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Training Future Teachers through Online Exchanges

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Title: Training Future Teachers through Online Exchanges


1
Training Future Teachers through Online Exchanges
  • François Mangenot

2
Training future teachers for and through Online
Exchange
  • Online interaction and collaboration is
    infamously difficult to organise and implement
    ODowd, Epal 2009
  • It is quite clear that our capacity to make
    effective use of information technology in
    educational settings is impaired by inadequate
    preparation of teachers (as well as learners)
    Spector, de la Teja, 2001

3
Outline
  • 1. Overview / parameters of online exchanges (i.
    e. telecollaboration)
  • 2. A case study training future teachers into
    e-learning (and IT) through an online exchange,
    Le Français en (première) Ligne
  • 3. Planning online interaction through
    communicational scenarios?

4
1. Some parameters of on-line exchange
  •  A great diversity  (ODowd, Epal 2009)
  • Language(s) used during the exchange
  • More or less focus on the cultural dimension
  • Tasks, project, collaboration?
  • Number of participants, individuals or groups
  • Tutoring (or no online guidance)
  • Mode of integration (gtassessment), blended
    learning
  • Communicational tools / scenarios (see part 3)
  • References Warschauer Kern (2000), Belz
    (2003), Belz Thorne (2006), Dejean Mangenot
    (2006), ODowd (2007), Degache Mangenot (2007),
    EPAL Conference Proceedings 2007 2009
    (EPAL échanger pour apprendre en ligne ).

5
Language(s)
  • Two languages, reception production reciprocal
    learning (Tandem as archetype)
  • Two languages but production only in L1 (Cultura)
  • Several languages of the same family (Galanet
    Romance languages)
  • Only one language
  • not all partners are language learners (ODowd,
    2006)
  • English as lingua franca (Japan-Korea in ODowd)
  • participation in non-educational networks (Hanna
    de Nooy, 2003, Ollivier, 2007)
  • future teachers interacting with learners

6
More or less focus on the cultural dimension
  • Cultura as archetype
  • Language always linked with culture, but more or
    less focus on ICC development  The move from
    exchanging information to intercultural learning
    is very hard to achieve  (ODowd, 2009).
  • The issue of  failed communication  (Belz,
    Thorne, Ware, etc.)
  • Differences in communication style, tools
    culture-of-use
  • Online intercultural interaction requires
    specific skills and attitudes
  • Issue of visible and invisible culture facts and
    communicative ethos (Kerbrat-Orecchioni, 2004).

7
Tasks? Project? Collaboration?
  • Task-based design (see Müller-Hartmann 2000,
    2007) frequent but not unique model
  • Le français en (première) ligne task-based
  • No compulsory tasks (e-Tandem)
  • Questionnaires forum discussions (Cultura)
  • Projects (i. e. collective realisation of a
     product  over a rather long period, Progetto
    Incontro, Tridem)
  • Combination of above approaches Galanet

8
Different distance working modes (Mangenot
Dejean-Thircuir, 2009)
9
Participatory structure (Ellis, 2003)
  • The participatory structure of a lesson refers
    to the procedures that govern how the teacher's
    and students' contributions to the performance of
    the task are organized (Ellis, 2003).
  • Careful design of work flow processes
    (Dooly, 2007)
  • A lot more possibilities online than in F2F
    class
  • One to one / e-mail (Tandem)
  • One to one to one / audioconferencing blogs
    (Tridem)
  • Small collaborative groups with different tools
  • At a distance Projetto Incontro, Tridem
  • Locally On fait de la radio?, Galanet
  • Groups of 6 to 10 performing tasks in forums
    under the guidance of 1 or 2 tutors (Français en
    (première) ligne)
  • Larger groups performing discussions (Cultura)
  • Example desktop or room-based videoconferencing
    (ODowd, 2007)

10
Guidance? Integration?
  • No online tutors but integration into F2F class
    (Tandem, Cultura, Progetto Incontro)
  • Online tutors who are more moderators
    integration into F2F class (Galanet)
  • Online tutors future teachers (Le français en
    (première) ligne)
  • Assessment ( very little of course grade is
    awarded for completion of exchanges despite high
    work load , ODowd, Epal 2009)

11
2. Le français en (première) ligne
  • Learners of French / Pre-service teachers
    (Masters Program) communicate in French project
    devised by Christine Develotte, Lyon, and
    launched in 2002 by F. Mangenot in Besançon
  • Different objectives for the 2 groups
  • learn French / be in contact with French culture
    through native partners / tutors
  • train ICT e-learning through a  learning by
    doing  approach / reflect upon this experience
  • Since 2002 Australia (Sydney, Melbourne), USA
    (North Virginia, Berkeley), Spain, Japan, Latvia
    // universities of Besançon, Grenoble 3, Lyon 2,
    Luxembourg (gt500 students)
  • All online tasks and interactions have been
    saved
  • Project website (description, tasks, interaction
    samples) http//w3.u-grenoble3.fr/fle-1-ligne

