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The laser is connected to the laparoscope and positioned so that its intense light beam is directed through the laparoscope onto the tissue to destroy it. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Endometriosis

  • By Cipriano Montes

What is Endometriosis?
  • Endometriosis was described more than 100 years
    ago and microscopic ovarian endometriosis by
    1899. Endometriosis was discovered by John
    Albertson Sampson, M.D.. Endometriosis is a
    condition in which the tissue that normally lines
    the uterus (endometriosis) grows in other areas
    of the body, causing pain, irregular bleeding,
    and frequently infertility. The tissue growth
    typically occurs in the pelvic area, outside the
    uterus, on the ovaries, bowel, rectum, bladder,
    and the delicate lining of the pelvis, but it can
    occur in other areas of the body as well.

  • Increasingly painful periods
  • Lower abdominal pain or pelvic cramps that can be
    felt for a week or two before menstruation and/or
    during menstruation
  • Pelvic or low back pain that may occur at any
    time during the menstrual cycle
  • Pain during or following sexual intercourse
  • Pain with bowel movements
  • Premenstrual spotting
  • Infertility
  • Note Frequently, symptoms are not present. In
    fact, some women with severe cases of
    endometriosis have no pain at all, while some
    women with only a few small adhesions have severe

(No Transcript)
What causes Endometriosis?
  • The cause of Endometrosis is unknown. However,
    a number of theories have been proposed, although
    none have been proven. Here are a few
  • Coelomic Metaplasia
  • Heredity
  • Immunology
  • Latrogenic transplantation
  • Retrograde menstruation
  • Transplantation theory

  • The only way a positive diagnosis of
    Endometriosis can be made currently is via
    surgery. One method to remove diseased tissue
    combines laparoscopy with laser surgery. The
    laser is connected to the laparoscope and
    positioned so that its intense light beam is
    directed through the laparoscope onto the tissue
    to destroy it. The procedure usually is done
    without an overnight hospital stay and requires
    only about a week's recovery time at home. There
    is no proven prevention for endometriosis.
    However, some women with endometriosis who
    successfully become pregnant find that they are
    free of the disease afterwards. Pregnancy also
    tends to delay the onset and progression of the
    disease in susceptible women. Sometimes medicine
    is not enough. Surgery may be needed to remove
    diseased tissue or to correct misaligned organs.

Who has Endometriosis?
  • About 5 million American women and girls, some as
    young as 11, have endometriosis, according to the

Drug Treatment
  • Drugs for endometriosis should not be taken by
    women who are, or who may be, pregnant. The
    earliest drug approved to treat endometriosis was
    Danocrine (danazol), a synthetic steroid related
    to the hormone testosterone. Taken orally, in
    pill form, Danocrine changes endometrial tissue,
    shrinking and eliminating implants in some cases.
    Side effects include fluid retention, weight
    gain, and masculinizing effects such as voice
    change, hairiness, and reduction of breast size.
    Other side effects include menstrual
    irregularities, hot flashes, and vaginal dryness.

Other drugs, related to gonadotropin-releasing
hormone (GnRH), act in a different way to
decrease the hormones that make abnormal implants
grow. One version is a nasal spray called Synarel
(nafarelin acetate). In clinical studies,
Synarel, at 400 or 800 micrograms a day (within
the prescribed dosage range), was comparable to
Danocrine at 800 milligrams a day (the
recommended dosage) in relieving the clinical
symptoms of endometriosis (such as pain) and in
reducing the size of implants. Side effects
include non-menstrual vaginal bleeding or ovarian
cysts during the first two months of use,
cessation of menstruation, hot flashes,
headaches, decreased sex drive, vaginal dryness,
acne, reduction in breast size, and a small loss
in bone density. In clinical trials, about 10
percent of the patients experience nasal
irritation from the spray.
Women taking endometriosis drugs need to watch
for problems such as difficulty breathing or
chest or leg pain, which may indicate a blood
clot and should be reported to the doctor
immediately. Other possible severe side effects
include irregular heart rhythms. Frequent
checkups are needed to monitor effects such as
possible thinning of the bones. A patient should
immediately report any new or worsened symptoms
to the doctor. However, it's normal for
endometriosis symptoms to temporarily worsen when
a woman begins taking medicine.
  • The monthly pain and heavy menstrual periods of
    chronic endometriosis can be frustrating and
    painful, and can lead to conceiving and
    infertility problems. But today, with prompt
    diagnosis and treatment, a young woman's life can
    often return to normal. Dealing with chronic
    pelvic pain can be challenging. Exercise often
    helps to relieve or lessen pelvic pain and
    menstrual cramps. Eating well and getting enough
    rest also helps the body to manage pain.
    Practicing relaxation techniques such as yoga and
    meditation help to ease pain too.
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