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BUS214 Business Communication Lecture Notes

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Title: BUS214 Business Communication Lecture Notes


1
BUS214 Business Communication Lecture Notes
  • Doç.Dr. Cem S. Sütcü
  • M.Ü. Iletisim Fakültesi
  • http//mimoza.marmara.edu.tr/csutcu

2
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Communication is any behavior, verbal or
    nonverbal, that is perceived by another.
    Knowledge, feelings or thoughts are enclosed and
    sent from at least one person and received and
    decoded by another. Meaning is given to this
    message as the receiver interprets the message. A
    connection is made between the people
    communicating.

2
3
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Forms of Communication Each of the channels of
    communication requires effective skills suited to
    the form of communication used to send the
    message. Communication is classified into three
    forms
  • Verbal communication, either spoken or written
  • Nonverbal
  • Graphic.

3
4
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Types of communication A person working in an
    organization uses four different types of
    communication.
  • Intrapersonal communication
  • Interpersonal communication
  • Public communication
  • Mass communication

4
5
Ch.1- Ch.1- Apply communication principles in
workplace
  • The communication process takes place in various
    situations for different reasons, with the
    potential for many interpretations. It has seven
    main elements
  • Sender
  • Message
  • Receiver
  • Feedback
  • Channel
  • Context or setting
  • Noise or interference
  • Perception influences communication . It is the
    way people understand or give meaning to their
    environment.

5
6
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Causes of communication barriers Effective
    communication often passes unnoticed, while poor
    commuication is obvious. The compete message and
    its meaning are distorted and interrupted.
  • Inappropriate choice of word
  • Inappropriate channel
  • Receiver inattention
  • Lack of courtesy by the sender or the receiver
  • Nonverbal communication that does not support the
    words
  • Different cultural backgrounds
  • Poor layout and presentation
  • Inappropriate timing
  • Inadequate feedback
  • These barriers interrupt the flow of
    communication and lead to confusion and
    misunderstandings.

6
7
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Communication within the workplace For business
    decisions to be effective and relevant, timely
    and appropriate information has to be obtained
    and communicated throughout the organization.
  • The successful organization is the one that has
    effective communication both within the
    organization and with other companies and
    clients. In fact, information flow is crucial to
    any organization and the better the flow the more
    successful the company or organization.
  • Being an effective communicator means being
    honest with yourself and others it meanshaving
    the ability to say what you want or feel, but not
    at the expense of others. It is not about getting
    your own way and winning every time. Nor is it a
    means to manipulate and manage other people so
    that you achieve your aim while appearing to be
    considering others. An effective communicatior
    avoids a series of quick-fix tricks or
    techniques.

7
8
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Communication is one of the most important skills
    in the workplace. Effective communication
    establishes a connection between two or more
    people and leads to understanding. It allows
    individuals to be more effective at work and in
    their relationship with others.
  • As well as allowing individuals to interact to
    satisfy their own needs and to develop their
    personal, social and work relationships,
    effective communication also enables leaders and
    managers to control work procedures motivate
    others and balance the needs and goals of
    individuals and the organization.

8
9
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Intercultural communication between people living
    in the same country but from different cultural
    backgrounds. Over time, a culture develops
    distinctive national patterns of communication
    and social behavior. These patterns are the
    customs and the conventions regarded as the
    characteristics of a particular culture. They
    affect way people communicate and act as
    individuals or in groups.
  • What information we take in, which part of the
    message we choose to remember and which response
    we give are all a result of our perception.
    Effective communicators acknowledge differences
    in perception. They also use communication
    strategies that avoid the communication barriers
    caused by the ineffective intercultural
    communication strategies.

9
10
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Nonverbal communication consists of that part of
    a message that is not encoded in words. The
    nonverbal part of the message tends to be less
    conscious and reveals the senders feelings,
    likings and preferences more spontaneously and
    honestly than the verbal part.
  • There are four types of nonverbal messages
  • Personal (to the individual)
  • Common to a group of people or culture
  • Universal (to humankind)
  • Unrelated to the message (random)

10
11
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Analysing nonverbal communication People
    communicate nonverbally with the body movement
    and with personal relationship behaviors. This
    nonverbal communication modifies, changes or
    complements the verbal communication. Nonverbal
    communication always exists in a context, or
    framework. The context often determines the
    meaning of the nonverbal behavior.

