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Was Jesus Really Resurrected


... Review and Critique of The Discovery Channel's 2007 documentary on The Lost Tomb ... 4th, 2007 documentary on The Discovery Channel this may have been the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Was Jesus Really Resurrected

  • Was Jesus Really Resurrected?
  • A Review and Critique of The Discovery Channels
    2007 documentary on The Lost Tomb of Jesus

The Lost Tomb of Jesus
  • There are many theories that attempt to refute
    the idea of the resurrection of Jesus.
  • The Swoon Theory (exposed by John 1930-41).
  • The Left on the Cross and Eaten by Wild Birds and
    Animals Theory (exposed by John 1938-41 Deut.
  • The Stolen Body Theory (exposed by Matthew
  • The Secret Passageway Theory (exposed by Matthew
  • The Jesus never died Theory (exposed by all
    four gospels and Roman history).
  • The Hallucination Theory (exposed by the number
    of witnesses, different mindsets and various
    places of appearances (1 Corinthians 155-8).
  • There are a couple more theories, but these are
    probably the most common.

The Lost Tomb of Jesus Theory
  • Yet, one of the most recent theories is the Lost
    Tomb of Jesus theory.
  • This theory suggests…
  • Jesus died and was buried, but was transported to
    a different family tomb later in Jerusalemthe
    Talpiot tomb.
  • Supposedly, this tomb was accidentally found in
    1980 by a construction crew.
  • According to a March 4th, 2007 documentary on The
    Discovery Channel this may have been the tomb of
  • Their case is based on several factors and we
    will examine each one individually.

The Lost Tomb of Jesus
  • These factors include…
  • The evidence of the names on the tombs
  • Mariathey claim this could be the virgin Mary.
  • Mattiathey claim this may be a brother of Jesus,
    or earlier ancestor from Luke 3 genealogy.
  • Josethey claim this is the brother of Jesus and
    that he is called Jose in Marks account
  • Yeshuason of Josephthey claim this is an
    alternate spelling for Jesus and this is Jesus,
    the son of Joseph as the Bible indicates.
  • Mariamnethey claim this is Mary Magdalene based
    on a spelling of Mary Magdalenes name from the
    apocryphal book The Acts of Philip.
  • Judahthey claim this could be the son of Jesus
    (perhaps by Mary Magdalene) and use John 1926-27
    as proof.

The Lost Tomb of Jesus
  • These factors include…
  • The evidence of the names on the tombs.
  • DNA evidence of Yeshua and Mariamne.
  • A DNA sample of bone fragments proved that Yeshua
    and Mariamne were not maternally related (thus,
    they could have been married).
  • Statistical evidence of the names on the
  • A statistician compiled probabilities that this
    was not the Jesus tomb and claimed there was a 1
    in 190 chance it was not his tomb.
  • Patina samples from the James ossuary and one of
    the ossuaries from the Talpiot tomb (lost tomb
    of Jesus).
  • When this tomb was originally found, there were
    10 ossuaries, but one of them went missing.
  • The documentary claims that the missing ossuary
    was the controversial ossuary of James based on
    patina samples (dust research).
  • So, lets consider all of these claims and more
    to see if there is any legitimacy to this theory.

Counter-Examining the Names
  • Obviously, some of the names are similar to those
    found in the gospels.
  • But, does that prove it was the tomb of Jesus of
  • Does the Maria tomb indicate that this Mary was
    the mother of Jesus read about in the Bible?
  • Darrell Bock, professor of New Testament at
    Dallas Theological Seminary, says,
  • "Mary is the most popular female name -- 21
    percent of the female names of the period. So,
    you're dealing with a lot of familiar names"
    (Baptist Press, Feb. 27, 2007).

Counter-Examining the Names
  • Another source states,
  • The name "Mary" occurs in the gospels several
    times in reference to different women.  Also, If
    Christianity were on the rise in the culture, it
    makes sense that people would adopt Christian
    names as they eagerly moved away from the
    imposing Roman Empire's rule.  This would
    increase the name frequency.
  • Ben Witherington writes on the subject,
  • Several of these ossuaries have very popular and
    familiar early Jewish names…Indeed both Jesus
    mother and her sister were named Mary. This is
    the ancient equivalent of finding adjacent tombs
    with the names Smith and Jones. No big deal.
  • Apologist Kurt Van Gorden notes the commonality
    of these names saying,
  • …45 ossuaries bare the name Joseph, 44 have
    Judah, 25 have John, 22 have Jesus, 17 have
    Matthew, 42 have Mary, 41 have Salome, and 17
    have Martha.

