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Entomologa Control de los insectos

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Title: Entomologa Control de los insectos


1
Entomología Control de los insectos
  • Reed Findlay, Extension Educator- University of
    Idaho
  • Juan Manuel Alvarez-Research and Extension
    Entomologist University of Idaho, Aberdeen, ID

2
Contenido
  • La taxonomía
  • la Anatomía y la Fisiología
  • las Partes de la boca de Insecto
  • insectos de yarda
  • Insectos predatorio y los Parásitos
  • Las Arañas

3
Entomología- El estudio de insectos
  • La taxonomía
  • Mariquita (Ladybug)
  • Reino Animal
  • Filo Arthropoda
  • Clase Insecta
  • Ordenes Coleoptera
  • Familia Coccinellidae
  • Especie Hippodamia convergens

4
Algunas Clases del Filo Arthropoda
  • Crustacea- cochinillas de humedad
  • Diplopoda- milpies
  • Chilopoda- ciempies
  • Arachnida- arañas, acaros, garrapatas
  • Symphyla- synfilas
  • Pycnogonida- sea spiders
  • Xiphosura- horseshoe crabs

5
Anatomía (Clase Insecta)
  • Seis pies (orugas tienen pies falsas)
  • Tres partes del cuerpo
  • La Cabeza
  • El Torax
  • El Abdomen
  • Esqueleto Externo (la cuticula)
  • Uno o dos pares de alas
  • Un par de Antenas

6
Anatomía
Cabeza
Torax
Abdomen
7
La Metamorfosis completa
  • Huevo
  • y
  • Larva

8
Crisalida
9
Adulto
10
Desarrollo del Mosquito Metamorfosis completa
Huevo
Crisalida
Adulto
Anophelinae Mosquito- el portador de malaria
11
La Metamorfosis Simple (gradual o incompleta)

Huevo
Ninfa
Adulto
12
Shield Bug
13
Assassin Bug
14
  • Los insectos más ligeros son avispas diminutos
    menos de 0,13 de un milímetro largo (tan pequeño
    como la punta de una aguja de la costura)
  • Los insectos más pesados son escarabajos de
    Goliat que pesan apenas bajo una libra y son más
    de siete pulgadas de largo.

15
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16
Los insectos Pueden Aparecer Muy Diferente
Crab Louse
17
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18
IO Moth Caterpillar
19
Mantisipid
20
Ordenes de la Clase Insecta
  • Coleoptera escarabajos
  • Lepidotera mariposas, polillas
  • Hymenoptera abejas, avispas, hormigas
  • Diptera moscas
  • Hemiptera chinches
  • Homoptera afidos, escamas
  • Orthoptera saltamontes
  • Thysanoptera lepismas

21
Coleo vaina ptera alas. 40 de todos los
insectos, 25 de todos los animales
Lepido escala ptera alas
Hymen membrana ptera alas
Di dos ptera alas
Hemi un-mitad ptera alas Homo uniform
Ortho recto ptera alas
Thysano a franja ptera alas
22
Los insectos son esenciales a nuestro mundo
23
Generalmente los insectos son asociados con la
transmisión de plagas o la enfermedad
European Corn Borer
24
  • Es Importante Ser Capaz de Identificar Insectos
    como Jardineros Magistrales
  • Insista a Ver el Insecto o Su Daño
  • No Mate Insectos Beneficioso

25
  • La mayoría de los insectos son beneficiosas o
    inocuas
  • Algunos son beneficioso y destructivo

26
Las hormigas del carpintero son beneficiosas al
ayudar a decaer árboles caídos en el bosque
27
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28
Las hormigas del carpintero son pestes cuando
ellos ayudan a decaer la madera en nuestros
hogares
29
Los insectos Coevolucionaron con Plantas
  • Los ecosistemas establecidos Más especie de
    insecto, generalmente en equilibrio
  • ecosistemas Agrícola menos especie pero más
    estallidos (brote) de insectos

30
Por qué Estallidos?
  • La eliminación de enemigos naturales
  • La capacidad alta de la reproducción (un áfido
    30 ninfas X 8 generaciones sucesivas
    656,100,000,000 áfidos)

31
  • De las 32 órdenes de insecto, sólo 9 comen
    plantas vivas.