11
12
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • We can classify nonverbal communication into
    seven main areas
  • Body movement or kinesics
  • Physical characteristics
  • Touching behavior
  • Vocal qualities, or paralanguage
  • Use of space, or proximity
  • Artefacts (e.g. Parfume, clothes, lipstick,
    glasses and hairpieces project the style or mood
    of the wearer.)
  • Environment

12
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Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Matching the nonverbal and verbal parts of the
    message The total message contains the spoken
    words and nonverbal communication. Nonverbal
    communication adds meaning, modifies or changes
    the spoken words in six ways.
  • Repeating for example, pointing when giving
    directions.
  • Contradicting for example, looking at your
    watch and backing away while telling someone,
    Im very interested in what you are saying.
  • Substituting using facial expressions as a
    substitute for words, to show pleasure,
    disappointment and range of emotions, feelings
    and experiences.
  • Complementing modifying, emphasizing or
    elaborating words in a way that conveys attitudes
    and intentions towards others for example,
    standing in a casual way or using a careless tone
    of voice that conveys a lack of respect for the
    listener.
  • Accenting moving the head and hands to
    emphasize parts of the verbal message for
    example, shaking the head as you say No.
  • Controlling the flow of information nodding
    your head or changing position can indicate that
    the speaker should continue or give you a turn.

13
14
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • How to check the meaning of nonverbal behavior
    When you are in doubt about the meaning of
    nonverbal behavior, check it out with the person
    sending the message raher than make assumptions
    or pass judgement. The total message is
    understood more easily when you follow the
    four-step process below.
  • Hear the words.
  • See the nonverbal behavior.
  • Check out their meaning with the sender when the
    verbal and nonverbal messages are different.
  • Consider the context or setting.
  • Next time you are uncertain about the meaning of
    someones nonverbal behavior, simply check it out
    by completing these two steps.
  • Describe the behavior.
  • Ask the sender what the response means.
  • In this way you avoid making wrong assumptions
    about the communication

14
15
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • The process of Listening Listening serves two
    broad purposes in this process.
  • As the sender of the message, listening to your
    receivers answers provides feedback on how the
    other person has interpreted your message.
  • As the receiver of the message, listening to the
    information from the other person allows you to
    understand the meaning.

15
16
Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • There are four listening skills and their
    responses
  • Attending listening to focus on the speaker
  • Encourage listening to invite the speaker to
    continue
  • Reflecting listening to mirror the feelings and
    content in the message
  • Active listening to show empathy with the speaker

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Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Focus on the speaker In attended listening, you
    focus on the speaker by giving your physical
    attention to the other person.
  • You use your whole body and the environment you
    create to provide feedback that assures the
    speaker of your total attention.

17
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Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • There are four Listening Responses
  • Focus on the speaker Eye contact, posture, body
    movement, personal space, environment, avoid
    distractions.
  • Invite the speaker to continue Invitation to
    disclose, minimal and brief responses, pause, use
    encouraging questions.
  • Mirror the content and feelings in the message
    Paraphrasing, reflecting statements, clarifying,
    summarizing.
  • Show empathy with the speaker Active
    participation, feedback.

18
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Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace
  • Barriers in the listener
  • Boredom or lack of interest.
  • The listeners dislikeof the personality or
    physical appearance of the speaker.
  • A desire to change rather than accept the
    speaker.
  • A tendency to make early conclusions or to listen
    only for the pause when the speaker can be
    interrupted. The intrusion of the listeners own
    values or attitudes.
  • A willingness in the listener to hear only that
    part of the message they agree with.
  • A perception by the listener that the speaker
    lack credibility.

19
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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Creating a communication climate It is created
    by the way people feel about each other.
  • Empathy is the ability to understand and feel as
    the other person feels.
  • Win-win approach is concentrating on the needs
    and interests of other people communicating.
  • Self-disclosure involves showing how you react
    and feel about the present situationand giving
    any information about the past that affects this
    reaction in this way you allow others to know
    more about you.