Counter-Examining the Names
  • What about the name Mattia? Was this a lost
    brother of Jesus, a member of the family?
  • Dr. Paul Maier from the Department of History at
    the University of Western Michigan says,
  • All the names Yeshua, Joseph, Maria,
    Mariamene, Matia, Judah, and Jose  are extremely
    frequent Jewish names for that time and place,
    and thus most scholars consider this merely
    coincidental, as they did from the
    start. One-quarter of Jewish women at that time,
    for example, were named Maria.
  • Michael Foust writes,
  • …there is no known relationship of Jesus to
    Matthew. Mark 63 lists four half-brothers of
    Christ James, Joses (or Joseph), Judas (not
    Judas the traitor) and Simon. He also had
    half-sisters, according to the passage. Although
    there were ossuaries for a James and a Jose, no
    other ossuaries with inscriptions for these
    additional brothers and sisters were found.

Counter-Examining the Names
  • What about the Jose nameis this the younger
    brother of Jesus?
  • Certainly, Jesus did have a younger brother by
    the name of Joses.
  • Yet, the name on the tomb was Jose or Yose.
  • The documentary tried to claim that the gospel of
    Mark calls the brother of Jesus Jose.
  • Yet, Mark 63 uses the term Joses.
  • The Bible does distinguish between a Jose and
    Joses (see Luke 329).
  • Again, the proof is very weak, contrived and
    still does not prove that this was the tomb of
    Jesus of the Bible.

Counter-Examining the Names
  • What about the name of Yeshua, son of Joseph is
    this obvious proof that this is Jesus?
  • Not so fast…
  • Dr. Ben Witherington III, professor of New
    Testament Interpretation at Asbury Theological
    Seminary says,
  • Jesus is never called son of Joseph by anyone
    who knew him intimately in the NT not by his
    family members, and not by his disciples. 
  • Dr. Charles Quarles, the chair of Christian
    Studies at Louisiana University adds,
  • Even by the calculations of the authors of The
    Jesus Family Tomb the book that parallels the
    documentary, there were approximately 1,008 men
    named Jesus, son of Joseph who lived in
    first-century Palestine! They calculate that 1
    out of every 79 Jewish males in Palestine during
    the century of ossuary use was named Jesus, son
    of Joseph!

Counter-Examining the Names
  • "Charles Worth of Princeton Theological Seminary
    says he has a first-century letter,
  • …written by someone named Jesus, addressed to
    someone else named Jesus and witnessed by a third
    party named Jesus."
  • Obviously, the name Jesus was common as well as
  • Professor Amos Kloner, the researcher who first
    catalogued the ossuaries says,
  • The name Jesus son of Joseph has been found on
    three or four ossuaries. These are common names.
    There were huge headlines in the 1940s
    surrounding another Jesus ossuary, cited as the
    first evidence of Christianity. There was another
    Jesus tomb. Months later it was dismissed.
  • Darrell Bock again adds,
  • "Joseph is the second most common male name in
    the period. Jesus is the sixth. Matthew's the

Counter-Examining the Names
  • The fifth ossuary has the name Mariamne on it.
  • The documentary by James Cameron and Jacobovici
    assumes this is Mary Magdalene.
  • Yet, notice a couple of problems right off the
  • The ossuary says Mariamne not Mary or
  • There is no mention of her hometown of Magdala
    and no indication she is Mary Magdalene.
  • Thus, there is a large assumption that takes
    placemost of it based on a text from The Acts of
  • Apparently, when Mary Magdalene is referred to in
    this text she is called Mariamne.
  • Yet, is this a strong, reliable claim to make?

Counter-Examining the Names
  • There are major problems with The Acts of Philip
    that greatly weaken its credibility.
  • First, it is a 4th-century book (250 years after
    the events recorded in the New Testament).
  • The latest date for the ossuaries found in the
    Talpiot tomb were 70 A.D.
  • Yet, no document calls Mary Magdalene by the name
    Mariamne until three centuries later!
  • Second, it contains tales of…
  • Talking leopards (v. 96).
  • A talking baby goat (v. 97).
  • A fierce black dragon (v. 102).
  • Mariamne assisting in the slaying of a dragon.
  • Mariamne turning into a glass box or cloud of
    fire when threatened.
  • Does this sound like a reliable source to link
    Mary Magdalene to the name Mariamne?

