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Nouns and Noun Phrases

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four nouns (Sid, book, furniture, brick) that appear as head of the noun phrase ... Categorization of count nous and non-count nouns. I. Count Nouns: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nouns and Noun Phrases


1
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Different types of Nouns
  • Referentinnen Anne Fiedler, Anna Meyer-Toms

2
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Classification of Nouns Why do we have to
    distinguish different types?
  • Test table for noun classes
  • four nouns (Sid, book, furniture, brick) that
    appear as head of the noun phrase (as object) in
    the sentence I saw...

3
Nouns and Noun Phrases
4
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • first noun Sid only one possibility (without any
    determiner)
  • ?proper noun
  • book, furniture, brick all possibilities
  • ?common nouns
  • book with determiners the and a, plural
  • ?count noun
  • furniture without determiner, with the, some
  • ?non-count noun
  • brick all possibilities
  • ?either count or non-count noun

5
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Noun Classes
  • 1) proper nouns
  • 2) common nouns count and non-count

6
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • proper nouns
  • word-level units, belong to the category noun,
    e.g. Clinton, Zealand
  • (but New Zealand is not a proper noun)
  • America (proper noun) The United States of
    America (proper name)

7
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • function as heads of proper names, but not all
    proper names have proper nouns as their head,
    e.g. the University of Manchester (head of the
    proper name is a common noun)
  • proper names

8
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • proper names
  • name specific people, animals, institutions,
    places etc.
  • have unique reference
  • in writing capital letter
  • may consist of combination of proper noun with
    other words

9
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • are non-count nouns have no contrast in number
  • in general only singular form, but some place
    names have a plural form the Alps, the
    Netherlands
  • when without unique reference treated as common
    nouns, e.g. I bet its busy on Sundays

10
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • 2) common nouns
  • are either count (countable) or non-count
    (uncountable or mass) nouns
  • count nouns can be singular and plural

11
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Categorization of count nous and non-count nouns
  • I. Count Nouns
  • Class of individual separable entities of the
    same kind
  • Denotatum can be counted one boy, two boys,
    three boys

12
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • variable, take singular and plural form
    book-books, child-children, tempo-tempi,
    larva-larvae, sheep-sheep
  • can be divided by gradability expressions a new
    kind of car, a delicious sort of apple

13
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • occurence with determiners
  • singular count only a/an, each, every, either,
    neither, this, that
  • plural count only both, these, those, zero
    article
  • singular and plural count the
  • occurence with quantifiers
  • plural count many, a few, few
  • singular and plural count all (the), half (the),
    some, any

14
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Countability the term of countability applies
    to count nouns but not to mass nouns
  • test for countability occurence with cardinal
    numbers
  • one plates, two plates, three plates count
  • one crockery, two crockeries, three crockeries
    non-count

15
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Test frame Count nouns Sg
  • ____ (zero article) Book is nice to read.
  • The___ / A___ The/A book is nice to read.
  • Every ______ Every book is nice to read.
  • This _______ This book is nice to read.

16
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Test frame Count nouns Pl
  • _____ (zero article) I saw people walking in the
    street.
  • The _____ / a____ I saw the/ a people walking
    in the street.
  • Many ___ / a few__ I saw many/ a few people
    walking in the street.
  • All (the)___ I saw all the people walking...

17
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • II. Non-count Nouns
  • seen as undifferentiated mass/continuum (?mass
    nouns)
  • abstract nouns music, information, evidence,
    hope, love, freedom...
  • concrete nouns gold, silver, coffee, tea, pork,
    veal, furniture,...

18
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • denotatum cannot be counted much pork vs. one
    pork, two porks
  • invariable, without plural Music is my favourite
    hobby vs. Musics is my favourite hobby.
  • denote quantities of substances, can be divided
    only by gradability expression
  • piece of furniture, an item of information

19
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • occurence with determiner this, that, the, zero
    article
  • This tea tastes good.
  • occurence with quantifier all, much, little,
    some, more, enough
  • Theres much hope of winning.

20
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Test frame Non-count
  • a)countability I had one luck two lucks
  • b)determiner I had a luck the luck
  • c)quantifier
  • I had many lucks much luck
  • I had a few lucks little luck

21
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Note The clear use of a word as either count
    noun or non-count noun is a limiting case!
  • ? the dual use of a word as count noun and
    non-count noun (mixed classes) is a widespread
    phenomenon

22
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • III. Mixed Classes
  • Count
  • I had many difficulties.
  • Buy an evening paper.
  • The lambs were eating slowly.
  • Noun-count
  • Hes not had much difficulty in finding me.
  • Wrap the parcel in brown paper.
  • There is lamb on the menu.
  • Would you like some more chocolate?

23
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Discussion Are the italicised words count nouns
    or non-count nouns? Give reasons!
  • 1) This proposal has three advantages.
  • 2) They took advantage of us.
  • 3) Foreign aid has been reduced again.
  • 4) Would you like another coffee?
  • 5) Bear these truths constantly in mind.
  • 6) He has had many odd experiences.
  • 7) There is little hope for him to recover.
  • 8) What about some more tea?

24
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • Answers
  • 1) count ? cardinal number three indicates
    countability, plural formation
  • 2) non-count ? advantage treated as continuous,
    inseparable entity, zero article
  • 3) non-count ? foreign aid treated as continuous,
    inseparable entity, zero article
  • 4) count ? another coffee denotes individuated,
    separable entities another cup of coffee

25
Nouns and Noun Phrases
  • 5) count ? determiner these presupposes that
    there are many truths, plural formation
  • 6) count ? quantifier many indicates countability
  • 7) non-count ?hope treated as continuous,
    inseparable entity a few hope
  • 8) non-count ? tea denotes the whole continuous
    entity of substance
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