20
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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Effective interpersonal communication techniques
  • Expressing openness
  • Showing empathy
  • Use supportiveness
  • Demonstrate equality
  • Use I messages
  • Listen
  • Provide appropriate feedback (feedback is the
    receivers response to a senders message)
  • Use appropriate self-disclosure
  • Communicate assertively

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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Giving and receiving instructions There are two
    types of instructions
  • Direct instructions are to the point and indicate
    who, what, when, where and how a task will be
    completed.
  • Conditional insitructions explain the objectives,
    provide background information and describe the
    intended outcome.

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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • When giving instructions follow these simple
    guides
  • Determine what needs to be accomplished- the
    intended outcome.
  • Give reasons for doing the job.
  • Use concrete action words rather than abstract
    words.
  • Have the other person paraphrase the instruction
    back to you.
  • Demonstrate the skills in the task if your
    instructions involve machinery or equipment.
  • Encourage questions.
  • Ensure your timing is appropriate.
  • Follow up as the person does the task on the job.
  • Offer timely and specific feedback.

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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • When receiving and following instructions follow
    these simple guides
  • Listen carefully.
  • Focus on the person giving the instructions.
  • Avoid thinking about something else or
    daydreaming.
  • Avoid jumping to conclusions.
  • Ask questions about the standards to be reached.
  • Paraphrase to check your understanding.
  • Double any safety issues.
  • Ask for help if you feel you do not understand or
    are unable to follow the instructions.
  • Ask general questions.

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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Characteristics of an Interview Interviews
    involve two sides the interviewer and the
    interviewee. An interview is essentially an
    exchange of information What distinguishes it
    from a casual conversation, which is also an
    exchange of information, is that an interview
  • Is planned
  • Is prearranged
  • Is structured
  • Is controlled by the interviewer (it means
    knowing how to motivate the interviewee to reply
    fully to questions)
  • Has a predetermined purpose
  • Takes place between two or more people of
    different status

25
26
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Stages of an Interview Intervieiws may take
    place for a number of reasons. Their structure,
    however, will generally include five stages.
  • The pre-interview stage
  • The opening of the interview (p.35)
  • The body of an interview (p.36)
  • The close (p.37)
  • The post-interview (p.38)

26
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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • There are three types of job Interview
  • The single interview It is conducted by a single
    interviewer responsible for interviewing all
    applicants and selecting the new staff member.
  • The series interview It is conducted by a number
    of interviewers in turn. Each interviewer is
    looking for a particular area of expertise and
    evaluates each applicant in this area of
    expertise.
  • The panel interview It is conducted by a group
    of interviewers. Each member on the panel asks
    specific questions relevant to their specialized
    experience.

27
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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Goals of a job interview In conducting a job
    interview, you want to attract and choose the
    best applicant for the position.
  • Gather information from interviewees to help
    predict their future performance
  • Inform applicants about the job and the
    organization
  • Determine applicants ability to work with others
    and fit into the organizational culture

28
29
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Potential problems Interviews are not always
    effective in choosing the best person for the
    job.
  • Poor planning
  • Too much attention to negative or irrelevant
    information
  • Lack of objectives
  • Lack of structure
  • Little knowledge of the job under discussion
  • Judging the applicant inappropriate criteria
  • Poor listening, which results in the interviewer
    hearing only part of the interviewees answer

29
30
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Pre-interview stage Undertake the analysis of
    the job. Identify the tasks performed on the job
    and the activities, skills and personal
    attributes necessary to carry out the job. Create
    a job specification or description if one does
    not exist. The job specification is the basis for
    the essential and desirable quantities listed in
    the adviertisement as well as the basis for your
    questions in the interview. Determine the style
    and the structure of the interview. Directive
    interviews are controlled and organized by the
    interviewer. Non-directive interviews involve the
    participants and the organization in setting the
    goals and process of the interview. Employment
    interviews are usually directive interviews.

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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Preparing the questions Prepare a fixed set of
    questions that ask about the interviewees
    qualifications, previous job experience, carrier
    ambitions, goals, and attitudes towards the
    organizations products or policies. Aim to
    create clear, specific questions that will
    adequately establish the applicants capacity to
    meet the demands of the job. Questions should
    also be relevant, unambigous and free from bias,
    so that no one particular group in society is
    favoured or others disadvantaged.