Counter-Examining the Names
  • Ben Witherington responds to the Mariamne is
    Mary Magdalene argument saying,
  • We have absolutely no historical evidence to
    suggest Mary Magdalene would have been called by
    a Greek name before A.D. 70. She grew up in a
    Jewish fishing village called Migdal, not a Greek
    city at all. It makes no sense that her ossuary
    would have a Greek inscription and that of her
    alleged husband an Aramaic inscription. … Mary
    Magdalene is called Maria constantly in first
    century Christian literature, and indeed well
    into the second century as well. She is never
    called Mariamene or the like. … The second word
    on the Mariamene ossuary is Mara which is short
    for Martha another female name. It is not a
    reference to her being a master or teacher.

Counter-Examining the Names
  • The last inscription found on the ossuaries at
    the Talpiot tomb is that of Judah.
  • The documentary tries to claim that Judah may
    have been the secret son of Jesus and Mary
  • Dr. Andreas Kostenberger responds,
  • …there is no historical evidence for Jesus
    having a son named Jude there is no credible
    historical evidence that Jesus was married, to
    Mary Magdalene or anyone else…if you had been
    Jesus and (for arguments sake) had had a son,
    would you have named him Judas (same as Judah or
    Jude), like the man who betrayed you?
  • Their argument is completely theoretical and an
    example of poor, unfounded research.
  • It is equivalent to going to a cemetery and
    claiming you chose to be buried in the same plot
    as your long-lost child!

Counter-Examination of DNA
  • The second major claim of the program deals with
    DNA evidence.
  • Now, remember, this program assumes this is a
    family tomb.
  • They claim that such tombs always included the
    corpses of relatives.
  • So, in testing the DNA they tried to determine if
    Jesus and Mariamne were maternally related.
  • After testing the mitochondrial DNA they
    determined that the two were not maternally
  • Thus, the bones from the two ossuaries could not
    be brother and sister or mother and son.
  • So, they assume they must have been husband and
  • This leaves out the possibility of brother-in-law
    and sister-in-law or uncle and niece or just
    friends sharing the same tomb.

Counter-Examination of DNA
  • Michael Foust quotes Ben Witherington in his
    article about the Jesus tomb saying,
  • "There are lots of weaknesses to their argument,
    but the DNA evidence and the way they're trying
    to use it is hilarious…You need a control sample
    to compare it to. If we actually had the DNA of
    Jesus or Mary or James, then we'd have a control
    sample to compare what they've done. They have no
    control sample, so they are just comparing it
    internally to two examples that they're making
    assumptions about. This is not scientific
    analysis of DNA at all."

Counter-Examination of DNA
  • Witherington goes on to say in his own article,
  • …there is no independent DNA control sample to
    compare to what was garnered from the bones in
    this tomb. By this I mean that the most the DNA
    evidence can show is that several of these folks
    are inter-related. Big deal. We would need an
    independent control sample from some member of
    Jesus' family to confirm that these were members
    of Jesus' family. We do not have that at all. In
    addition mitacondrial DNA does not reveal genetic
    coding or XY chromosome make up anyway. They
    would need nuclear DNA for that in any case. So
    the DNA stuff is probably thrown in to make this
    look more like a real scientific fact. Not so

Counter-Examination of DNA
  • Dr. Carney Matheson, the one who did the DNA
    testing for the filmmakers, later said,
  • …The only conclusions we made was that these two
    sets from the Yeshua and Mariamne ossuaries
    were not maternally related. To me it sounds like
    absolutely nothing…There is a statement in the
    film that has been taken out of context. While
    marriage is a possibility, other relationships
    like father and daughter, paternal cousins,
    sister-in-law or indeed two unrelated individuals
    are also possible…
  • Quite simply, how do we know the DNA found was
  • From a different, related family member?
  • From a totally, unrelated person?
  • From the bone fragments of some other person who
    at one time occupied the ossuary (since they were
    often shared)?

Counter-Examination of DNA
  • Gary Habermas, the chair of the department of
    philosophy and theology at Liberty University
  • The ONLY THING the DNA evidence establishes
    positively is that this Jesus and this
    Mariamene found in the tomb are not maternally
    related. This hardly shows that they were
    probably married! So this is only a guess. She
    could have been married to any one of the four
    men, or to other family members, or she could
    someones daughter. We must remember that family
    tombs were from extended families and were often
    multi-generational. So, Mariamene could have
    lived decades earlier or later than Jesus.

Counter-Examination of Statistics
  • The documentary also claims that there is good
    statistical proof that this was the lost tomb.
  • This proof is based on the inscriptions found
    upon the ossuaries.
  • Yet, there are problems with this type of
    statistical work too.
  • First of all, these statistics left out the names
    of Matia and Judah, son of Jesus.
  • Already, this indicates the statistics are
  • The scholars agree.