32
Las maneras de Comer Plantas
  • Hay varios grupos de insectos que usan estilos
    semejantes de comer plantas

33
Partes de la boca de insecto
  • Varios tipos de boca (mascando, cortar, sponging,
    lapping, el penetrar, chupar, extrayendo por
    sifón y raspando).
  • Identificación de boca es importante al decidir
    que pesticida para utilizar (Pesticidas
    sistémicos matan insectos que chupan mejor que
    insectos que mascan su alimento. ).

34
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35
Mouthpart Variation
  • Las partes de la boca pueden cambiar de un ciclo
    vital a otro.
  • La polilla extrayendo por sifón
  • La oruga mascando

36
Mascar
  • La manera más común en cuál insectos procesan la
    materia de planta
  • Escarabajos, Saltamontes,Avispas (las etapas de
    joven y adulto)
  • Moscas, Mariposas (larvas)
  • Tijeretas y postas

37
El Daño de Insectos que Mascan
  • Las hojas de Skelotonized (Esqueleto)
  • los Hoyos
  • las hojas Comidas en su bordean
  • Enteramente consumido

38
Mineros de las plantas
  • Los insectos que comen entre las superficies
    superiores y más bajas de hojas (larvas de muchos
    insectos y algunos adultos de escarabajo)
  • Mariposas, moscas y escarabajos
  • Algunos vacunan madera con hongos

39
Insectos de la tierra
  • Alimentan sobre las partes subterráneas de la
    planta.
  • Generalmente son el larvosa o las etapas de nifa.
  • Los gusanos de elatérido, larva blancas, algún
    mealybugs y los áfidos, ninfas de cigarra, y
    algunas larvas de mosca

40
Insectos que Chupan
  • Los bichos verdaderos, los áfidos, leafhoppers,
    spittlebugs, las escalas (scale), thrips, arados
    de araña.
  • Algún daño mecánico.
  • La saliva inyectada puede ser tóxica.
  • La transmisión de enfermedades víricas.

41
Virus Transmission by Aphids
Persistent
Non-persistent
42
Lepidopteran- Partes de la boca adultas
Cross section of the proboscis
43
El control del insecto en la yarda- Insectos
Beneficiosos
  • Ladybug beetle
  • Parasitic wasps
  • Big-eyed bug
  • Parasitic mites
  • Parasitic nematodes
  • Praying mantids
  • Lacewing predator
  • Pirate bug
  • Solider beetles

44
Green lacewing
nematodes
Predatory mites
45
Las plantas que atraen Insectos
  • Dill
  • Wild Carrot
  • Fennel
  • Coriander
  • Others
  • Anise
  • Blue Lace
  • Caraway

46
Métodos de Control de insecto
  • Mecánico
  • Químico
  • Biológico
  • Cultural
  • Regulativo
  • La Administración de Peste que Integró

47
Common Insecticides Available to Home Vegetable
Gardeners
2003 PNW Insect Management Handbook
48
Aphid
  • Soft bodied insects
  • Green, pink, wooly, etc.
  • Control
  • Strong spray of water
  • Wash off aphids
  • Rupture aphids
  • Insecticidal soap
  • Several applications
  • Malathion, Endosulfan, neem extract

49
Grasshoppers
  • Predators of grasshoppers birds, coyotes,
    skunks, snakes, spiders, insects, mites,
    nematodes.
  • Fall cultivation of eggs.
  • Insecticides carbaryl (Sevin), malathion.
  • Dimilin a new restricted use herbicide which
    disrupts molting. Does not harm beneficial
    insects. For rangelands.

50
Earwigs
  • Eliminate hiding places such as plant debris,
    mulch, and boards. Spring cultivation (eggs).
  • Can use boards or plastic, or fish oil to
    concentrate and destroy earwigs.
  • Chemical- carbaryl (Sevin) dust. Apply to soil
    and again in 3 weeks.
  • Pre harvest interval varies with crop.
  • Corn- diluted soap.