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32
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Four types of questions may be asked during the
    interviews.
  • Open questions Encourage interviewees to speak
    freely and talk about themselves, while the
    interviewer listens, observes and makes notes.
  • Closed questions These type of questions are
    designed to limit interviewees responses and to
    establish familiar facts such as their address,
    previous place of employment or qualifications.
  • Mirror questions These type of questions restate
    the interviewees previous answers and invite
    them to add further information.
  • Probing questions These type of questions follow
    on from the last response of the interviewee.
    They are spontaneous rather than planned.

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33
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Short-Listing the candidates Usually you receive
    more applications for a position than the number
    of applicants you are willing to interview.
    Therefore, you prepare a short list and interview
    only those who best suit the position. Each
    application is assessed for suitability. This
    cull, or sorting, of applications into two gropus
    those to be called for an interview and those
    not to be interviewed is made by comparing the
    information in the applications against the
    essential and desirable qualifications for the
    position.

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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Conducting an interview Once you prepared the
    content of the interview you are ready to conduct
    the interview. Non-directive techniques use
    minimal questions, creating a conversational
    rather than an interrogatory tone, and
    adoptpositive nonverbal cues such as pauses and
    head nods to encourage the applicant. Directive
    techniques include open-ended questions and
    specific probing questions to focus on a
    particular topic and gain further information or
    clarification.

34
35
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Open the interview Create an open, friendly and
    trusting environment and aim to put the
    interviewee at ease.
  • Greet the applicant by name and introduce
    yourself and the panel by name and jpb
    designation.
  • Show the interviewee to a chair and perhaps offer
    refreshments.
  • Some interviewers like to talk about topics of
    general interest such as local events or sport to
    make the applicant feel at ease however take
    care not to side-track too far from the
    interviews purpose.
  • State the interviews purpose and intended
    result. Be specific and avoid generalities.
  • Let the interviewee know if you intend to take
    notes and explain the length of time alotted to
    the interview.

35
36
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • The body of the interview Use simple questions
    initially to help the applicant build confidence.
  • Progress further through the interview with
    questions on work experience, education and
    personal details.
  • Throughout the interview, your purpose is
    twofold to obtain specific information from the
    applicant and to achieve an interview process
    that is comfortable for the applicant. So take
    notes to jog your memory.
  • Some interviewee responses may be inadequate,
    irrelevant, poorly organized or inaccurate.
    Listen carefully and with empathy. On occasion,
    you may need to vary the type of question, to
    clarify information or to allow the applicant to
    elaborate.
  • As an interviewer it is your resposibility to
    give applicants accurate job information, to
    answer their questions and to allow scope to
    discuss their abilities.

36
37
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Close the interview courteously.
  • The interviewer should summarize what has taken
    place during the interview to avoid any
    misunderstandings or communication barriers.
  • At the end of the interview, indicate any further
    action that needs to be completed. Indicate
    clearly that the interview is over and thank
    applicants for their application and for
    attending the interview.

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38
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • After the interview, the interviewer or the panel
    evaluates each applicant and the results of the
    interview.
  • Maintain the confidentiality of the interview and
    the documents presented at the interview.
  • Record or complete notes on all important points
    immediately after the interview.
  • You are trying to form an objective opinion based
    on the information provided by the interviewee
    and any other information available. At this
    stage interview evaluation sheets or rating
    scales are very helpful.

38
39
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Other workplace interviews Apart from the job
    interview, a number of other interviews are
    regularly conducted at work.
  • Data collection interviews They can take place
    daily within an organization as part of the
    problem-solving and decision-making process.Their
    aim is to obtain needed information and collect
    it in a form that can be analyzed and processed
    or order the information in a way that makes it
    easy to analyze.
  • Persuasive interviews They aim to establish that
    a particular course of action or a new idea or
    change is acceptable. Plan the persuasive
    interview by knowing what you want to change or
    accomplish. Identify you objectives. They aim to
    influence the interviewee to change their
    attitude or bring them aroun a particular point
    of view.

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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Performance interviews They seek to evaluate the
    employers performance and provide feedback on the
    organizations perception of the employers
    performance. The performance interview is often
    used for a promotion assessment. Plans to take
    action to change the behavior. Plan the interview
    carefully and choose a place free from
    interruptions.
  • Discipline or reprimand (kinama-azarlama)
    interviews They aim to discuss unacceptable or
    undesirable behavior and to discuss plans to take
    action to change the behavior. Listen to the
    employee to determine reasons for the behavior.
    Deal with the facts rather than emplyees
    personal characteristics. This technique helps to
    reduce emotional reaction and defensiveness.

