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Lecture 6: Theories of Social Development

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Title: Lecture 6: Theories of Social Development


1
Lecture 6 Theories of Social Development
  • Module Developmental Psychology (4PS014)
  • Date 29 February 2008
  • Lecturer Dr Lovemore Nyatanga

2
Learning outcomes
  • What is meant by Social Development?
  • Outline at least two theories of social
    development
  • Discuss research associated with social
    development
  • Evaluate the merits of at least one theory of
    social development

3
Social Development
  • An account of how childrens development may be
    influenced by other people, the environment and
    institutions around them (Siegler, Deloache
    Eisenberg 2006 p335)
  • Environment may be the immediate surroundings
    while institution may be cultural
    societal/wider context of social development.

4
Theories of Psycho-Social Development
5
Psycho-Analytic Theories
  • Erik Erikson
  • Sigmund Freud

6
Epigenetic Theory
  • Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
  • Probably the father of psychosocial development
    debate
  • Developed psychosocial development theory based
    on his own life the Native American Oglala
    Lakota Tribe

7
Eriksons 8 Psychosocial stages of development
8
Eriksons 8 Psychosocial stages of development
9
Eriksons Epigenetic Principle
  • Erikson (1963) used epigenetic (upon emergence)
    principle to denote the emerging tasks of each of
    the 8 stages.
  • Each stage is seen as a bipolar task (A vs B)
    where A has to be achieved to avoid B
  • Thus the individual must achieve/resolve stage
    tasks in order to move to the next stage.
  • Inability to resolve a conflict at a particular
    stage may mean struggle in later stages

10
  • text

11
Psycho-Dynamic Theory
  • Reasoned that a childs early experiences had
    profound influence in later life.
  • Further reasoned that children developed through
    universal developmental stages
  • Developed the Psycho-sexual Theory of Human
    Development

Sigmund Freud 1856 1939)
12
Psycho-sexual Theory Basic assumption
  • The basic assumption is that human beings are
    motivated by powerful innate forces (triebe)
    known as instincts or drives (Ewen 1993).
  • Instincts or drives energise direct all human
    psychic and physical activities.
  • Libido is the collective term for the psychic
    energy that motivates behaviour (libido is NOT
    simply sex drive).

13
Libido the Psycho-sexual Theory
  • For Freud the Psycho-Sexual Theory denotes that
    psychic energy (libido) is biological
  • Libido is fused throughout the bodys erogenous
    zones (e.g. the mouth, the genitals and the
    anus).
  • At different stages of the psycho-sexual
    development the psychic energy (libido) is
    infused into the respective erogenous zone as it
    becomes sensitive
  • (Siegler, Deloache Eisenberg 2006).

14
Freudian Developmental Process
  • Biological psychological instincts drives are
    present at birth in the form of hunger
    discomfort, for example, these drives are
    housed in the ID.
  • The ID operates on the pleasure principle (gain
    pleasure avoid displeasure).
  • ID seeks instant gratification of its drives or
    needs.

15
Freuds Developmental Dynamics
  • Ego develops some 6-8 months after birth (Reality
    Principle)
  • Superego develops (between 3-5 years) becomes
    the introjected moral principle.
  • ID, Ego Superego constitute Freudian
    personality structure with amazing dynamics.

16
Freudian Developmental Theory
EGO (DAS ICH) the I
Superego (DAS UBERICH) the over I
ID (DAS ES) the it
17
Psycho-sexual Stages
18
Fixation Personality Typology
19
Social Learning Theory
  • John Locke reasoned that there are no ideas
    stamped upon our minds at birth thus at birth
    the mind is a blank slate Tabula Rasa
  • All human knowledge has been shaped by experience
  • Experience is a major factor in the psycho-social
    development of the person.

John Locke 1632 - 1704
20
Social Learning Theory
  • The role of the environment related experience
    makes social learning theories quite important in
    human development
  • Attachment theories, Self Regulation t
    theories, Social Cognition theories all suggest
    that psycho-social development involves a dynamic
    process that integrates cognitive, affective
    behavioural aspects.
  • Bandura (1965 1977) popularised role of
    imitation vicarious learning (famous Bobo Doll
    experiment)

21
Bobo Doll Experiment 3 Conditions
22
Role of Culture in Psycho-social Development
  • Most theories of human development (e.g. Freud,
    Erikson, Bandura,Piaget, Vygotsky, Bowlby
    Ainsworth) suggest that environment/culture is
    important.
  • Vygotskys Social Cognition Theory, for example,
    uses culture as a primary determinant of child
    development
  • Culture is the vehicle by which societal values,
    beliefs universal patterns of behaviour
    develops.
  • Gender roles are specific examples of the role of
    culture in human development.

23
Vygotskys Social Cognition Model
  • Culture makes at least two critical contributions
    to child development as follows
  • Affords the child knowledge of their environment
    (context of their thinking)
  • Affords the child intellectual adaptation tools
    (thinking strategies or thinking processes)
  • Thus culture teaches the child what to think as
    well as how to think.

24
Recommended reading
  • Bukatko, D. Daehler, M (2001) Child
    Development a thematic approach. Houghton
    Mifflin Boston
  • Ewen, R. (1993) Introduction to theories of
    personality 4th edition. Lawrence Erlbraum
    London
  • Siegler, R., Deloache, J. Eisenberg, N. (2006)
    How children develop 2nd edition. Worth
    Publishers London, chapter 9 (module textbook)
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