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Religious Orders

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Title: Religious Orders


1
Religious Orders
  • Religious Orders during the High Middle Ages
  • nunneries
  • monasteries
  • begging orders of the Franciscans and Dominicans
    (Thomas Aquinas was a Dominican friar)
  • The beguine and beghard communities (p.237)
    Meister Eckhart (1260-1328)
  • The heretics the Albigensian (at Albi in
    southern France), whose belief derived partly
    from Zoroastrianism, and partly from Manichaeism

2
Peter Abelard
  • Peter Abelard one of the most brilliant and
    controversial figures who was the first Medieval
    thinker who proclaimed a clear distinction
    between reason and faith. His major disagreement
    with his teacher William Champeaux was on the
    problem of the universals, a supreme intellectual
    issue between 1050 and 1150. The two schools of
    realism and nominalism debating on the existence
    of the universals. Abelard argued for a moderate
    realism.

3
Peter Abelard
  • Abelard, Peter, in French, Pierre Abailard or
    Abélard (1079-1144), French theologian whose
    writings, particularly Theologia Christiana,
    constitute one of the more impressive attempts of
    the medieval period to use logical techniques to
    explicate Christian dogmas. He was born of a
    minor noble family in Brittany and studied logic
    and theology under some of the most notable
    teachers of the early twelfth century, including
    Roscelin, William of Champeaux, and Anselm of
    Laon.

4
Peter Abelard
  • He rapidly eclipsed his teachers in logic and
    attracted students from all over Europe. His
    forays into theology were less enthusiastically
    received. Twice his views on the Trinity were
    condemned as heretical. Abelard led a dramatic
    life punctuated by bitter disputes with his
    opponents and a dangerous and celebrated love
    affair with Héloïse (c.1117). Much of this story
    is told in his autobiographical work, Historia
    calamitatum.

5
Latin Averroists
  • Latin Averroists (the followers of Ibn Rushd, or
    Averroës) argued for the separation of reason and
    faith (like William of Ockham in the Late Middle
    ages) in the wake of the introduction of Arabic
    writings. Bonaventure, on the other hand, denied
    any knowledge apart from Gods Grace. Thomas
    Aquinas took a middle path, a via media,
    reconciling Christian belief with Aristotelian
    reason.

6
Thomas Aquinas
  • He argued for the necessity of a secular state.

7
Thomas Aquinas
  • Thomas Aquinas (1226-1274) in his masterpiece,
    Summa Theologica, he argued that God has given
    human beings two divine paths to truth reason
    and faith. Thomism reconciled the strict
    rationalism of the Latin Averroists with the
    conservative ideas of Bonaventure.

8
Literature during the High Middle Ages
  • Courtly Romance
  • Chretien de Troyes the first poet to write
    substantially about Arthurian material, esp. the
    Arthur-Lancelot-Guinevere triangle (1100s)
  • Thomas Mallory Le Morte dArthur (1485)
  • A mixture of courtly and religious themes,
    including the quest to achieve honor and/or
    religious grace, the idealization of the
    aristocratic woman, and courtly love.

9
Literature during the High Middle Ages
  • After 1150 courtly romances became popular.
    Romances were long narratives of the chivalric
    and sentimental adventures of knights and ladies.
    By 1300, Italy brought forth the greatest
    literary figure of the High Middle Ages, Dante
    Alighieri (1265-1321) and his masterpiece, Divine
    Comedy.
  • The stories of King Arthur and the Knights of the
    Round Table were written in the vernacular.

10
Dante
11
Dante
  • Dante Alighieri, La Commedia Divina (The Divine
    Comedy)
  • Perhaps the highest achievement of medieval
    literature
  • Religious allegory describing both relgious
    beliefs and medieval culture
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