40
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Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Counseling (ögüt) interviews They aim to provide
    support for employees dealing with issues and
    problems to help them solve the problem.
    Conseling interviews may also deal with issues
    that affect work performance. It is important in
    a conseling interview to remain non-evaluative,
    to use a range of questions and to develop active
    and reflective listening skills. They should be
    conducted privately, and confidentiality should
    be respected. They aim to help the employee
    clarify the problem and assist the employee to
    select the solution that most suiits their needs.

41
42
Ch.4- Implement maintain effective workplace
comm.
  • Common mistakes made by interviewers The aim in
    a selection interview is to choose the best
    person for the job. By removing these mistakes
    from interviews an interviewer is able to choose
    the best person more effectively. Some mistakes
    are
  • Rely on first impressions
  • Rating towards the average
  • Relying on overall impression to give the halo
    effect. (The halo effect describes a decision
    made on an overall impression based on general
    characteristics, rather than the specific
    criteria for the job. )
  • Placing too much emphasis on negative information
  • Making a rushed decision

42
43
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Negotiation is a process in which two or more
    parties try to resolve differences, solve
    problems and reach aggreement. Effective
    negotiation meets as many interests as possible
    in an agreement that is durable.
  • Negotiation strategies Although negotiation has
    a specific aim to reach agreement not all
    negotiation achieves this aim.
  • Win-win strategy
  • Win-lose strategy
  • Lose-win strategy
  • Lose-lose strategy

43
44
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Win-win strategy This gives a situation in which
    both parties are satisfied with the settlement
    negotiated. It is a process that seeks to meet
    the needs of both parties.
  • Win-lose strategy This gives a situation in
    which one party is satisfied and one is
    dissatisfied. The focus is on the partys problem
    to the exclusion of the others, until one side
    gives in or is defeated. People who adopt this
    strategy often use a confusing presentation or a
    dominant speaking style and body movement.

44
45
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Lose-win strategy This gives a situation in
    which a party is dissatisfied and the other is
    satisfied. In an extreme case, win-lose style of
    negotiation and the lose-win style of negotiation
    can lead to a deadlock followed by the lose-lose
    situation.
  • Lose-lose strategy This results from a situation
    in which the objectives of both parties are too
    rigid, or when both parties are unable to
    collaborate, or unaware of the opportunity to do
    so. When agreement cannot be reached, a third
    party may mediate to help the parties reach their
    own solution.

45
46
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Psychological barriers When you are negotiating,
    psychological barriers may arise. These may
    include
  • Fear of being taken for a ride
  • Waiting to be liked
  • Guilt about wanting to be assertive
  • Need to be nice
  • Feeling intimidated by so-called powerful people
  • Fear of conflict or confrontation
  • Fear of losing face with the boss or colleagues
  • Lack of self-confidence

46
47
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • A five step approach to negotiation
  • Plan Create a set of clear objectives to steer
    you in the right direction to achieve the results
    you want.
  • Discuss Identify areas of agreement and try to
    establish some rapport with the other party.
  • Purpose Define the issues at a time. Attempt to
    stay with the issue rather than generalizing into
    other situations.
  • Negotiate the issue Start by asking for what you
    want, but accept that your goals may have to be
    modified. Link compromises to other objectives.
  • Check Ceck the agreement that you have just
    concluded and confirm that each party is
    committed to the agreement.

47
48
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Another approach to negotiation is principled
    bargaining. To implement it you need to
  • State your case clearly and persuasively
  • Organize your facts well
  • Be aware of the timing and speed of the talks
  • Access the othersneeds properly
  • Have patience
  • Not be unduly worried by conflict
  • Be committed to a win-win philosophy

48
49
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • BATNA stands for the Best Alternative to a
    Negotiated Agreement. If agreement cannot be
    achieved by negotiation, the alternative action
    to be taken is identified in the BATNA.
  • WATNA stands for the Worst Alternative to a
    Negotiated Agreement. If the person you are
    negotiating with is your manager or supervisor
    you may have to think about WATNA. Becasue the
    other person has the legitimate power, or because
    because you want the relationship to continue as
    it is, you may decide on less than your preferred
    outcome.

