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WWI The Great War


Victory in Meuse-Argonne offensive (Sept-Nov. 1918), 26,000 US soldiers killed ... the French award for bravery for their role in the battle of Meuse-Argonne. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WWI The Great War

WWIThe Great War
  • Chapter 17

Causes for WWI
  • European Rivalries
  • Nationalism
  • Militarism
  • Alliances

European Rivalries
  • Since the mid 1800s, rivalries had been growing
    due to Imperialism
  • All major countries look to expand their empires
    by creating new markets
  • Competition turns to hostility as one power
    crosses paths with another

  • Growing spirit of ethnic nationalism
  • French nationalist wanted revenge over the lost
    of Alsace-Lorraine
  • Slavic people look to unite under one ethnic
    nation, Austria-Hungary looks to gain control of
    declining Ottoman Empire
  • Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia, anger Serbia and

  • Militarism the glorification of war and the
  • Industrial machine feed military growth into an
    arms race among European countries
  • All European powers adopt conscription (draft) to
    raise troops

  • Alliance system, or defense agreements among
    nations, rise in Europe
  • Bismarck creates German and Austria-Hungary
  • 1882, Italy joins Germany and Austria-Hungary
  • Italy was angry at France for occupying Tunis in
    North Africa
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy create Triple

  • Russia and France become more friendly in 1890.
  • Great Britain joins in 1904
  • Russia, France, and Great Britain join the Triple

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The Spark
  • Assassination leads to war
  • Europe and The Balkan peninsula is a powder keg
  • The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    sparks the first World War
  • The alliance system forces many nations into the

Who the heck is Archduke Francis Ferdinand?
  • Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary
  • He and his wife, Sophie, assassinated in Sarajevo
    by a Bosnian nationalist group The Black Hand
  • The alliance power keg is sparked and Europe goes
    to war.

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War is declared
  • Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia on July
    28th, 1914
  • Russia Mobilized to help Serbia
  • Germany declared War on Russia to help Austria
  • France declares war on Germany to help Russia.
  • Germany declares war on neutral Belgium in order
    to have an easier attack on France.
  • Great Britain declares war on Germany due to
    treaties with France and Belgium.
  • The Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers.
  • Armies use trench warfare to fight for small
    areas of land
  • 2 Front War Eastern and Western Front

The War
  • By August 1914, the major powers in Europe had
    lined up against each other
  • The war was thought to last weeks, not years
  • Worst case, the war was thought to be finished
    before the new year

German plan for victory
  • Schlieffen Plan
  • Created by General Alfred von Schlieffen in 1904
  • Knew there were enemies on both sides
  • Plan
  • Attack France through less fortified Belgium
  • Sweep around Paris and defeat France within 6
    weeks while Russia is still trying to mobilize

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Problems with the Plan
  • German Commander Helmuth von Moltke led his
    troops a heavily fortified area of Belgium
  • German advance was heavily delayed
  • The Russian army mobilized quicker than expected
  • 2 German divisions forced to move East
  • British fought Germany from the North and were
    quite skilled
  • French counter attack at Alsace-Lorraine slows

The Battle of the Marne
  • French General pulled back troops to protect
    Paris after the lost at Alsace-Lorraine
  • France counter attacks at the Marne river on
    September 5th.
  • After 4 days, France pushes back Germany 50 miles
    from Paris
  • Results
  • Paris is saved, French Morale is high
  • Abandonment of the Schlieffen Plan

A Russian Disaster
  • Quick Russian Mobilization lets Russia invade
    into east Prussia
  • German Troops crush Russians at Tannenberg
  • Germans kill more than 30,000 Russians, capture
  • Russia never recovers from this defeat

Years of Deadlock
  • By early 1915, The Western front had turned to a
    war of attrition and trench warfare
  • Trenches stretched around 500 miles
  • no mans land varied from ½ mile to a few yards
  • New technology in defense weapons compared to the
    older offensive weapons turned the war that was
    supposed to last weeks was stalemated for years

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Trench Warfare
Technology produces deadly weapons
  • Machine Guns
  • Poison gas (Ypres)
  • Tanks
  • Airplanes
  • Submarines
  • Barbed Wire
  • Artillery field guns

Italy joins the Allies
  • 1915, Italy denounces Central Powers, Join the

Battle of Verdun
  • Feb 1916, Germans stage a surprise attack against
    the French forces at Verdun
  • They Shall not Pass!
  • After 6 months, Germans abandon offensive
  • Bloodiest Battle of the War
  • Both sides suffer over 500,000 casualties

Battle of Somme
  • Late 1916, British and French launch a major
    offensive against the Germans in the Somme River
  • German casualties 500,000
  • British 400,000
  • French 200,000
  • Just like Verdun, many dead little ground gained