51
Wire worms/Click Beetle
  • Larvae chew on plants, esp. tubers and bulbs.
  • Do not usually sever plants like cutworms
  • Regular cultivation (at low temperatures)
  • Crop rotation

52
Cut Worms
  • Adult is a miller moth.
  • Larvae does feeding damage.
  • Hard to control when larvae are mature.
  • Disking and tillage effective.
  • Encourage birds and spiders
  • Kill weeds (harborage).
  • Sevin spray or bait, also spinosad
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
  • Nematodes

53
Western Yellowstriped Armyworm
  • Larve of Miller Moth
  • Pupa overwinter in soil
  • Adults emerge in April
  • White inverted Y on head
  • Control weeds
  • Lambsquarter and Wild Mustard attract moths
  • Fall tillage to destroy pupa
  • Bacillus thuringiensis for larval control
  • Carbaryl (Sevin), Spinosad

54
Mormon Cricket
  • Shield backed Katydid
  • Range- sagebrush/forbs
  • Adults lay eggs is summer
  • Overwinter as eggs
  • Emerge in Spirng when sol temp reaches 40º F
  • 1 Mormon Cricket / sq. yard
  • Can consume 38 lbs. dry matter / acre
  • Dimilin- growth hormone (rangeland,doesn't kill
    bees)
  • Sevin bait, Malathion, cyfluthrin

55
Millipedes
  • Water loving- common following rainstorm.
  • Feed on decaying plant material, root crops,
    bulbs, and fruit on ground.
  • Fix leaks, clear debris
  • Use boards on ground to
  • concentrate them.
  • Sevin, Tempo, or Ficam

56
Corn Blotch Leafminer
  • New pest in our area
  • Fly lays eggs on leaf
  • Hatch into larvae
  • Larvae eat between
  • leaf surfaces
  • Leave epidermis as a silvery film over mines

57
Codling Moth
  • Larvae bore into apples and pears.
  • Found about May 15-20.
  • Spray 10 days after full petal fall.
  • Repeat spray as necessary.
  • Or spray first of June with a follow-up spray
    June 14-21 and again near July 1.
  • Occasionally, a second generation of moths can
    emerge in August.

58
Codling Moth
  • Chemicals to use
  • Bacillus thuringiensis needs frequent spray
    intervals (7-10 days).
  • Sevin- will cause fruit thinning.
  • Malathion- low persistance.
  • Kaolin clay- as a repellant.
  • Dormant sprays not effective.

59
Raspberry Crown Borer
60
Raspberry Crown Borer
  • Adult looks like a wasp.
  • Larvae are caterpillars that feed on the cane.
  • Symptoms spindly canes that break off at ground
    level.
  • Two year life cycle (needs to be sprayed for two
    years).
  • Dig out and burn infested canes.
  • Apply pesticide (until 12/31/04) October- March
    to bottom two feet of cane.

61
Raspberry Crown Borer
  • azinphos-methyl at 2 lb ai/a.
  • Apply as a crown drench in late March or before
    bud break
  • Soak the insecticide in

62
Colorado Potato Beetle
  • Overwinters as an adult beetle.
  • Control includes crop rotation, elimination of
    weeds hosts (nightshade), hand picking.
  • Chemical- carbaryl (Sevin), endosulfan,
    permethrin, and spinosad.