49
50
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Problem solving by negotiating It is necessary
    that the relationship is important to both
    parties and there is a genuine desire to solve
    the problem rather than to win.
  • Select best time
  • Define needs
  • Brainstorm solutions
  • Evaluate solutions
  • Choose solutions
  • Implement solutions

51
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Negotiating options In the negotiation process,
    the parties involved may use different
    negotiation styles or options. A skillfull
    negotiator is able to identify each of the five
    options and recognize the style being used by
    other party.
  • Compromise the settlement of differences through
    concessions by one or both parties.
  • Collaboration it results when people cooperate
    to produce a solution satisfactory to both
    parties.
  • Competition it leads to one party gaining the
    advantage over the other.
  • Accomodation is a negotiation style where one
    party is willing to oblige or adapt to meet the
    needs of other party.
  • Withdrawal or avoidance it is a negotiation
    style where both parties lose. In this style, one
    party retracts their point of view or backs away
    from the situation. (lose-lose)

52
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Conflict occurs when two people, teams or groups
    have differing wants or goals and one party
    interferes with the others attempts to satisfy
    their wants or goals.
  • Levels of Conflict Conflict moves through
    different levels before it reaches the crisis
    level.
  • Discomfort
  • Incidents
  • Misunderstandings
  • Tension
  • Crisis

53
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Discomforts Perhaps nothing is isaid yet. Things
    dont feel right. It may be difficult to identify
    what the problem is. Do you feel uncomfortable
    about a situaition, but not quite sure.
  • Incidents Here a short, sharp exchange occurs
    without any lasting internal reaction. Has
    someting occured between you and someone else
    that has left you upset, irritated or with a
    result you did not want.
  • Misunderstandings Here motives and facts are
    often confused or misperceived. Do your thoughts
    keep returning frequently to the problem.

54
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Tension Here relationships are weighed down by
    negative attitudes and fixed opinions. Has the
    way you feel about and regard the other person
    significantly changed for the worse? Is the
    relationship a source of constant worry and
    concern?
  • Crisis Behavior is affected, normal functioning
    becomes difficult, extreme gestures are
    contemplated or executed. Are you dealing with a
    major event like a possible rupture in a
    relationship, leaving a job, violence?

55
Ch.5- Negotiation Conflict Management
  • Constructive responses to conflict Responses to
    conflict are learnt early in our childhood. These
    responses become habits and reactions used
    without thought in our adult life.
  • Assertion
  • Nonverbal messages
  • Listening with emphaty

56
Ch.9- Coordinate and Manage Quality Customer
Service
  • An organization that focuses on the customers
    point of view rather than its own point of view
    is well on the way to providing high quality
    customer service. It achieves this by clearly
    defining its customers needs and expectations,
    and by communicating regularly with them. An
    organizations customer service is designed
    around the things customers value, and is
    continually improved to meet their needs and
    expectations.

57
Ch.9- Coordinate and Manage Quality Customer
Service
  • Establish working relationships with customers
  • Customer Service Model Total Quality Management
    (TQM) approach to customer service is now being
    adopted by many organizations. TQM Involves
    everyone in the organization.
  • Know your customers needs and expectations
  • Plan to meet internal and external customer
    requirements
  • Classify customer value Basic service, Expected
    service, Desired service, Unexpected service
  • Internal and external customers

58
Ch.9- Coordinate and Manage Quality Customer
Service
  • Ensure delivery of quality product and service
  • Coach and mentor colleagues and team members
  • Deal with customer needs and expectations
  • Advertise
  • Maintain customer records
  • Inform customers

59
Ch.9- Coordinate and Manage Quality Customer
Service
  • Monitor, adjust and report customer service
  • Customer complaints policy respond to feedback
    from customers.
  • Seek customer feedback
  • Prepare a proposal that is to recommend and seek
    approval for modifications to customer service.
  • Authorize, take action or refer on the complaints
    received from customers.
  • Implemet proposed changes
  • PDCA cycle (Plan-Do-Check-Act) for implementing
    proposed changes.

