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Children and Families with Long Term and Complex Needs

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In the UK we are have a population of over 60 million people (11.5 million ... The problems tend to be both persistent and pernicious. Children as an Investment ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Children and Families with Long Term and Complex Needs


1
Children and Families with Long Term and Complex
Needs
Preventing social exclusion of children and young
people in Europe participation and early
intervention
  • Who are they and where do they live?

Eurochild Conference Malta - November 2007 Dr
John Devaney and Dr Trevor Spratt Queens
University Belfast
2
The State We Are In
  • In the UK we are have a population of over 60
    million people (11.5 million children) yet we
    live on a small land mass
  • Policy is directed from central government in
    Westminster although there are 3 devolved
    regional governments in Northern Ireland,
    Scotland and Wales
  • The UK has the sixth largest world economy and
    eleventh highest GDP per capita
  • But levels of relative child poverty are still
    very high (approx 2.4 million children)

3
Every child deserves the best possible start to
life, to be supported as they develop and to be
given opportunities to achieve their full
potential. Children who grow up in poverty
experience disadvantage that effects not only
their own childhood, but also their experience as
adults and the life chances of their own
children. Support for todays disadvantaged
children will therefore help to ensure a more
flexible economy tomorrow.
Gordon Brown Chancellor of the Exchequer (2003
Section 5.4)
4
The Effects of Adversity
  • At any one time, children in public care make up
    about 0.5 per cent of all children.  But one
    quarter of the adult prison population has been
    in the children's care system at some point. 
  • Around a third of children in public care end up
    as NEETs (not in employment, education or
    training). 
  • The daughter of a teenage mother is twice as
    likely to become a teenage mother compared with a
    daughter of an older mother. 
  • Boys with a convicted father are over three times
    more at risk of being convicted of a crime than
    those with a non-convicted father. 
  • 125,000 children have a parent in custody - and
    65 per cent of children with parents in prison go
    on to offend.
  • People with no qualifications are seven times
    more likely to be unemployed and five times more
    likely to be low paid than people with higher
    education.
  • More than half of female drug users have
    dependent children.
  • 41 per cent of problem drug-using parents had a
    child who had repeated a school year.

Tony Blair (2006)
5
Current Government Conceptualization of Issue
  • Link between childhood experiences and adult
    outcomes
  • Multiplicity of problems in childhood
  • Interaction of problems may be more than additive
  • The problems tend to be both persistent and
    pernicious
  • Children as an Investment
  • Future orientated

6
New Labour has moved towards a progressively more
targeted approach to child welfare in the last
twenty years, from a generalised focus on social
justice and inequality centred on social class
and family, through a narrower focus on social
exclusion and now to a more utilitarian focus on
social investment.
Fawcett, Featherstone and Goddard(2004 159)
7
Looking Back to Look Forward
8
The Relationship Between Childhood Experiences
and Adult Social Exclusion
(Feinstein et al., 2007)
9
The Relationship Between Childhood Experiences
and Adult Social Exclusion
Odds ratios for family risk if occupation of
father is SEG 5
(Feinstein et al., 2007)
10
The Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences on
Adult Outcomes
The ACE study http//www.acestudy.org
11
Cumulative Effect of Adversity
12
The Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences on
Adult Outcomes
13
The Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences on
Adult Outcomes
14
Looking Forward to Look Back
15
What should Governments do?
Individuals V Communities
Targeted V Universal
Prevention V Remedial
16
Individual
Targeted
Preventative
Remedial
Universal
Community
17
Who are these children and Where do they live?
18
The Challenge
  • Currently no database to identify who these
    children are
  • Options
  • - set up a database
  • - use other indicators as a proxy

19
Research Question
  • Are the children most at risk of social exclusion
    in adulthood already known to social services?

20
Northern Ireland Longitudinal Survey
  • Linking of administrative and statistical
    datasets
  • Comparable to studies in England and Wales, and
    Scotland
  • Based on 2001 census data, birth and death
    registrations and demographic data derived from
    health registrations
  • 500,000 individuals included (28 of the Northern
    Ireland population)
  • Inclusion of social care data is unique within
    the UK

http//www.nisra.gov.uk/nils/
21
(No Transcript)
22
Challenges
  • Practicalities
  • Stigma
  • Moral Hazard

23
Future Intentions
  • If families with long term and complex needs are
    disproportionately found in the population known
    to social services then.
  • We would intend to more closely examine the
    operational silos more closely i.e. Looked After
    Children, Children on the Child Protection
    Register and Children in Need.
  • As well as track the outcomes of the children of
    such families over time using the co-joined data
    sets.

24
Research Questions
  • What proportions of families with long term and
    complex needs are captured in each silo?
  • What are the pathways and processes between
    adverse experiences in childhood and poor adult
    outcomes?
  • Does the current configuration of social services
    represent the best way to meet the needs of
    families with long term and complex needs?

25
References
  • Blair, T. (2006) Our Sovereign Value Fairness
    Speech given to the Joseph Rowntree Foundation 5
    September 2006 Available at http//www.pm.gov.uk/
    output/Page10037.asp
  • Chancellor of the Exchequer (2003) Budget Report
    2003 Building a Britain of economic strength and
    social justice. London, H.M. Treasury.
  • Fawcett, B., Featherstone, B. and Goddard, J
    (2004) Contemporary Child Care Policy and
    Practice. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Feinstein, L., Hearn, B., Renton, Z., Abrahams,
    C. and MacLeod, M. (2007) Reducing Inequalities.
    London, National Childrens Bureau.

26
Bibliography
  • Anda, R.F., Felittie, V.J., Bremner, J.D.,
    Walker, J.D., Whitfield, C., Perry, B.D., Dube,
    S.R. and Giles, W.H. (2006) The enduring effects
    of abuse and related adverse experiences in
    childhood A convergence of evidence from
    neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives
    of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 256
    174-186.
  • Cabinet Office and Social Exclusion Unit (2007)
    Reaching Out Think Family Analysis of the
    Families at Risk Review. London, Cabinet Office.
  • Devaney, J. (in press) Inter-professional working
    in child protection with families with long-term
    and complex needs. Child Abuse Review
  • Feinstein, L. and Sabates,R (2006) Predicting
    adult life outcomes from earlier signals
    identifying those at risk. London, Institute of
    Education.
  • Heckman, J. (2006) Investing in Disadvantaged
    Young Children is an Economically Efficient
    Policy Paper presented at the Committee for
    Economic Development, New York, 10 January 2006.
  • HM Treasury (2007) Aiming High for Children
    Supporting families. London, The Stationery
    Office.
  • HM Treasury and Department for Education and
    Skills (2007) Policy review of children and young
    people A discussion paper, London, The
    Stationery Office.
  • Spratt, T. (in press) Identifying families with
    multiple problems Possible responses from child
    and family social work to current policy
    developments British Journal of Social Work
  • Spratt, T. and Devaney, J. (in press) Identifying
    families with multiple problems Perspectives of
    practitioners and managers in three nations
    British Journal of Social Work

27
Children and Families with Long Term and Complex
Needs
Preventing social exclusion of children and young
people in Europe participation and early
intervention
  • Who are they and where do they live?

Dr John Devaney and Dr Trevor Spratt Queens
University Belfast J.Devaney_at_qub.ac.uk T.Spratt_at_qu
b.ac.uk
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