capacity because it equal residual
    volume plus expiratory reserve volume.
  • FRC RVERV

11
Lung Capacities
  • Inspiratory Capacity IC
  • Maximum volume of air that can be inspired from
    end expiratory position.
  • Called a capacity because it is the sum of tidal
    volume and inspiratory reserve volume.
  • This capacity is of less clinical significance
    than the other three.
  • IC TVIRV

12
Respiratory Diseases
  • Restrictive Disease
  • Makes it more difficult to get air in to the
    lungs.
  • They restrict inspiration.
  • Decreased VC Decreased TLC, RV, FRC
  • Includes
  • Fibrosis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Muscular diseases
  • Chest wall deformities

13
Respiratory Diseases
  • Obstructive Disease
  • Make it more difficult to get air out of the
    lungs.
  • Decrease VC Increased TLC, RV, and FRC
  • Includes
  • Emphysema
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Asthma
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