60
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Determining the purpose Meetings cover three
    main areas of resposibility.
  • First, the organizations resposibility is to
    provide the policy and procedures.
  • Second, the meetings executive is resposible for
    organizing and running the meeting according to
    its standing orders and formalities.
  • Third, members are required to take part in
    decision making at the meeting and contribute to
    areas requiring their expertise.

61
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Formal meetings they have rules and regulations.
  • Informal meetings they are less structured.
  • Planning the seating arrengements
  • Circular or oval seating arrangement This is the
    ideal arrangement. It allows everyone to see
    everyone else.
  • Long rectangular seating arrangement It is less
    than ideal. It can lead to problems such as
    meetings within meetings the members farthest
    from the chairperson may talk among themselves.
  • U-shaped seating arrangement It presents
    problems similar to those of the long rectangular
    table. The person on the immediate left of the
    chairperson tends to have trouble asserting their
    presence

62
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Conducting a structure meeting People at a
    meeting may take an executive role or a
    membership role.
  • Duties of the chairperson Chairperson is either
    selected or appointed. The resposibility is
    twofold
  • To prepare and set the scene for the meeting
  • To conduct the meeting according to the standing
    orders or rules of the organization.

63
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Other duties of the chairperson
  • C0nducting the meeting check that a quorum
    (minimum number needed to conduct meeting) is
    present, declare the meeting open, welcome
    people, state the aims of meeting, delegate when
    necessary, give feedback, encourage
    participation...
  • Ruling on points of order The chairperson makes
    a decision on any points of order that are rised.
  • Following procedures Chairpersons role is to
    ensure that correct procedures are followed, and
    maintain control of the meeting Allocating enogh
    time for adequate discussion, be objective and
    impartial, put forward the motion for the next
    meeting.

64
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Moving and seconding proposals, motions and
    amendments
  • A motion is a specific proposal formally put by a
    member to the rest of the meeting. For example
    I move that a pay increase of 30 per week be
    accepted.
  • An amendment to the motion can be suggested by
    any member. It is an alteration that aims to
    clarify the motion (or improve it some other way)
    by rearranging removing or adding words.

65
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Right of reply Once the general discussion on
    the motion is completed, the chairperson gives
    its mover the right of reply.
  • Voting for the motion The chairperson then asks
    members to vote for or against the motion.
  • Resolution A motion put to the meeting and
    carried becoms a resolution that is, the
    discussion about it has been resolved to
    everyones satisfaction.

66
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
67
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
68
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Duties of the secretary
  • Agenda The secretary prepares the agenda in
    consultation with the chairperson.
  • Documentation preparing enough copies, sending
    members the agenda for the next meeting and a
    copy of the minutes of the previous meeting.
  • Apologies The secretary records the names of
    those present., reads apologies from absentees,
    records these apologies.
  • Correspondence and minutes within 24 hours or
    sooner.

69
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Duties of participants at a meeting
  • Task-related roles Before attending, read the
    agenda minutes, prepare and write proposalsor
    motions, and oral presentation.
  • Maintenance-related roles Support and encourage
    others contributions.
  • Defensive and dysfunctional roles Defensive
    roles such as tension reliever or scapegoat and
    dysfunctional roles such as show-off, blocker or
    rebel to achieve their own agendas prevent the
    meeting from achieving its goals.

70
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Communication skills that achieve results
  • Practice courtesy and good meeting manners
  • Express your ideas and give feedback
  • Ask questions
  • Listen
  • Match the nonverbal messages to the spoken
  • Follow up

71
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Communication barriers
  • Poor verbal skills
  • Inappropriate nonverbal skills
  • Poor listening
  • Unwillingness to participate

72
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Decision-making and problem solving in a meeting
  • Nominal group technique It anables members of a
    group to work independently as individuals at the
    meeting, to think about and present new ideas.
  • Discuss and clarify the situation or problem
  • Work as individuals (think on your own)
  • Present and record ideas
  • Rate the ideas
  • Choose the most preferred option

73
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Brainstorming It lets each person contribute
    ideas and feel part of the process that produces
    the results. It is a quick and easy method.
  • Define the main issue
  • Brief the meeting
  • Encourage all members to participate
  • Evaluate the ideas
  • Choose the action

74
Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  • Problem-solving process (by Dewey, 1933) It is
    creative, helps the participants understands the
    reasons for the final decision, and encourages
    them to discuss the results with others.
  • Define the problem
  • List all the possible alternatives
  • Discuss an analyze the alternatives
  • Choose a solution
  • Plan the course of action

75
Ch.13- Organize Workplace Information
  • Planning
  • There are several ways you can tackle the task of
    planning a document. The following steps are a
    useful way of getting started and of ensuring
    that the result is appropriate, readable and
    clear.
  • Identify your reason for writing the document.
  • Consider the needs of yor receiver.
  • Decide what points and ideas you need to include.
  • Decide the best way to organize these points.