The Eastern Front
  • Less entrenched than Western Front
  • Russia lacked the industrial needs to fight a
    modern war
  • By the end of 1915, Russia had given up more land
    than the total of France, lost staggering about
    of men, weapons, supplies
  • Russian leaders stayed in the war due to promises
    of Constantinople after the war

Gallipoli Campaign
  • Winston Churchill attempts to turn the tide in
    Britains favor
  • Opened offensive in the Dardanelles
  • Could supply Russia, take Constantinople and
    possibly put the Ottoman Empire out of the War
  • 1915, offensive nearly succeeded, but Turkish
    reinforcement drive Britain out

On the Seas
  • British dominated the Seas
  • Prevented war materials from reaching central
    powers with Blockades
  • Germany introduce Submarine Warfare (U-boats)
  • Sink passenger ships
  • 1915 Lusitania 1,200 dead (128 Americans)
  • Woodrow Wilson threatens Germany

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United States Enters the War
  • Reasons for US entry
  • Treatment of Belgians
  • Sinking of Passenger Ships
  • Lusitania and Sussex
  • Strong economic ties to Allies
  • 2.3 Billion vs. 27 Million
  • Russian Revolution
  • Zimmerman Note
  • United States enters the war April 2nd, 1917

Zimmerman Note
United States Impact
  • US Army adopts aggressive approach under
    Pershing, not using trenches and attacking
  • General Pershing mandates US forces remain
    separate from other Allied forces
  • Victory in Meuse-Argonne offensive (Sept-Nov.
    1918), 26,000 US soldiers killed
  • 52,000 American troops killed, 230,000 wounded,
    60,000 die of the flu
  • Over 50,000 African Americans served in France
  • 369th Infantry regiment received the French award
    for bravery for their role in the battle of
  • US Navy reduces losses to submarines
  • United States and Great Britain use a convoy
  • Tons of shipping sunk by U-boats falls from
    900,000 each month to 200,000 tons

The Russian Revolution
  • WWI would be the breaking point for the Czarist
    rule in Russia
  • By 1917, Russian morale had hit an all time low
  • ¼ the soldiers had no weapons
  • Lack of food on the front and at home

Fall of the Czar
  • Czar Nicholas II was politically incompetent and
    relied too much on Rasputin for guidance.
  • Czars relatives kill Rasputin, doesnt fix
  • Riots form in Petrograd, Czar orders soldiers to
    put down riots, soldiers join riots
  • March 15, 1917 Nicholas II abdicates throne, Ends
    Romanov Dynasty

The Provisional Government
  • After abdication, Provisional government takes
  • Alexander Kerensky is the first provisional
  • Doesnt withdraw from war, fails to change social

Rise of Lenin
  • Urged lower middle class to topple provisional
  • Leader of Bolsheviks (socialist)
  • Peace, Land, and Bread

The Bolshevik Revolution
  • November 1917, Bolsheviks overthrow Provisional
  • Soldiers, workers take over post office,
    telephone system, electrical plants, train
  • Election to form new assembly goes against the
    Bolsheviks (420 seats -220)
  • After one day, assembly dissolved

Results of Revolution
  • No private ownership of property
  • Distributes land among peasants
  • Workers had control of factories and mines
  • Bolsheviks now called Communists
  • Russia out of WWI

The Civil War
  • Reds vs Whites
  • Lenins government defended by Red Army and Leon
  • Both sides burned villages and killed civilians
    loyal to the other side
  • 1918, communists kill imprisoned Czar and family
  • Whites admit defeat by 1921.

Total War
  • Warring countries engage in total war
  • Increasing size of armies, government powers, tax
    increases, rationing goods, set prices and wages,
    banning strikes
  • Women take mens place in factories, nurses,
    increase confidence
  • By wars end, many women were granted voting

Global War
  • Imperialists nations are forced to recruit
    colonials due to the dwindling number of soldiers
  • Asia and Africa
  • Colonies expect independence after the war for
    their services
  • Middle East aided Allies, expecting freedom from
    Ottoman empire

The End of Fighting
  • German troops and supplies are running out faster
    than Allies
  • Last offensive fails to take Paris in 1918
  • Allies break through on the Western Front in
    1918. Push Germans back to German border
  • Central Powers collapse
  • Ottomans lose the Balkans
  • Austria-Hungary revolt
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II ends war on Nov 11, 1918 by
    signing an armistice

Effects of the War
  • 9 millions soldiers dead
  • 21 million wounded
  • 13 million civilians dead of disease and
  • The war shattered Europes aristocratic order and
    increased social and political instability

Restoring the Peace
  • Wilsons 14 points
  • Peace without Victory
  • NO secret treaties
  • Freedom of the seas
  • Tariffs would be lowered
  • Reduction in arms
  • Interests of colonial nations must be considered
  • 6-13. New boundaries in Europe Czechoslovakia,
    Poland, Finland, Yugoslavia (self-determination)
  • 14. Establish League of Nations
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