63
Corn Earworm
  • Predators and Parasites
  • wasps, lacewings, pirate/damsel bugs
  • Early plantings, fall plowing, clothespin at ear
    tip, avoid tight husk varities
  • Apply insecticide dusts when silks appear
  • Carbaryl (Sevin), Cyfluthrin, Malathion,
    Permethrin

64
Slugs
  • Bio- Birds, garter snakes, frogs, ducks, ground
    beetles
  • Remove rocks, boards and other shelter
  • Baits
  • Salt
  • Can of stale beer sunk into the ground

65
Insect control - Lawn Grubs
  • Larva of June Beetle
  • Hatch Jul.-Aug.
  • Feed on roots
  • Irregular patches
  • Lifts out easily
  • Control- proper watering, fertilizing
  • sevin (July, wash in), Merit, MACH 2
  • Beneficial nematodes

66
Billbugs in Turf
  • Weevil like adult, larvae is a small (1/8),
    white, C shaped grub with a dark brown head.
  • Feed on grass roots. (Adults feed on leaves)
  • Symptoms- dry, irregular dead patches, easily
    pulled up.
  • Plant resistant grasses ryegrass, fescues, with
    endophytic fungi.

67
Billbugs in Turf
  • Chemical control
  • Spray insecticides in early May before egg laying
    occurs. (Do not irrigate for several days, and
    mow lawn prior to application)
  • Latter treatments may be needed
  • Apply granules and water in with ½ inch
  • Sevin, Merit, MACH 2 (for larvae).
  • Exhibit Beneficial nematodes

68
Borers
  • Many types attack ornamental trees
  • Often borer attack is a sign of tree injury or
    stress, and therefore is only secondary.
  • Use pheromone traps to time control.
  • Chemical carbaryl (Sevin) applied to trunk and
    lower limbs in late spring. Avoid contacting
    foliage.
  • Specific controls for bronze birch, clover
    root, grape twig, peach twig, poplar, willow, and
    raspberry borers.

69
Saperda Beetle
  • Atack Aspens
  • Adults lay eggs on
  • trunk and limbs
  • Larve bore into tree
  • Control adults in early July
  • Apply Sevin to trunk and limbs

70
Spittlebugs
  • Insects form white frothy masses of bubbles like
    spittle
  • Similar to a leafhopper
  • Usually not harmful to the plant
  • wash off with a strong stream of water
  • Spray with Sevin in June

71
Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid
  • Aphid like insect
  • Spruce, Douglas Fir
  • Weakens, doesn't kill
  • Control -
  • Spray in spring
  • New growth forming
  • Crawler stage
  • Imidacloprid
  • Control of adelgid protects from other problems.

72
Scale
  • Adults immobile (scale)
  • Crawler stage (early summer)
  • Horticultural oil (dormant sprays)
  • For adults
  • Late winter, early spring
  • Insecticidal soap
  • For crawler stage

73
Western Tent Caterpillar
  • Yellow hairs
  • Protective silken tent
  • Destructive defoliators
  • Chokecherry species
  • Control
  • Cut out nest
  • Spray inside nest- Sevin, spinosad
  • Bio Control- Bacillus thuringiensis
  • must eat sprayed leaves

74
Cicadas
  • Loud Buzz sound
  • Same order as aphids
  • Adults appear in July and August
  • Lay eggs in tree
  • Wingless nymphs hatch, fall to ground and eat
    roots
  • Later they crawl up tree to molt into adult
  • Females dammage trees with sawlike ovipositors
  • Cut out and destroy dammaged twigs
  • Two applications of Sevin two weeks apart

75
Subterranean Termites
  • Get positive ID. No constriction
  • Nests in soil, construct shelter tubes.
  • Avoid wood to soil contact
  • Remove all wood debris around structure.
  • Chemical- Demon, Dursban, sodium borate (these
    chemicals are restricted use insecticides and you
    will most likely need to hire a pesticide
    applicator.

76
Ants
  • May establish nests outside, under home, or in
    wall voids.
  • Seal entry points around pipes, cabinets, doors
    and windows.
  • Use ant baits, be patient, they take several
    weeks to be effective.
  • Chemical- boric acid
  • Fumigation or maintenance treatments are not
    effective.

77
Yellow jackets
  • Cone shaped traps
  • Bait with tuna fish, cat food, canned fruit, or
    baloney.
  • Wasp and hornet spray
  • Use early in morning
  • Stand back
  • Treat three times before colony is killed.