76
Ch.13- Organize Workplace Information
  • Metods of organizing information
  • Direct method Begins with the main points and/or
    conclusions, and then provides detailed evidence
    to support it and discussion about it. This
    method is often useful at work.
  • Indirect method starts with the introduction,
    then provides the detailed evidence and
    discussion, and finishes with the conclusion or
    recommendation.
  • Problem-solving method is used when you wish to
    focus the readers thoughts on a problem. Start
    with a detailed discussion of the factors that
    caused the problem and conclude with the
    solution.

77
Ch.13- Organize Workplace Information
  • Strategies for sorting information During the
    planning stage of a complex document you will
    sort your materials before you decide what
    sequence or order to put it in.
  • Traditional written outline
  • Formal outline shows the main ideas, the
    supporting information, their position and the
    connections between them. It is useful for
    dealing with many complex ideas or details.
  • Informal outline It lists the main ideas and
    their supporting information. It is one of the
    easiest ways of to orgainze simple, uncomplicated
    information.

78
Ch.13- Organize Workplace Information
  • Tree diagram is a plannig strategy that groups
    particular points or ideas together. It is a
    technique suited to complicated ideas and it is
    best to use it after you have fully developed
    them. This is because it shows up any
    similarities, differences, overlaps or gaps in
    your ideas, and identifies their order of
    importance. The main topic or theme becomes the
    trunk of the tree. Then each idea that stems from
    this trunk becomes a branch.

79
Ch.13- Organize Workplace Information
  • Triangle The shape of the triangle emphasises
    the lead-in or introduction to your topic and the
    conclusion. As a closed shape, it contains the
    main ideas in boxes along the bottom, as a
    unitConsequently, it helps you to limit your
    material to what is necessary.
  • Mind Map Instead of the linear approach to
    note-taking, the Mind Map offers key concept
    overviews to which descriptive details can be
    added. It helps us to make associations between
    key concepts and relevant experiences. This way
    of sorting and selecting information is more
    efficiant than making the traditional kind of
    structured notes which contain unnecessary words
    that interrupt the key words.

80
Ch.15- Writing Business Letters
  • At work we write letters for many different
    reasons to initiate a business contact, to reply
    to someone, to give directions, to make requests.
    Some are written to persuade a potential customer
    to buy something, or to encourage a customer to
    pay an overdue account.
  • The four main types of business letters are
  • Good news letters
  • Bad news letters
  • Neutral letters
  • Persuasive letters

81
Ch.15- Writing Business Letters
  • Layout of a business letter The layout of the
    letter provides the frame for the body of your
    letter.

82
Ch.15- Writing Business Letters
  • Types of layout
  • Full block layout
  • Full block layout with centered letterhead
  • Modified block layout

83
Ch.15- Writing Business Letters
  • Planning the business letter
  • Decide on the purpose of the letter
  • Decide what you want to say
  • Note down all the ideas in point form
  • Order these ideas into a sequence appropriate to
    the type of letter
  • Write the first draft, using plain English
  • Read the letter to ensure that you have achieved
    your purpose
  • Rewrite if necessary

84
Ch.15- Writing Business Letters
  • Writing good news or neutral letters Direct
    order of information
  • An inquiry
  • A request
  • An acknowledgement
  • A letter of introduction to someone

85
Ch.15- Writing Business Letters
  • Writing bad news letters Indirect order of
    information
  • An order refusal
  • A credit refusal
  • An adjustment refusal
  • Refusing an invitation or request

86
Ch.15- Writing Business Letters
  • Persuasive letters to collect someting (money,
    cooperation etc.)
  • The remainder
  • The strong remainder
  • Inquiry
  • Urgency

87
Ch.16- Writing Memos and Short Reports
88
Ch.16- Writing Memos and Short Reports
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