Counter-Examination of Statistics
  • Dr. Mark Goodacre, the associate professor of New
    Testament at Duke University said,
  • The major part of the case that the Talpiot tomb
    is Jesus family tomb is based on a statistical
    claim. … I think this case is severely flawed.
    The essential problem, as I see it, is that the
    matches between the Talpiot tomb and the early
    Christian literary record are factored into the
    calculations in a positive way, but the
    non-matches are simply ignored, or treated as
    neutral. This will not do. … In short, including
    Mariamne and leaving out Matia and Judas son of
    Jesus is problematic for any claim to be made
    about the remaining cluster. All data must be
    included. You cannot cherry pick or manipulate
    your data before doing your statistical
  • The very fact this program needed statistics is
    an indication they did not have good, historical

Counter-Examination of James Ossuary
  • After the ossuaries were removed in 1980, one of
    them ended up missing.
  • One of the last claims the program made was the
    possibility the 10th missing ossuary was the
    James ossuary.
  • This, they claim, was proved by a patina sample,
    and gives more evidence this was the family tomb
    of Jesus.
  • Professor Amos Kloner, the Israeli archaeologist
    who catalogued the ossuaries said,
  • The 10th ossuary was on my list. The
    measurements were not the same (as the James
    ossuary). It was plain (without an inscription).
    We had no room under our roofs for all the
    ossuaries, so unmarked ones were sometimes kept
    in the courtyard (of the Rockefeller Museum).

Counter-Examination of James Ossuary
  • Robert Genna, the one who tested the patina
    samples, said later,
  • The elemental composition of some of the samples
    we tested from the ossuaries are consistent with
    each other. But I would never say theyre a
    match… No scientist would ever say definitively
    that one ossuary came from the same tomb as
    another… We didnt do enough sampling to see if
    in fact there were other tombs that had similar
    elemental compositions… The only samples we can
    positively say are a match from a single source
    are fingerprints and DNA.
  • Thus, we already have problems…
  • First, the missing ossuary did not have an
    inscription when originally catalogued, the James
    ossuary does.
  • Second, patina sampling is not a guaranteed
    science and not enough samples were used for
    adequate comparison.
  • Third, as one scholar pointed out, if you were
    going to steal an ossuarywhy not take the one
    with Jesus, son of Joseph inscription?
  • In addition, church historian, Eusebius, once
    reported that James was buried near the temple
    mountnowhere near Talpiot!

Other Factors to Consider…
  • Consider a few more powerful arguments that you
    might make against the Talpiot tomb…
  • Jesus and his family were from Galileewhy would
    they all be buried in Jerusalem?
  • Burial tombs in Jerusalem were expensivehow
    would a poor family afford such a plot?
  • If the tomb of Jesus was an occupied family tomb,
    why didnt the Jews use it as evidence against
  • Why were the apostles teaching a resurrection and
    dying for it, when they knew Jesus bones were
  • Are there ulterior motives for the movies
    directorSimcha Jacobovici, an orthodox Jew, and
    well-paid producer, James Cameron?
  • If this was discovered in 1980, why was there a
    27-year delay before these findings came to
  • There is more 1st and 2nd century evidence of the
    life of Jesus than any other figure from that
    time periodwhy does no reputable source ever
    mention his wife or child?

  • Dr. Garrett G. Fagan, a professor of Classics at
    Penn State University, makes this scary insight
    about the filmmakers…
  • Theyre not scientists, but they need to dress
    themselves in the clothes of science to pass
    muster… Television is not in the business of
    education, even with the so-called educational
    channels like Discovery. Ultimately, theyre in
    the business of making money. …  By the time the
    rebuttals come out, the mass media would have
    moved on to the next sensation and people will
    have this vague notion that they have found the
    tomb of Jesus.
  • Christians should do their best to make sure they
    are influenced by fact, not mere theory.
  • 2 Timothy 215-17,
  • Be diligent to present yourself approved to God,
    a worker who does not need to be ashamed, rightly
    dividing the word of truth. But shun profane and
    idle babblings, for they will increase unto more
    ungodliness. And their message will spread like
    cancer. Hymenaeus and Philetus are of this sort,
    who have strayed concerning the truth, saying
    that the resurrection is already past and they
    overthrow the faith of some.

1 Corinthians 151-8
  • The well-documented witnesses of the resurrection
    are in far greater supply than the hypothetical
    evidence for the Lost Tomb theory…
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