78
Stink Bugs (black)
  • Stink bug usually refers to a Hemiptera/.
  • In SE Idaho refers to a darkling beetle.
  • Family Tenebrionidae
  • Genus Eleodes (100 species in west)
  • Scavengers, feed on decaying plant matter
  • Raise abdomen at 45 angle
  • Emit foul smelling black fluid.

79
Box Elder Bugs
  • Hemiptera -bug family
  • Congregate on walls
  • Migrate into dwellings
  • Low damage or harm
  • Control
  • Spray ineffective
  • Apply late April
  • Vacuum, seal cracks
  • No natural predators
  • ½ quart vinegar to ½ quart water with 1tbs. Soap

80
Mosquitoes
  • Control best if applied over a large area
  • Larvicides applied to water
  • Temephos (Abate), methoprene (Altosid), Bt, oil,
    wax
  • Adulticides Applied to adults
  • Dibrom (Naled), permethrin, malathion
  • Most of these are restricted use pesticides.

81
Springtail or Snow Flea
  • extremely small, wingless jumping insect
  • Can occur in large numbers near water
  • feed on decaying organic matter, but may damage
    young seedlings
  • Drain and eliminate moisture, leaves, and mulch
  • Insecticidal soap

82
Assassin Bugs/Kissing bug
  • Predacious to all insects smaller than themselves
    (beneficial?)
  • Enter homes inadvertently
  • Diurnal
  • Readily bite humans

83
Black Grass Bug
84
Black Grass Bug
  • Overwinters in CRP lands
  • Dammage resembles dormant grass
  • Dammage starts at edge of lawn
  • Malathion and Parathion
  • No effective on adults
  • Spray effective only on nymphs
  • Methyl Parathion (Declare) on pasture

85
Predators and Parasites
  • Beneficial
  • Require careful crop management
  • Some crop loss

86
Parasites
  • Parasites usually smaller than their prey
  • Gradually weaken then kill their prey
  • Immature consume at their own leisure

Nematode Parasitic Dammage on White Grubs
87
Predators
  • Kill their prey out right
  • Usually larger than their prey

88
Ichneumonid Wasp
89
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90
Thrips- Rasping Mouth
91
Silverfish
Firebrat
92
Springtail
93
Termites
94
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95
Anaplura
  • Sucking lice

96
Mallophaga
  • Chewing lice

97
Spider Mites
  • Tiny soft bodied (All spider mites), need a hand
    lens
  • Two spots on the back
  • Clear, green, orange or red
  • Two-spotted spider mite

98
Spider mites
  • Carmine red with white spines
  • European Red Mite

99
Spider Mites
  • Brownish or greyish
  • Flat
  • Very long front legs
  • Brown mite and the clover mite

100
Ticks
  • Look like large mites
  • Parasites of animals and humans

101
Spiders
  • Larger than mites
  • Thin cephalothorax
  • Predators

102
Banded Garden Spider/Argiope
  • Beneficial orb web weaver
  • Hunt- moths, grasshoppers flies
  • White/ transverse black bands
  • Legs are longer than the body and have dark bands

103
Jumping spiders (Salticidae)
  • Diurnal
  • Irregular gait and leap
  • Good eye site (4 to 8)
  • Beneficial family

104
Black Widow
  • Shy, likes dark, dank places
  • Messy web
  • Shiny black with reddish or orange hour glass
    design
  • Moderate size
  • Males and immature can have stripes of red,
    yellow and black on abdomen

105
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106
Brown Recluse Spider
  • A hunting spider
  • Brown fiddle case on brown or grayish
    background
  • Poor eye sight

107
Hobo Spider (Aggressive House Spider)
  • Very common light brown spider
  • Painless bite
  • Skin sloughs off

108
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109
Yellow Sack Spider
110
Crab Spider
111
Jumping Spider
112
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113
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114
Scorpions
115
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116
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117
Insect Control
  • Bug Zappers
  • Sound Emitters
  • Sticky Traps
  • Foggers
  • Organic (Insecticide Soaps, Bt, Fungus)
  • Chemical Last

118
The End
  • Thanks !!!!
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