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Lecture 1 EPSY 625

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Democratic in principle: anyone could sit for the exam ... Measurement of human physiognomy. notion of relationships among variables: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lecture 1 EPSY 625


1
Lecture 1EPSY 625
2
MEASUREMENT THEORY TIMELINE
Chinese Greek European Stat- Measure- Exams s
ystem univ. exam istics meant
2000BCE 400BCE 800AD 1800AD 1900AD 2000AD
3
1000 BC Chinese civil service exam
  • Democratic in principle anyone could sit for the
    exam
  • limitation opportunity to learn access to
    schooling low for peasants
  • many modern issues
  • reliability test-retest, interrater agreement
  • validity content, face, predictive
  • test formats written vs. oral

4
GREEK-ROMAN EDUCATION SYSTEMS
  • Greek emphasis on oral examination
  • Roman emulation of Greek systems (used Greek
    slaves as teachers for private tutoring)
  • Use of papyrus for written work
  • Carryover to European university systems created
    about 800 AD- 1800
  • Oral examinations for degrees- paper was very
    expensive
  • Arabic university systems somewhat like European
    systems in 1000-1500AD

5
1800 Error of Measurement - astronomy gambling
  • Discovery of Normal distribution
  • scoring agreement among astronomers
    disagreements as poor work vs. individual
    differences
  • gambling with dice or cards statistics and
    probability were invented- gambling noblemen
    wanted an edge

6
1850 Wundt's lab - physiological measurement
  • Measurement of human performance and perception
  • jnd just noticeable difference in perception

7
WRITTEN EXAMINATIONS 1850
  • Cheap paper and lead pencil invented in 1840s
  • Written essay advocated by American educators
    such as Horace Mann
  • Reduction in emphasis on oral presentation,
    recitation
  • Essay examination becomes important

8
1880 Galton's anthropometry human physical
measurement
  • Measurement of human physiognomy
  • notion of relationships among variables
  • correlation and causation
  • ratio scaling led to Pearsons correlation
  • nominal scaling led to chi square association

9
1890 reaction time, "mental test"
  • J.M. Cattell - child intelligence
  • Binet - Simon - individual testing
  • developmental perspective
  • deviation at an age compared to cross-age
    development
  • factor analysis - Spearman concept of construct
    underlying observed measurement

10
1905 educational psychology - Thorndike
  • learning and assessment
  • First educational psychology text- 1906
  • 1914 text topics
  • The Original Nature of Man
  • The Psychology of Learning
  • Individual Differences and Their Causes
  • sex and race
  • ancestry (genetics) or family etc.

11
1920s Group testing
  • IQ testing from WW I
  • need to classify men efficiently for military
    duties
  • need to assess large numbers group testing
  • attitude assessment - Thurstone - Chave
  • Fisher ANOVA (beginning of experimental design)

12
1930s Theory development
  • Thurstone and Likert assessment of affect,
    methodology
  • KR-20, Rulon, etc. internal consistency
  • Spearman-Brown prediction of test characteristics

13
1940s More theory
  • Hoyts reliability using ANOVA
  • Guttman scaling of attitude
  • Decision theory and WWII

14
1950s
  • Computer-based analysis
  • Cronbachs alpha- pulling theory together
  • construct validity - Cronbach, Meehl
  • multitrait-multimethod validity - MacCorquodale

15
1960s Computers and statistics
  • latent trait theory- Rasch
  • formalized true score theory - Lord Novick
  • covariance structure analysis - Jorekog
  • multidimensional scaling - Torgeson
  • latent partition analysis - Wiley

16
1970s
  • generalizability theory- Cronbach
  • criterion-referenced testing (CRT)
  • bias in testing theory, differential item
    function (DIF)
  • 2- and 3- parameter latent trait models - Lord
  • statewide assessments minimum competency

17
1980s multitrait linear logistic model - Embretson
  • Multitrait linear logistic model- Embretson
  • Item-individual interaction cognitive
    function task demand item
    function (Mislevy, Willson)
  • Development of testing standards

18
1990s Web-based assessment
  • Automated response web testing, computer
    adaptive testing
  • AI systems
  • widespread use of measurement model in
    quantitative theory (Structural equation
    modeling)
  • accountability systems based on testing

19
2000s HIGH STAKES TESTING AND RESEARCH
  • No Child Left Behind
  • Multilevel modeling (HLM)
  • Federal testing requirements for US States
  • Great demands on testing industry to develop many
    tests
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