12
Some features of Le français en (première) ligne
  • Fully integrated project (part of study plan
    and assessment - on both sides)
  • Asymmetric roles of the partners (peer / tutor,
    Dejean-Thircuir Mangenot, 2006)
  • Task-based approach, strong guidance (gt
    pre-service teachers learn how to design tasks
    for distance learning and how to be a tutor)
  • For the future teachers, ICT training through a
    situated learning approach (Develotte, Mangenot,
    Zourou, Recall 17(2), 2005, Mangenot, Zourou,
    2005)
  • e. g. Audacity (see Mangenot, Zourou, 2007,
    Alsic)
  • A cultural dimension exists for both groups

13
Which teaching skills aimed at through this
project?
  • Two different versions in Lyon and in Grenoble
    synchronous vs. asynchronous interactions (which
    lead to different skills, see Guichon, 2009,
    Salam Valmas, 2009)
  • Technological know-how LMS, sound, picture and
    video software, communication tools
  • Integrating technology into a syllabus,
    conceptualising CALL (Levy)
  • Task design more accurate instructions, input
  • Online tutoring socio-affective, socio-cognitive
    and organisational dimensions, corrective
    feedback
  • Intercultural competence

14
How are the future teacher evaluated?
  • No grade for task design nor for tutoring (high
    motivation, see Develotte, Mangenot, Zourou,
    2005)
  • Interaction analysis of a previous year (done in
    dyads) 50 of the grade
  • Reflective blog advised
  • Reflective report due after the end of the
    exchange 50 of the grade

15
Two difficult dimensions
  • A time consuming project (for the future
    teachers)
  • Problem task design and tutoring takes approx.
    10 hours / week ( 4 h in class)
  • Solution a course with 7,5 credits (ects)
  • Another solution task design by a pair for the
    whole group, synchronous exchange (Lyon)
  • Intercultural competence
  • Cultural differences may remain unnoticed or not
    enough deepened. Example 1
  • Reflective practices, but not enough time and no
    change in attitude. Example 2

16
Forum message extracts from Japanese students
(the task consisted in comparing the course of an
ordinary students day in France and in Japan
French tutors had provided a multimedia
description of their day)
  • So, I dont do much homework. I think you work
    more than me.
  • Me too, I watch TV in the evening, but I dont
    work much. I think you are more hardworking than
    me.
  • I work less than you after dinner hence you are
    a better student than me!!!!
  • Then, you work much better than me
  • After dinner, I do my homework for the next
    day. But I am more whimsical than you hence I
    stop at 10 pm.
  • Example taken from (Mangenot, Zourou, 2007)

17
A  revisited rich point  (Thorne, 2006) which
did not elicit a change in attitude
  • As I already said it in class, I had a hard time
    coping with our learners behaviour they were
    underestimating themselves all the time, and were
    so perfectionist with their productions. Whereas
    at the beginning, I could give attention to their
    anxiety, later I got fed up with repeating all
    the time  Dont worry! You manage pretty well,
    go on like this! . I had a feeling of dishonesty
    (jai eu limpression dêtre hypocrite) and I
    really didnt appreciate this situation. Extract
    from a reflective report, 2008

18
Tokyo Grenoble exchange a communicative
challenge
  • Partners do not know each other
  • Dissimilar cultures / attitudes / ethos
  • Communication mainly through asynchronous forums
    (exchange of audio files)
  • One or two tutors for up to 12 students (like in
    a real e-learning course)
  • Different settings of the Moodle working space
    (espace dexposition discursive, Develotte,
    2006). gt Examples showing how communication may
    be affected by the way tools are set up.

19
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20
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21
3. Communicational scenario
  • The range of activities available in online
    settings and the multiple conditions of time in
    which they take place are evidence that the
    technology demands placed on online teachers are
    somewhat more significant than those associated
    with classroom teachers. Spector, de la Teja,
    2001
  • Bringing future teachers to think in terms of
    communicational scenarios (for a given task)
    might be heuristic pedagoggical and instrumental
    dimensions.
  • Definition planning of envisaged online
    communication (linked to a task)

