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Humans as Money

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Humans as Money. Trafficking, Demography and Soft Currency: the ... sex buys dollars: in all its varieties- straight, bent, paedophilia, photos, videos ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Humans as Money


1
Humans as Money
  • Trafficking, Demography and Soft Currency the
    political economy of changing structures of
    organised crime
  • BILL TUPMAN
  • DIRECTOR, UNIT FOR RESEARCH ON COMMUNITY SAFETY
  • UNIVERSITY OF EXETER

2
Where am I coming from?
  • Crime illicit business bit of social
    labelling, bit of neo-liberalism
  • Measuring and evaluating...how? policy studies
  • Interview offenders to discover motivation
    Walsh, Maguire
  • Gambetta and D.C.Smith

3
Smith, D.C. 1978 Organized Crime and
Entrepeneurship International Journal of
Criminology and Penology 6 1978 pp161-77 Smith
D.C. 1980 Paragons Pariahs and Pirates A
Spectrum-based theory of Enterprise. Crime and
Delinquency, 26, 1980pp358-86 Haller M.H.
Illegal Enterprise A Theoretical and Historical
Interpretation Criminology, 28 2, 1990,
pp207-35 Gambetta D. 1994 Inscrutable Markets
Rationality and Society,63 353-68
1993 The Sicilian Mafia The Business of
Private Protection, , Harvard University Press,
Cambridge Mass 1993 Tupman W.A. "Violent
Business? Networking, Terrorism and Organised
Crime" in I. McKenzie ed. Law, Power and
Justice in England and Wales Praeger 1998
4
Dont panic!
  • http//www.people.ex.ac.uk/watupman/Tupman/
  • http//www.people.ex.ac.uk/watupman/tandoc/workpap
    s.htm

5
DEMOGRAPHY
  • Ageing European Population
  • Skill shortage
  • High price of labour
  • Demand for labour in various areas
  • Including illicit business/organised crime
  • Chevenement estimated shortfall of 75 million by
    2050

6
Statistics
  • Need to distinguish between smuggling and
    trafficking. Most sources dont
  • UNODCCP estimates 4 million people being moved
    annually, generating 5-7 billion gross IOM
    estimates 10 billion
  • 30-50,000 per person for Australia
  • 15,000 for New Zealand and for US, but
    additional 25,000 demanded on arrival

7
GAO report July 2006
  • Accuracy of all figures questionable, especially
    estimate of 600-800,000 trafficked annually
    across borders. Original work from one individual
    who did not document how he did it!
  • There is no reliable and comparable country data

8
UNPFA Report Sept 2006
  • 95 million women and girl migrants annually
    49.6 of total
  • They repatriate much of their earnings. 232
    million repatriated by all migrants
  • Human trafficking nets 7-12 billion annually in
    initial profits
  • 32 billion further per annum from those already
    trafficked

9
All acts involved in the recruitment, abduction,
transport (within or across borders), sale,
transfer, harbouring, or receipt of
persons, by the threat or use of
force, deception, coercion (including abuse of
authority), or debt bondage, for the
purpose of placing or holding such person,
whether for pay or not, in involuntary servitude,
forced or bonded labour, or in
slavery-like conditions, in a
community other than the one in which the person
lived at the time of the original deception,
coercion or debt bondage.
10
Illegal Transnational Businesses
  • Drugs
  • extortion
  • auto theft
  • prostitution
  • alien smuggling
  • traffic in people
  • contract murder
  • Bank fraud
  • tax fraud
  • stock fraud and manipulation
  • metals/minerals smuggling
  • illegal arms dealing

11
Money Laundering is a misnomer
  • Organised crime is cash heavy
  • wrong to assume it always wants to legitimise
    ill-gotten gains
  • money now goes where the rate of return is
    highest often that is into illegal business
  • moving money from soft currency economy to hard
    currency area not laundering but hardening

12
Soft currency problems
  • Roubles dont buy BMWs. Dollars do.
  • Drugs buy dollars
  • sex buys dollars in all its varieties- straight,
    bent, paedophilia, photos, videos
  • slaves buy dollars
  • peons buy dollars

13
Three angles
  • Recruitment
  • transportation
  • targeting potential employers

14
Schloenhardt/Grayson
  • Three stages of organisation
  • Amateur Smuggling onlywhere organisation either
    has a means of transportation e.g. a boat. Or a
    lorry. Migrant delivered and left to own devices
  • Professional Second stage access to document
    creation service either forgers or stolen
    passports or corrupt officials. Migrant delivered
    to immigrant community and takes it from there

15
Players in the enterprise
  • Arranger/investor
  • recruiter
  • transporter
  • corrupt public officials
  • guides and crew members
  • Information gatherer
  • enforcer
  • support
  • debt-collector
  • money-mover

16
Enforcers organised crime
  • Easier for existing structures to provide all
    these roles simultaneously with existing illicit
    activities
  • Very expensive to set up from scratch, but drug
    smugglers and traffickers cash heavy, have
    transportation networks and have corrupted
    officials already

17
How is this organised?
  • Not a huge Weberian pyramid
  • Lots of small independent groups
  • Some cash transactions, some barter
  • Problems of contract enforcement and trust
  • Who provides the coercive apparatus?
  • How are prices set?
  • Russian precedents?

18
Krysha or obshak?
  • Obshak a shared violent group
  • Krysha roof system of patronage and
    structured corruption protection
  • Requires connection with bank
  • Deep penetration of government structures
  • deploys armed force, either illegal, private
    security or a local or national government unit
    of militsiya 30 of personnel involved or army

19
Who wants people?
  • Sex industry obviously
  • domestic service
  • hotels and catering
  • places ignoring safety regulations
  • seasonal fruit-picking etc.
  • Horrible places Siberia, Brazilian jungle
  • dodgy hospitals for organs

20
Areas requiring study
  • Exchange of prostitutes for goods. Standard
    measure of exchange?
  • Drugs as currency

21
Mission statement for organised crime
  • Provide customers with services required in an
    area secure from police and petty criminal
    interference
  • Maximise quality at reasonable price
  • respond quickly to changing market conditions via
    franchising and secure agreements with suppliers
  • improve quality of work force

22
Mission statement cont
  • To establish clear regulated framework within
    which non-violent competition can take place
  • concentrate on core business leave niche markets
    to the specialist
  • minimise risk
  • ensure that profits can be used as investment
    capital in both legal and illegal businesses

23
Comment
  • In changing market conditions, customer can
    become employee and provide greater added value
  • problem of new groups trying to penetrate market
  • problem of movement into activities which appear
    to offer low risk and high profits
  • Problem of contract enforcement

24
Careers for trafficked humans?
  • Can you move on from sexual exploitation to
    another aspect of the business?
  • Yes. Cleaners, maids, madames
  • Lower profits for organisers but may offset costs
    elsewhere
  • Must come a point where it is cheaper for the
    organisation to allow trafficked person to find
    own work and continue to pay. No profit in a dead
    personexcept maybe organs
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