22
Learning scenario
Task(s) (outcome)
Communicational scenario (tools)
Genre ?
Interactions
Resources Sub-tasks
student/tutor
between peers
Chronology
Mangenot, 2008
23
Parameters of a communicational scenario
  • Degree of collaboration, participatory structure,
    roles
  • Work flow processes (Dooly, 2007), information
    to be exchanged
  • Chronology (synchronous / asynchronous)
  • Tutoring
  • Tools and their affordances (ex. blog), their
    habitual uses in society (ODowd, 2007)

24
Examples from Tokyo Grenoble (1)
  • Task  Would you prefer to study in Paris or in
    Grenoble? 
  • Type/genre Discussing an issue
  • Resource Internet sites about both cities
  • Challenge finding the right arguments
  • Participatory structure dyads of Japanese
    students record their voice (mp3) ideally, one
    prefers Paris, the other Grenoble

25
Transcript of an oral production in French (Paris
Grenoble, total length 1 min.)
  • Where do you want to study?
  • I prefer Paris.
  • Why?
  • Because it is more convenient, there is a subway,
    buses, etc. And you, where do you want to go?
  • I prefer Grenoble, because I love skiing.
  • I envy you. In Paris, there is a lot to see, for
    instance the Louvre or Orsay Museum.
  • In Grenoble, there is a lot of nature.

26
Examples from Tokyo Grenoble (2)
  • Task  Tell me about a Japanese tradition 
  • Type/genre Explaining something
  • Resource a self-made (by the tutors) video about
    the ritual of tasting wine
  • Challenge managing to explain traditions
  • Participatory structure dyads of Japanese
    students record their voice (mp3) for the French
    tutors

27
Transcript of an oral production in
French (Japanese tradition, total length 1
min.15)
  • Hello, Im Takuya
  • Im Naokazu
  • Today, we are going to present you with Japanese
    traditions. I think a unique and funny tradition
    in Japan is the crowded train. There are a lot of
    people in a car. I often hear foreigners who get
    surprised at seeing the crowded trains at peak
    hours. Its quite tiring for the people who go to
    work that way. So, we go to Hanami Cherry
    blossom feast to take a rest in spring.
  • Naokazu tells about the Hanami tradition

28
Examples from Tokyo Grenoble (3) instructions
  • Task 5 The land of the rising sun and me
  • Step 1 You are going to listen to short
    interviews of 4 French people of different ages
    Romain (10), an elementary school pupil, Camille
    (17), who is in her last secondary school year
    (just before entering university), Ludovic (39)
    and Françoise (55), who are both employed. We
    asked them what Japan called up for them.
  • Step 2 fill in the comprehension sheet
  • Step 3 You are going to reply to at least 3
    French people youve just listened to. Tell them
    about Japan taking into account what they have
    said. Work individually. Record separate
    monologues (at least 1 min each) for each person.
    Speak to the person  Hello, Romain, you are
    right ,  Hello, Camille, you ought to .

29
Transcript of oral productions
  • Interview (French tutor, her son Romain - 10)
  • So, Romain, Id like to hear what you know about
    Japan.
  • I know er there are many mangas there are many
    videogames, there are many people So is it
  • Reaction from a Japanese student
  • Hello Romain. You are right, in Japan there are
    quite interesting mangas. I like Dragon Ball most
    of all. Which mangas do you like? And then, I
    also like videogames. I love

30
The land of the rising sun and me
  • Task replying to 4 French people of different
    ages (other than the tutors) who express what
    Japan calls up for them
  • Type/genre Dialogue (but asynchronous)
  • Resource 4 brief interviews (audio files, 1)
  • Challenge to establish a contact with unknown
    interlocutors despite asynchronicity
  • Participatory structure one to one (a Japanese
    student talks to one of the 4 French people, and
    then to another) French people may reply.

31
Summary of part 3
  • Communicational scenario tools, participatory
    structure, working mode, chronology, guidance,
    information flow
  • Exploiting tools in relation to their affordances
  • Importance of a real information exchange (see
    TBLT)
  • Input / Output as social genres (ex. 2 3)

32
Conclusion our future teachers have been
trained to
  • Design online tasks (internet as input and as
    medium) and communicational scenarios
  • Communicate socially online (socio-affective role
    of a tutor)
  • Explain/Correct/Assess online (cognitive role)
  • Reflect upon their practice
  • Reflect about cultural differences (Intercultural
    Communicative Competence)
  • And last but not least they have learnt how to
    organise an online exchange

33
Extract from a reflective report (translation)
  • After a 3 months participation in  Le français
    en première ligne , it is time for me to reflect
    on this experience and to assess it. This project
    has been terribly time-consuming throughout the
    whole semester and demanded a strong personal
    commitment. It has taken me a lot of time to put
    this experience at a some distance and I still
    dont always manage to do it, because I became so
    much involved both personally and emotionally.

34
  • Thank you for your attention !
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